The moon race continues!

The lunar exploration programs, which were simultaneously curtailed in the Soviet Union and the USA in the middle of the 1970, are again becoming popular and in demand. The moon race, which seemed to be long gone, is gaining momentum again. Today, scientists in many countries of the world are convinced that humanity is at that stage of its development, which is able to ensure the transformation of the moon into a cosmic outpost of civilization. To this end, the leading countries of the world have everything they need: numerous cosmodromes, lunar rovers, modules returned to Earth and heavy-class launch vehicles.


The two main questions of the lunar program in its modern reincarnation are the following questions: why do people need the moon, and which technologies will help humanity to colonize it? Scientists from many countries are looking for the answer to these questions today. Interest in the only natural satellite of the Earth is shown today by Russia, the USA, the countries of the European Union, China, India and Japan. The moon was remembered again in 2004, when US President George W. Bush announced the resumption of the lunar program. Later, already in 2007 and 2013, China sent the orbital and landing modules to the Moon. And in 2014, the plans for the exploration of the moon were voiced by Dmitry Rogozin, who holds the post of deputy prime minister of the Russian government.


In the middle of the 70s of the last century, it was believed that flying to the moon was very expensive, and it was also not entirely clear what it was for. Today, the Moon is becoming relevant again and scientists around the world seem to find the answers, which requires the resumption of lunar programs. Despite the fact that the political motivation for the exploration of the moon is now absent, new incentives have emerged. For example, the actualization of lunar programs after more than half a century of oblivion may be associated with a high technological level of today's civilization, which requires truly ambitious goals for further development. This process can also be associated with the development and prospects of private space exploration. Today, in the arsenal of the global space industry there is everything necessary to “conquer” the Moon, it remains only to determine exactly the goals and objectives of the lunar programs.

The Russian space industry has a vast experience of lunar launches, which was previously accumulated by Soviet engineers and scientists. The Soviet vehicles were the first to make a soft landing on the moon, took a picture of the back side of the natural satellite of the Earth, and took samples of the ground-regolith. The world's first rover, successfully working on the surface of a celestial body, commonly known as the "Lunokhod-1", is also a merit of the Soviet cosmonautics. The moon rover worked on the satellite surface from 17 November 1970 to 14 September 1971 of the year.

Lunokhod-1

Today, manned flights to the moon are once again incorporated into the foundations of state policy, reports RIA News. As part of the federal space program on 2016-2025, the Luna-Globe project was being developed, which involves launching a series of automatic stations to the natural Earth satellite. This project is being implemented today by the Lavochkin NPO. President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, visiting 12 on April 2018 of the year, the new pavilion "Cosmos" at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements, noted that the country's lunar program will be implemented.

Immediate plans of the Russian lunar program

At the first stage of the Russian lunar program, it is planned to launch five automatic stations to the Moon in 2019-2025. All launches are planned to be performed from the new Vostochny cosmodrome. The study of the moon by automatic stations involves choosing a site for expanding human presence on a natural satellite of the Earth. The obtained information about the necessary resources should help determine the location of the lunar base.

At the first stage of the implementation of the Russian lunar program, the following scientific tasks were set: the study of the composition of matter and the physical processes at the poles of the moon; study of the properties of the exosphere and the processes of interaction of the cosmic plasma with the surface at the lunar poles; study of the internal structure of the natural satellite of the Earth using global seismometry methods; the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.


Currently, Russia's closest plans for exploring the moon with the help of automatic stations are as follows:

2019 year - the launch of the spacecraft Luna-25. Mission - the study of the surface of the moon in the South Pole.
2022 year - the launch of the spacecraft Luna-26. Mission - remote study of the moon, providing communication for subsequent lunar missions.
2023 year - the launch of 3 and 4 devices "Luna-27" (main and backup landing probes). The mission is to develop technologies for creating a permanent base on the lunar surface, studying the regolith and the exosphere of the moon.
2025 of the year - the launch of the apparatus "Luna-28". The mission is to deliver temperature-controlled samples of lunar soil to the Earth’s surface, which will be extracted by previous automatic stations. Ice crystals can be found in the samples.

How can I use the moon

Many scientists believe that space expansion will be a logical stage in the further development of mankind. Sooner or later, our civilization will reach a stage where it will be crowded on our planet and there will be a need for a transshipment base on the Moon, from where it will be possible to comfortably start to Mars or other planets of the Solar System.

Experts pin special hopes on the possibility of mining various minerals on the Moon, highlighting from all of them helium-3. This substance is already called the energy of the future and the main treasure of the moon. In the future, it can be used as fuel for thermonuclear energy. Hypothetically, with thermonuclear fusion with the reaction of one ton of helium-3 and 0,67 tons of deuterium, energy equivalent to the burning of 15 million tons of oil should be released (but the technical feasibility of such a reaction has not yet been studied). This is without taking into account that helium-3 on the lunar surface will have to be somehow mined. And it will not be easy to do this, since according to studies of helium-3 content in lunar regolith, it is on the order of one gram per 100 tons of lunar soil. Therefore, in order to extract tons of this isotope, it will be necessary to process at least 100 million tons of lunar soil on site. However, if all the problems with its mining and use can be solved, helium-3 will be able to provide energy to all of humanity for the millennia ahead. For scientists of interest and water reserves, which are also contained in the lunar soil.

The moon race continues!

