Military Review

Greek project: the secret policy of Catherine II

20
The union between the two empires was finally concluded. In informal correspondence, both monarchs began to discuss a set of opinions regarding the Ottoman Empire. The initiative was shown by Catherine II, September 10 1782, writing a large letter to Joseph II. Starting with the fact that, despite the agreements reached, the Turks in every way impede the passage of Russian ships through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles and incite the population of Crimea to an armed rebellion, the empress suggested that another war could begin soon.


Greek project: the secret policy of Catherine II

"The consequence of the world." Silver table medal of the St. Petersburg Mint


Letters and Plans

Catherine proposed to the Austrian emperor to consider options for a possible post-war state system and outlined the main theses of the project, later called the "Greek". The Empress pointed out to her correspondent that, in her opinion, she had obvious signs of the decline of the Ottoman Empire, indicators of its weakness and decay. After listing the most obvious flaws in the Turkish state machine and noting the lack of negotiability of the ports, Catherine moved to the next step. It was suggested that in the event of a favorable development of the situation with the combined efforts of Russia and Austria it is quite possible to squeeze the Ottomans from the territory of Europe.

The territory of the former Turkish possessions was to become a “raw material” for the creation of Christian buffer states. It was especially emphasized that it would be very logical and useful to restore the ancient Byzantine Empire. The young grandson of Catherine Konstantin could have been at the head of it with a sedative condition for the Austrians: to completely abdicate the Russian throne.

The Empress was counting on the help of Joseph II in the reconstruction of the state that disappeared 300 years before the events described. In addition, the Austrian side proposed the idea of ​​creating another buffer state, Dacia, which was supposed to include part of the territory of Moldova, Wallachia and modern Romania. Catherine II emphasized that she does not claim this education. The only condition was that the ruler of Dacia was a Christian. Of the territories for which Russia claimed, were the fortress of Ochakov, which controlled the entrance to the Dnieper Liman, and therefore, the approaches to Kherson, and the area between the Bug and the Dniester. In the future, these lands were ceded to the Russian side as a result of the Yassky Peace 1791 of the year.

On the whole, the message was carried out in the best traditions of diplomacy of the Enlightened Absolutism period with the wit of Catherine II. The trial balloon was fired, the Austrian emperor was lost in thought. Catherine II's proposals were not without interest, and the prospect of getting rid of a dangerous neighbor, who, by the way, had already besieged Vienna twice, was tempting. The problem was that Austria was ringing, but by no means the only violin in the European orchestra. The conflicts with Prussia were still fresh, and the possible reaction of France, whose positions had been traditionally strong in Istanbul since the 17th century, was not known.

Having considered the details, Joseph II in a response letter to Catherine in no less refined and amiable expressions voiced his question price in the future radical correction of the Ottoman possessions. With regard to the “Greek project” itself, the emperor spoke very streamlined and vague in the style of “war will show a plan”. However, for participation in the enterprise, Austria wanted itself Hotin, a significant part of Serbia along with Belgrade and northern Albania. In addition, it was planned to “ask for” Istria and part of Dalmatia from the Republic of Venice. To mitigate the inconvenience of the once mighty trade republic, it was supposed to offer Crete, Cyprus, Morea and some of the islands of the Archipelago as a consolation prize.

Catherine strongly opposed this point, since this reshuffle significantly reduced the territories in which the prospective Greek empire should have been. However, Joseph II did not particularly insist, hoping to return to controversial moments later. Much more than the grumbling from the Republic of St. Mark, he feared being embroiled in a major European war, which was quite possible if his plans were to redraw the map of the Ottoman Empire.

The fear of the Austrian emperor crystallized in his letters to him brother Leopold. “There are no territorial acquisitions that could compensate for the damage caused by the European war,” he pointed out to the emperor. Meanwhile, rumors began to circulate in Europe about the conclusion of a certain union between Russia and Austria. These rumors grew literally by leaps and bounds, by the hour, overgrown with details, one more terrible than the other. It is difficult to say now which of the high contracting parties had the leakage stronger.

Even before the conclusion of the agreement, Joseph II anxiously told the empress that their treaty had caused concern in Europe. Catherine, in response, expressed the highest bewilderment, since only she had access to personal correspondence in St. Petersburg. Anyway, the information that Joseph and Catherine “behind the back of the whole of Europe” gathered to share the possessions of the Ottoman Empire became, if not public, then the court unequivocally.