The scientific potential of the moon is currently not yet exhausted. Experts still do not know exactly how the Earth satellite was formed and the answer to this question is obviously not on our planet. Also, the Moon appears to be an excellent platform for astrophysical observations, since there is no atmosphere on the natural satellite of our planet. Technically install telescopes on its surface right now. Also from the moon it will be more convenient to follow asteroids, which can pose a serious danger to the Earth. And in the very distant future, mankind will be able to think about transferring all energy-intensive production to the Moon, which will help to significantly reduce the amount of industrial emissions on our planet.

Super heavy boosters

Currently, the need for extra-heavy launch vehicles for flights to the Moon remains controversial. Someone thinks that without missiles capable of carrying tons of payload to 80-120, one cannot do without, and on the contrary, someone considers the approach of creating such missiles to be irrational, justifying this as an expensive operation and maintenance of the necessary infrastructure. In any case, the world space program can ensure the creation of such missiles. There is enough experience in their development: this is also the Soviet H-1, Energy, Vulcan and American Saturn-5, Ares V launch vehicles.

Rocket "Energy" with the spacecraft "Buran"

Currently in the United States are working on two projects of such missiles - the Space Launch System, the launch of which was postponed and successfully tested by the private Falcon Heavy rocket. In the PRC, they are working on the creation of their super-heavy rocket “The Long March - 9”, designed directly for 130 tons of payload. The Angara family of missiles has been tested in Russia and work is underway on the Energia-5 super-heavy rocket. There is currently no shortage of space centers for the use of super-heavy launch vehicles on Earth: Baikonur, Vostochny, Kourou in French Guiana and Vandenberg in Florida, 4 cosmodrome in the PRC.

It is planned that the first launch of the new Russian super-heavy launch vehicle Energia-5 will take place no earlier than 2028, and the launch complex for it at the Vostochny cosmodrome will be ready in 2027. This was previously reported by the TASS agency, citing its own sources in the rocket and space industry. The launching table for the new Russian rocket will be built according to the principles implemented for the Soviet launch vehicle Energia at Baikonur (site №250). It is reported that this will be a universal launch complex, from which the Soyuz-5 medium-class launch vehicles and the mix of two, three or five such missiles will also be able to launch (to achieve different payloads). It is precisely the principle of combining the five rockets that formed the basis of the new Russian super-heavy class rocket “Energy-5”.

Currently, Russian developers are working on the creation of two proposed missile projects for implementation - Energy-5В-ПТК and Energy-5ВР-ПТК with a launch mass of 2368 and 2346 tons. Both versions of the launch vehicle will be able to put into low Earth orbit up to 100 tons of cargo, and into circumlunar orbit up to 20,5 tons of payload - the mass of the “lunar” version of the developed Federation ship.

Estimated view of the launch complex with the Space Launch System rocket

According to the calculations of Roskosmos, the development of a rocket carrier of a super heavy class and the creation of the necessary infrastructure for its launch at the Vostochny cosmodrome will cost approximately 1,5 trillion rubles. Roscosmos has also previously stated that there is no need to rush to the creation of such missiles before 2030, since there simply are no payloads for them. At the same time, earlier, RSC Energia stated that the creation of a new Russian super-heavy rocket would be cheaper in 1,5 than reproduction of the Soviet Energia launch vehicle, the creation of which, along with the Buran spacecraft, was the most ambitious program in stories domestic space rocket science.

Orbital station and lunar bases

Projects of construction of habitable stations in its orbit are considered as intermediate stages of the Moon exploration. The implementation of such plans in the period from 2025 to 2030 years have already been declared by Russia, the USA and China. It is not necessary to doubt that this project will be implemented. The international community currently has extensive experience in successfully operating the ISS. Earlier, the United States and Russia have agreed to work together on the international near-moon habitable station Deep Space Gateway. The project also work the EU, Canada and Japan. Participation in the program and the BRICS countries. Russia within the framework of this project can create from one to three modules for a new station: a lock station and residential modules.

The next stage after the creation of a near-moon inhabited station could be the creation of lunar inhabited bases. On the natural satellite of the Earth there is no magnetic field and atmosphere, while the surface of the moon is continuously bombarded by micrometeorites, and temperature differences in one day reach 400 degrees Celsius. All this makes the moon not the most human-friendly place. It is possible to work on its surface only in space suits and sealed moon rovers, or being inside a stationary habitable module equipped with a full life support system. It will be most convenient to deploy such a module in the region of the South Pole of our satellite. There is always light and less temperature fluctuations. It is planned that at the first stage robots will be engaged in assembling the residential module. After the manned missions to the moon have been adequately worked out, the construction of the residential lunar module will expand.

Lunar base concept

The first inhabitants of our satellite first deployed on its surface means of communication with the orbital station and the Earth, after which they will begin to launch power plants on fuel cells or flexible photocells. It will be necessary to work out the issues of protecting the lunar base from solar flares and cosmic radiation. For this purpose, it is planned to cover it with a meter layer of regolith, for example, by conducting directed explosions, since it makes little sense to deliver dump trucks and excavators to the lunar surface. Construction work on the moon will have to be based on completely different technologies: print construction elements on an 3D printer; use inflatable modules; to create composite materials from the lunar soil using high-temperature synthesis and laser sintering.

In the residential lunar module there will be an advanced drinking water and oxygen supply system, and a vegetable greenhouse will be created. Key importance will be given to the self-sufficiency of the lunar base. Only in this way will it be possible to reduce the number of rockets sent to the Moon with various cargoes. At present, there are no fundamental obstacles for colonization of the Moon by man, but how the first inhabited lunar base will ultimately look will depend on the purposes for which it is intended.

Information sources:
https://ria.ru/science/20180419/1518934894.html
http://kosmolenta.com/index.php/project-lunar/lunar-program-overview
http://tass.ru/kosmos/4323153
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich April 23 2018 05: 47 New
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    what the moon ... for 50 years, technology is so behind that the "feat" of the Americans can not be repeated ... lol
    1. Rurikovich April 23 2018 06: 53 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      what a moon ... for 50 years, technology is so behind that the "feat" of the Americans cannot be repeated already ..

      laughing good
    2. Chertt April 23 2018 07: 23 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      what the moon ... for 50 years, technology is so behind

      The main argument was 50 years ago and remains now. There is simply nothing to do there.
      1. axxmanm April 23 2018 19: 36 New
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        Quote: Chertt
        Quote: Andrew Y.
        what the moon ... for 50 years, technology is so behind

        The main argument was 50 years ago and remains now. There is simply nothing to do there.

        dumb excuse rogues in the style of "green grapes"
        1. Chertt April 23 2018 19: 42 New
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          Quote: axxmanm
          dumb excuse rogues in the style of "green grapes"

          Excuse what?
      2. ufpb April 26 2018 14: 33 New
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        +1
        And you at least once look up, and beyond the cities, further 50 km, in the dark and cloudless sky. Done? Does jimmy not sneak?
    3. Per se. April 23 2018 07: 40 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      The "feat" of Americans is not to repeat already ...
      Why not repeat, now and we have computer graphics and special effects may not even be inferior to the cosmic possibilities of Hollywood. We can quite well "land" on Mars. Generally, if the West is hitting Russia this way, it would be logical to convict the United States of falsifying the “landings” on the Moon, with the reliability that was incredible even for the current development of technology and the lack of stages in development. They took, and began to fly successfully, without any intermediate reconnaissance there with automatic stations on the surface of the Moon and lunar rovers. Cool, even for a couple of laps to ride around the lander, the lunar “SUV” was not too lazy to grab, even though every gram of weight counts ... It is like with twin towers that developed from a construction explosion, plus a third skyscraper fell after it, to which even the kamikaze plane has not flown. Liars, falsifiers. What we were bought for ... As for the exploration of the Moon, as if a stormy activity, if it starts, did not change the celestial mechanics of our satellite, a little closer or further, and the Moon will either leave Earth for space or start falling on our planet.
      1. dSK
        dSK April 23 2018 08: 09 New
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        Quote: Per se.
        it would be logical to convict the States of their falsification of "landings" on the moon
        It’s still necessary to launch the moon’s satellite for detailed mapping. There is no atmosphere, visibility is excellent.
      2. alstr April 23 2018 09: 26 New
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        So already. The film was even shot "Martian" called.
        But this is only a blank. ))))
        1. Greenwood April 26 2018 15: 04 New
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          There is also Apollo 18, classified shots. lol
          1. Spitfire April 27 2018 14: 33 New
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            +1
            "Iron Sky" I also recommend looking at it, the topic of helium-3 is fully disclosed ;-)
    4. siberalt April 23 2018 10: 25 New
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      Another nonsense budget flukes. What the fuck is the moon, if we don’t know what is at a depth of more than 500 meters at 70% of our ball?
      1. KaPToC April 23 2018 20: 13 New
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        Quote: siberalt
        What the fuck is the moon, if we don’t know what is at a depth of more than 500 meters at 70% of our ball?

        Fly 10 km up is easier than diving 000 km inland.
        1. voyaka uh April 24 2018 18: 16 New
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          +1
          That's right +
      2. Filxnumx April 25 2018 06: 49 New
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        Why do you want to find the Olivine belt? Nehren once again picking the Earth, we still have to live on it.
    5. papas-57 April 23 2018 23: 39 New
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      "what a moon ... for 50 years, technology is so behind that the" feat "of the Americans cannot be repeated already." How are they behind? Instead of a film, a "figure" appeared. Now Hollywood will remove such a lunar epic about the landing of American astronauts on the moon that no one will even check. Everyone will believe right away. And there, Bollywood will catch up, show the landing of the Indians. So, thanks to the figure, the solar system will be mastered (along with giant amounts of greenery).
    6. Lycan April 29 2018 00: 44 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      the "feat" of Americans does not repeat already

      Oh, well ... computer graphics are getting better with every movie. The Chinese, won in films, since the 80s "jumped alive" for tens of meters. Aren't Hollywood with Bollywood and the Show Brothers overpowering this grand design? wink
    7. Horse, people and soul 3 October 2018 21: 30 New
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      Duc and the Cheops pyramid with modern machines can either not be built, or for that money no one needs this.

      In Russia and the USA, there is one problem: the "generation of weeds of the 90s." They don’t know anything, they don’t know anything and they don’t want to know or be able to do anything.

      Those who knew and knew how - have already died, but there are no new ones. Or there is, but not enough, catastrophically not enough.
  2. ICT
    ICT April 23 2018 05: 53 New
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    The study of the moon by automatic stations implies the choice of a site for expanding the presence of man on the Earth’s natural satellite.

    look like this:

    I’ll add another point from myself, so that I don’t exchange small things wassat



    http://forum.topwar.ru/topic/10887-%D0%BA%D0%BE%D
    0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%83%D0
    %B9-%D1%8D%D1%82%D0%BE/
    1. Mordvin 3 April 23 2018 06: 05 New
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      Gee-gee ... I'll add more.
  3. Yak28 April 23 2018 06: 21 New
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    Why did the USSR and the USA curtail lunar programs?
    1. ICT
      ICT April 23 2018 06: 27 New
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      Quote: Yak28
      USSR and USA curtailed lunar programs

      if without conspiracy theories are expensive and there’s nothing to do with the show-off, then why now there’s no Lunakhod -3, it’s a question,
      1. IGOR GORDEEV April 23 2018 08: 10 New
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        Quote: TIT
        if without conspiracy theories are expensive and there’s nothing to do with the show-off, then why now there’s no Lunakhod -3, it’s a question,

        It’s difficult here without conspiracy theories ... There is a version that there are bases of aliens and they strongly shuganuli Earth aborigines - so much so that the Americans "forgot" how to make Saturn missiles bully
        1. cedar April 23 2018 08: 32 New
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          Those sluggish star-bombers also returned all the moonstones to the last gram to alien uncles and films, and documentation .., and gave a subscription about not disclosure, as those uncles rolled them to the moon ... CATALOGS ...
          1. Blackmokona April 23 2018 10: 34 New
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            One of the apollo stones lies at vdnh in the cosmonautics museum
            1. NIKNN April 23 2018 15: 05 New
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              Quote: BlackMokona
              One of the apollo stones lies at vdnh in the cosmonautics museum

              Well, where else should he lie if not at VDNH? laughing You can, of course, leave it in the GOK, but it won’t add much profit ... yes
              1. Mordvin 3 April 23 2018 15: 08 New
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                Quote: NIKNN
                Well, where else should he lie if not at VDNH?

                Eh ... I’ve been to VDNH a dozen times .. I’ve bought sausages there ... crying And then for some reason she was called the All-Russian Exhibition Center ... Abidna, yes ....
                1. NIKNN April 23 2018 15: 10 New
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                  Quote: mordvin xnumx
                  Abidna, yes ....

                  Yes, abidna .... crying smile
        2. Sirocco April 23 2018 15: 16 New
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          Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
          It is difficult here without conspiracy theories.

          Why is it difficult, by no means, everything is just like the world, the Moon is a spaceship hanging under your nose, and our astronomers and co, are looking for it in other galaxies, will find the entrance to the MCC there, conquer, and go from planet Earth to other galaxies, for this the zoo, tired of the order, and leads to the end of the world, probably more than once it happened, Grablis gentlemen, no one has canceled their principle, with stubborn perseverance we jump at them. Rats remembered that they were social animals, so if one rat goes crazy, then the pack does not kill it, but leaves this habitat. Smart however)))))) So we on the Moon will sail from this RAT.))))))
      2. Curious April 23 2018 15: 39 New
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        TIT, What school did you study at, in the moonlight?
        1. ICT
          ICT April 24 2018 22: 39 New
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          on Tere Matushka, in two cities and in both in the second
      3. Dashing April 23 2018 18: 19 New
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        TIT, there is absolutely no question: the budget for Lunokhod-3 has long been sawn into the pockets of "effective managers."
    2. Hole puncher April 23 2018 09: 41 New
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      Quote: Yak28
      Why did the USSR and the USA curtail lunar programs?

      Because the moon is useless, there is nothing on it, helium3 is certainly an interesting topic, but not practical, especially against the backdrop of successes in green energy and cold fusion.
      Mars is much more profitable, it is from him that the development of the solar system will begin, who will stake it out for that and the future.
      1. cedar April 23 2018 09: 52 New
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        On the Moon, you can place the means of observing the near and far Cosmos in the entire range of the spectrum of physical frequencies, optical and radio engineering, which is very important for the future existence of the Earth and humanity in the Universe.
        1. ICT
          ICT April 23 2018 17: 12 New
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          Quote: cedar
          On the moon, you can place means of observation of near and far space throughout

          here I am also talking about the moon nearby (well, on space scales), there you can wind it up (again, a little gold from the Incas can be dripped into the depths, lol ), and we are trying to throw all penetrators on Mars, today it’s not clear
      2. axxmanm April 23 2018 19: 47 New
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        Quote: Puncher
        Mars is much more profitable, it is from him that the development of the solar system will begin, who will stake it out for that and the future.

        The moon is much more important than Mars both for research and development.
        Hype around Mars is associated with the effect of the Hodge Ishak Emir -
        - the flight to Mars can be prepared for another 10 years or even more, and then postponed a couple of times.
        And all this time, be considered an expert on innovation, a person who drives progress.
        And that means attracting significant investments into your business.
        Therefore, the goal must be kept at a considerable distance.
        The moon is much easier to master - a less deep gravity well, closer to the ground, no special ships are required to fly to the moon - small enough light and inexpensive capsules for 2-3 people are enough. KK Soyuz is quite sufficient for a flight to the moon (for which it was originally designed) - only 2-3 days of flight. It is only necessary to create and work out the landing module.
        1. Hole puncher April 23 2018 20: 00 New
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          Quote: axxmanm
          The moon is much more important than Mars both for research and development.

          Well, argue what its usefulness is.
          Quote: axxmanm
          Hype around Mars is associated with the effect of the Hodge Ishak Emir.

          It is associated with the prospect of developing the asteroid belt, without a base on Mars this is not possible. Ceres is not suitable for this, even though there is a lot of water on it. This is the future, but it begins today.
      3. KaPToC April 23 2018 20: 20 New
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        Quote: Puncher
        amid success in green energy and cold fusion

        Against the backdrop of these "successes," success with helium three is more likely.
    3. 1536 April 23 2018 11: 07 New
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      Apparently, they agreed that the United States will first conquer the territory of the USSR, and only then will deal with the Moon. The time has come. Now China will be the most reliable US assistant in this matter.
    4. KaPToC April 23 2018 20: 16 New
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      Quote: Yak28
      Why did the USSR and the USA curtail lunar programs?

      Quote: TIT
      if without conspiracy theories ---

      Then at that time a flight to the moon was impossible in principle. It is now impossible, many of the necessary technologies and now we do not have and did not have then.
    5. yehat April 24 2018 11: 09 New
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      Space exploration was a byproduct of the race to create ballistic missiles, but soon it turned into some kind of political agitation. The USA began to rush in distillations, and behind, made a knight's move - a fake about the lunar program, because of which they pushed the USSR to raise rates, but the USSR acted correctly that did not take it, but lost the motive to continue the race, and the USA was initially in the race lost and also were not eager to continue.
      In the end, everything collapsed.
      1. voyaka uh April 24 2018 18: 22 New
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        With the help of these "mythical" devices - American corner reflectors left by the Apollo,
        Russian and other scientists are still calibrating
        equipment on Earth.
        1. yehat April 24 2018 18: 38 New
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          how do you primitively debate
          here are counterarguments
          https://ss69100.livejournal.com/3296614.html
          in short - the photo itself can easily be a montage, like the whole scam with astronauts
          the angular reflector itself, which is on the moon, could be successfully delivered by a 7 American apparatus surveyor, and also delivered the same reflectors to the moon of the USSR.
        2. ICT
          ICT April 24 2018 22: 42 New
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          Quote: yehat
          how do you primitively debate

          swam know
        3. Horse, people and soul 3 October 2018 21: 41 New
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          There are five of them.

          Who placed them there? Soviet automatic stations and American astronauts.

          Of course, it’s easier to blame their failures on Hollywood. But, after all, at the famous parade on November 7, 1945, Stalin was not present at the rostrum of the Mausoleum. Then they finished and mounted.

          The Americans did the same with the moon landing. They retrieved in the pavilion what did not work on the Moon, and mounted it.

          The fact is that the Americans were on the moon, even for some it is insulting and insulting.

          Corner reflectors on the moon are in place. Scientists with their help accurately determine the distance to the moon with a laser.
  4. inkass_98 April 23 2018 07: 10 New
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    It remains only superfluous pennies to joke at all this magnificence.
    The program is ambitious and even necessary, but the Soviet era has passed, that enthusiasm and self-denial is no longer and will not be.
  5. Monster_Fat April 23 2018 08: 24 New
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    Something "nearest" "lunar program" is somehow strange- "simplified repetition" of the program of the 60-70s, even a "moonwalker" is not planned .... It seems that the Russian space program was completely blown away ...
    1. Vadim237 April 23 2018 08: 45 New
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      "2025 - launch of the Luna-28 apparatus. Mission - delivery of thermostated samples of lunar soil to the Earth’s surface, which will be mined by previous automatic stations, ice crystals may be present in the samples." And the question is, why X this launch is needed - spending tens of billions of rubles, for the sake of ice.
      1. Monster_Fat April 23 2018 09: 13 New
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        AND! And you yourself answered, “why”: “spending tens of billions of rubles,” that is, for the sake of banal “financing”.
        1. Vadim237 April 23 2018 13: 23 New
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          Of course, and also for insurance, if the device does not enter orbit and the trajectory to the moon.
      2. Mestny April 23 2018 09: 23 New
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        -2
        1. Find out if there is water at the pole and in what quantities.
        2. Is this water suitable for use in the operation of the lunar base.
        All this is extremely difficult or impossible to learn remotely.
        Sending people right there so that they would pick up a container of polar soil will be much more expensive.
        1. Vadim237 April 23 2018 13: 26 New
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          All this is recognized by the American and Chinese missions.
        2. yehat April 24 2018 11: 12 New
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          find out - why? What is the practical reason, without high-sounding references to the contribution to science?
          There are thousands of questions that cannot be answered. For example, is there a god or green men on the moon, but for the sake of this expedition they do not send
      3. Svetlana April 23 2018 11: 41 New
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        Quote: Vadim237
        for the sake of ice

        Earth itself and stars lights
        and flight time
        everything has changed today
        but ice remained ice ..
        Ice, ice, ice - sparkles silver.
        Ice, ice, ice - does not know a compromise.
        Ice, ice, ice - will immediately give an answer,
        Can you at least something or not?
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpKnO-5c7Zw
    2. Horse, people and soul 3 October 2018 21: 42 New
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      People are not the same. Basically, now the “Wi-Fi finger racers” are alone.

      The barren weed generation after the disaster of the 90s.
  6. Altona April 23 2018 09: 09 New
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    Quote: Monster_Fat
    Something "nearest" "lunar program" is somehow strange- "simplified repetition" of the program of the 60-70s, even a "moonwalker" is not planned .... It seems that the Russian space program was completely blown away ...

    --------------------------------------
    All these lunar programs are strange, because no one takes into account cosmic radiation. And you won’t be protected from it with a cotton-gauze bandage, only lead underpants. laughing
    1. Mestny April 23 2018 09: 24 New
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      Just the opposite - take into account. This is one of the reasons for using machines instead of people.
  7. dokusib April 23 2018 09: 25 New
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    Bases on the moon no one needs from the word at all. To send spacecraft to Mars or somewhere else, it is optimal to use an orbital station. And the extraction of Helium-3 on the Moon is not economically profitable. To generate production income, Helium-3 should rise in price by about 100000 times. If the colonization of the moon begins, it will be a purely political decision.
    1. Hole puncher April 23 2018 09: 43 New
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      Quote: dokusib
      If the colonization of the moon begins, it will be a purely political decision.

      Lunapark open with blackjack and hookers ...
      1. ICT
        ICT April 23 2018 17: 14 New
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        Quote: Puncher
        open with blackjack and hookers ...

        Well, it seems so far the ISS decided to master such a business
    2. Vadim237 April 23 2018 13: 34 New
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      In the distant future, the moon may have a different purpose for the site, for the extraction of rare metals from asteroids and meteorites - the capture of iron ore at a distance and their delivery to the lunar surface using correction engines.
    3. prodi April 23 2018 16: 57 New
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      I generally had the opinion that Cosmos is exclusively for romantics: academic scientists, science fiction writers and ufologists, because the very idea of ​​moving somewhere from the Earth, adapted for living, into an environment hostile to life, looks wild. The economic development of even the near outer space - well, this is necessary so that even on the scale of individual European limitrophies there is an opportunity to hit the road back and forth for "gold". The “joint” development seems utopian at all.
      1. Vadim237 April 23 2018 17: 44 New
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        Life was born on earth, but it should not perish here.
        1. prodi April 23 2018 19: 43 New
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          in the foreseeable future (for cosmological reasons), this is a purely theoretical probability
        2. voyaka uh April 24 2018 18: 25 New
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          You're right. Trying to go to other planets is not
          a whim of scientists or the military, and the basic instinct of human evolution is to survive.
      2. KaPToC April 23 2018 20: 23 New
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        Quote: prodi
        I generally had the opinion that Cosmos is exclusively for romantics: academic scientists, science fiction writers and ufologists

        So it will be until space flights radically fall in price.
        1. yehat April 24 2018 11: 22 New
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          flights can become significantly cheaper, but for this you need to scale up the economy and research from military rails or iPhones, iPhones and ayunitazes to this area,
          and after some time, the accumulation of achievements for a radical reduction in the cost of operations in space. Separately, I want to say that space exploration is impossible without a radical breakthrough in the adaptation of the human body to extreme conditions. What exists now is simply squalor, as can be seen in sports. We need developments in the energy of the body, regeneration, resistance to the difference in external conditions - pressure, temperature, gas concentration in the atmosphere, overloads, etc. The work is gigantic.
          And we also need breakthroughs in engine technologies, communications, etc. The USSR in the 80s was approaching a technological level that could give a number of breakthroughs and this required about 20 years of powerful development, but now these conditions are not found anywhere. Fundamental science around the world has turned mainly into a booth.
      3. Cherry Nine April 23 2018 21: 39 New
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        Quote: prodi
        in general, it was believed that Cosmos is exclusively for romantics:

        You have a rather strange opinion. Today, space is a multi-billion dollar industry. Another thing is that while this is entirely an earthly industry, space technology is improving life on Earth.
        As for interplanetary projects, so far no special meaning is visible. But the matter is relatively young, making guesses for 200 years is hardly reasonable.
    4. axxmanm April 23 2018 19: 50 New
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      Quote: dokusib
      Bases on the moon no one needs from the word at all. To send spacecraft to Mars or somewhere else, it is optimal to use an orbital station.

      And why send to Mars even if you don’t need the moon? :)
  8. Altona April 23 2018 09: 47 New
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    Quote: Mestny
    Just the opposite - take into account. This is one of the reasons for using machines instead of people.

    ------------------------------
    So they then want to throw people there ...
  9. Leomobil April 23 2018 11: 02 New
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    The main task of creating a lunar settlement is to save the elite from a vigorous war, these would have unleashed a war long ago, there is nowhere to hide, so they come up with motivation. Why did they close the lunar program? Ours proved that Lunokhod - 666 will find their base and destroy :) If so, let's die! :)
    1. Monster_Fat April 23 2018 11: 32 New
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      All-we watch the series "Expansion" (by the way, really, not bad), we get in, think .....
      1. Hole puncher April 23 2018 19: 52 New
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        Quote: Monster_Fat
        All-we watch the series "Expansion" (by the way, really, not bad), we get in, think .....

        It is a possible future, a colony on Mars, on the asteroid belt, Ceres and the moons of Jupiter. Not a word about the moon, it is useless.
  10. Sergey985 April 23 2018 11: 43 New
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    This is how the government’s decree on the creation of a customs post on the moon comes out, so you can talk about flights!
    1. Vadim237 April 23 2018 13: 28 New
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      Until he leaves, on the moon, the Americans and Chinese will already be the bosses.
  11. cedar April 23 2018 14: 14 New
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    Quote: BlackMokona
    One of the apollo stones lies at vdnh in the cosmonautics museum


    You take an interest first how much is ONE GRAM of lunar soil .., and then prekinte what lies there ...
  12. The Siberian barber April 23 2018 14: 17 New
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    Flying / exploring / exploring the moon are the technological driver of civilization as a whole. Still, it is impossible to apply, in this case, "economic feasibility, in the near future" .. We, building houses and planting trees, think about descendants .. We can draw an analogy, and here ..
    And our state (standing at the origins of the Lunar programs), simply must be, among the leaders, the development of it ..
    As always, political will is needed ..
    Only, I doubt (sorry), in the people who threw off their sweatpants and raspberry jackets, and dressed in expensive suits and ties ..
    As always: "Taurus steers", infection ..
  13. Tektor April 23 2018 15: 02 New
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    I do not want to make a pessimistic note, but from some predictions it follows that the Moon will be mastered only at the end of our millennium, with Russia and China. Not a word about America.
    1. The Siberian barber April 23 2018 15: 06 New
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      Well, pessimism, here, is not appropriate)))
      I think that it will be calm, at least ..))
    2. Curious April 23 2018 15: 44 New
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      What is Russia - 100% !. Given the success of the recent demonstration of weapons, "lacking world analogues", the exploration of the moon does not present any problems.
      1. The Siberian barber April 23 2018 15: 59 New
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        Tell me, please: where does sarcasm have to do with it?))
        Well, yes .. The growth rate "rose", .. This applies to ALL, practically, industries, I agree! BUT potential is present! It can be denied, can a person pre-engaged)) not?))
        The road will overcome, going! I didn’t say it) would be a will ..
      2. axxmanm April 23 2018 19: 51 New
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        +1
        Quote: Curious
        What is Russia - 100% !. Given the success of the recent demonstration of weapons, "lacking world analogues", the exploration of the moon does not present any problems.

        cartoon development?
    3. Hole puncher April 23 2018 19: 50 New
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      Quote: Tektor
      but from some predictions it follows that the Moon will be mastered only at the end of our millennium, with Russia and China. Not a word about America.

      It's just horror ... a person writes about space exploration and believes in predictions .... do not forget to cross yourself ...
  14. evil partisan April 23 2018 15: 34 New
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    Even I doubt that on the moon you can build a base with living compartments for astronauts. The design must be very strong to protect against everything that falls on the surface of the moon, and its elements, respectively, will be very heavy for the landing modules ... what If in parts, then it’s possible to pull “building materials” to the moon for about 100 years and then not to drag everything ... Now, if it were possible to collect something monstrous in orbit belay and then gently place it ...
    1. cedar April 23 2018 16: 54 New
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      The base can be deepened to the desired depth ... The main thing is that the wishes coincide with the possibilities ...
    2. Klaus April 23 2018 17: 58 New
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      - According to the criteria of strength, the design will be no more demanding than that on the ISS.
      - On the surface of the moon it does not fall more often than on the surface of the Earth, and if we take into account that the surface area is several times smaller, the probability of impact is less.
      - “Heavy” is an incorrect term. The force of gravity on the moon is 6 times smaller than the earth. The term "mass" is relevant here. Given the gravity of the moon and the mass of the lunar module, we obtain the parameters of the braking and landing / take-off pulses quite feasible for modern technology.
      - Collect easier on the surface. For example, to begin with, an external rigid frame with a lock chamber is assembled. Then the structure is sprinkled with a meter layer of regolith. Then, inside, from the gateway, the volume is inflated from the soft frame. This is just not the most difficult. The most difficult thing is the installation of a life support system.
      1. evil partisan April 23 2018 18: 38 New
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        Quote: Klaus
        The term "mass" is appropriate here.

        I agree. drinks
      2. yehat April 24 2018 11: 30 New
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        who speaks on gravity on the moon?
        heavy - this is the launch into orbit from the Earth
        this alone is already worth a lot of money now, radically different technologies are needed for transportation, but they are not being developed. So that you understand what it is about: how much energy is needed to make water rise through the capillary? The answer is zero!
        How much energy does it take to lift a bubble with air from a kilometer deep ocean?
        Zero again! So you need to dig in this direction, and not burn the atmosphere of the planet with stupid rockets.
  15. Cannonball April 23 2018 22: 44 New
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    It all comes down to money. And they, as always, are not enough. Therefore, it will not be to the moon.
    1. yehat April 24 2018 11: 31 New
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      money is just an aid to simplify the calculations.
      Nothing should be limited by money, this is a virtual obstacle.
      1. KaPToC April 24 2018 16: 45 New
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        Quote: yehat
        money is just an aid to simplify the calculations.
        Nothing should be limited by money, this is a virtual obstacle.

        Money is a unit of measure in which all those resources that are necessary for any activity are measured. At the current level of development of rocket and space technology, a flight to the moon is an unjustified waste of a HUGE amount of resources.
        1. yehat April 24 2018 17: 05 New
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          well so say so - too resource-intensive program)))
          The United States is printing trillions of dollars, but even they lack resources.
          1. KaPToC April 24 2018 17: 07 New
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            Quote: yehat
            The United States is printing trillions of dollars, but even they lack resources.

            Fortunately for us, Americans do not know how to "print" metals, hydrocarbons, and electricity. And you can't glue a spaceship out of green paper.
      2. Cannonball April 24 2018 20: 00 New
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        You tell the engineers and hard workers.
  16. Klaus April 24 2018 21: 19 New
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    Quote: KaPToC
    At the current level of development of rocket and space technology, a flight to the moon is an unjustified waste of a HUGE amount of resources.

    More than 50 billion to the Zenith arena - these are unjustified expenses of a huge amount of money and resources. And initially everyone knows that our kickers, no matter how much you invest in them, the investment will not be justified. This is a diagnosis.
    Moreover, in the USA, India and China, spending on the lunar program is not considered unjustified. And I am inclined to trust them, they know how to count money and they know the price.
    Technology alone will not step forward unless you start working in this direction. Namely: to fly and develop existing ones - to move to a new one. Only in this way, and nothing else.
  17. Compasure April 25 2018 21: 19 New
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    Quote: siberalt
    Another nonsense budget flukes. What the fuck is the moon, if we don’t know what is at a depth of more than 500 meters at 70% of our ball?

    Have you heard about such a science as "geology"? In general, drilling to a depth of 3 km is common
    1. Klaus 6 May 2018 17: 04 New
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      In the Kola superdeep, 12 in my opinion reached ...
      1. Horse, people and soul 3 October 2018 21: 47 New
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        She is no more. Canned the well. Infrastructure destroyed.

        The devastation is there.
  18. Svetlana 17 January 2019 16: 48 New
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    Quote: Svetlana
    Ice, ice, ice - sparkles silver

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZhaMCXd3EM
  19. Sezarych 30 August 2019 06: 12 New
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    The first message to the Russians.

    1. “Again the Devil takes Him to a very high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory, and says to Him: All this I will give to Thee, if you fall, worship me. Then Jesus says to him: Depart from me, Satan, for it is said that God worship and serve Him alone ”(Bible, New Testament, Gospel of Matthew 4: 8-10). It was possible to establish that the elevation difference on the Moon is approximately 19,81 km, (a very high mountain and from there, all the kingdoms of the world are visible) therefore the first Man who was on the Moon is Jesus Christ. (Jesus is the name, and Christ is what surname ?, No. Christ from Greek - the Prophet). To defeat the Moon, you need to design and build on the Earth microwave guns that will melt the titanium frame of the Moon. Fulfill the prophecy spoken by A.S. Pushkin: “The little demon, holding his hoof under himself, Twisted the moneylender at hellfire. Hot dripping fat in a smoked trough And the baked usurer burst on fire. ” At present, we have military space forces, and there are no weapons — this is not order and scientists must take up the design and construction of these weapons.
    Now the owner of the Earth is the synagogue, the owner of the synagogue is the devil, the servants of the devil are different bankers-money-lenders, the servants of the bankers are different types of masons, the servants of the masons are rulers of the "treasure" of different states. The base of the devil, he is the Lord, he is the reptiloid, he is the global predictor, located inside the moon. Until we solve the main task of destroying the devil, there will be no paradise on Earth. But for this, the people must first start to believe God conscientiously and mentally ask Him (the Living God, the Eternal King) to give technologies that solve this problem. Now the peoples of the world live with the thought that God lives separately, and I, a small person, live separately. To expect from the "elite" (the servants of the devil) that they will make life on Earth better is the same as shooting yourself in the foot. Even 1400 years ago, God, through the Prophet Muhammad in the Qur'an, reported that the worst enemy of man is the devil. The Devil wants to prove to God that he is better than man (the viceroy of the Earth), therefore he does everything to destroy the Earth as the human environment through all sorts of wars and man-made disasters on the principle of divide and bleed. "Eye" on a one-dollar bill is the moon. Kobovtsi write about the Global Predictor, but the “eye” is not people.
    2. Kob teaches that the primary categories of the universe are a measure - information and matter. But what about the Earth’s magnetic pole (North, South, East, West-slag), and there are four seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn) and there are also four in the deck of cards. (By the way, God invented the cards (where the ace is " God, "king - Man, lady - Woman, Jack - Angel - Slag)). Man is the measure of all things. I agree with this statement. The fourth category that the Kobovites do not write about is “slag”. Man is a dynamic "machine." Urine, feces, tears, sweat, sperm are slag. Take a tree: root - measure, foliage - information, trunk - matter, bark, moss, mushrooms - this is slag. Take a chicken egg: yolk is a measure, protein is information, shell is matter, and there is a film between protein and shell is slag. Human food: protein - measure, carbohydrates - information, fats - matter, wash everything with water, this is slag. In the Qur'an, a whole surah is dedicated to slag, only there the waste from casting of metals acts as slag. Man, tree, egg, earth, food are all products of God.
    3. Why do we win in a future war with the moon? A) As A.S. wrote Pushkin: "He will drop the trembling moon, but against the time of the law, his science is not strong." B) All played cards in childhood. So the king and the lady hits the jack, and not vice versa. Therefore, in a playful form, God provides that humanity will defeat the moon. Not immediately, but we will win. After all, God never hurry.
    4. War is a costly undertaking. If you have an extra 3 billion rubles, then first of all, transfer these funds to the online Sberbank on a card 5469 4000 2111 3274. I have a plan and people how to defeat the moon. If you do not have these extra funds, then you do not need to transfer anything.

    With respect to you, Sezarych officer of the Red Army.