Old Fritz (Frederick II, King of Prussia) actively discussed the details of the Russian-Austrian agreement with his ambassadors, finding it, however, hardly realizable. The excitement around information about the union of the two empires arose at Versailles. French diplomats in Istanbul did not fail to use this argument as a measure of the usefulness of the Sultan’s friendship with Paris. However, the Ottoman Porte and without these efforts belonged to France with due reverence. Gold continued to pleasantly burden the wallets of the Turkish nobles, the French engineers strengthened the Turkish fortresses, and the officers taught the Turkish soldiers European military wisdom.

Concerned, Joseph seriously considered and discussed with Catherine the option of softening the French position in such a delicate matter. The emperor suggested that the Versailles anger be mitigated by transferring control over Egypt. It is no secret that options for taking control of this part of the Ottoman Empire were considered in France in the days of Cardinal Richelieu. In addition, the Habsburgs and Bourbons tied the dynastic bonds, which Joseph II also hoped for in the event of an aggravation.

Since, indeed, the Russian-Austrian agreement, defensive in essence, did not say a word about the territorial division of the Ottoman Empire, both parties attempted to alleviate the information noise that had arisen. Indeed, in fact, even in secret articles of the agreement between the two empires, nothing was said about the division of Turkish possessions between them, and all conversations on this score have not yet come out of the stage of secret correspondence and exchange of opinions.

Joseph II instructed his ambassador in Paris, Florimon de Merci-Argento, to convincingly, authoritatively and loudly assert that the Russian-Austrian treaty was aimed primarily at restraining the ambitions of Prussia, in the opinion of Vienna, and that there could be no division of any ports. can. Similar instructions were given to the Russian envoy in Istanbul to calm the Sultan and his entourage.

And yet the circles on the water from the stones thrown into it continued to diverge, and fears did not leave the high walls of the Topkapi Palace. The reason for the gloomy reflections gave the Turks not only the rapid strengthening of the Northern Black Sea region by the Russians, but also their own powerlessness at the sight of the escaping influence of the Crimean Khanate, which was in an ever more limiting state.

Realities


Khan Shahin-Giray


While Catherine and Joseph kindly exchanged secret letters, which, most likely, were not so secret, a chain of events occurred that significantly complicated the already not-so-easy Russian-Turkish relations. In 1782, a relative of the Crimean Khan, Shagin-Girey, Bahadir-Giray, raised an armed uprising on the peninsula, which was met in Istanbul with warm approval. Shagin Giray was forced to flee under the protection of Russian troops and turn to Catherine II for help.

Bahadir Giray was proclaimed a new khan, after which he immediately turned to the Sultan for support. There was a direct threat of the landing of Turkish troops on the Crimean peninsula. Fulfilling the request of the “legal ruler” Shagin-Giray, and to protect state interests, Russian troops were brought into the Crimea, who easily dispersed the rebels. Shagin-Giray, once again enthroned in Bakhchisarai, immediately proceeded to extensive political repression, whose scale forced Catherine II to order Grigory Potemkin to defend members of the Khan's family, including the main opposition figure Bahadir-Girey. So the Russian empress saved the lives of numerous relatives of the ruler who had returned from political emigration. However, the execution, confiscation and other unpopular methods of Shagin-Giray, whose rating among the local population was so low, caused a general negative attitude towards him.


Prince Potemkin takes the Crimea to the citizenship of Russia. Graphic artist Boris Artemyevich Chorikov


Realizing that if anything happens, the Russian garrison might not be able to reach it, in February 1783 Khan abdicated the throne, and the next logical step was the Highest manifesto in April of the same year about the entry of the Crimea into the Russian Empire. Such a decisive step caused a sharp indignation in Istanbul and strongly spurred preparations for war.

There have also been some important events in Europe. In 1783, the signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty finally ended the war for the independence of part of the English colonies in America. England and France sheathed their swords and turned their gaze to Europe. London has not forgotten the unfavorable position of St. Petersburg regarding Armed Neutrality and Catherine’s refusal to provide troops for action against the rebels in America. Now the British began to pursue a policy of unfavorable for Russia towards the Ottoman Empire.

Requests of the Turks for additional funds for reconstruction fleet and the armed forces have found a comprehensive understanding in London. A little later, in 1786, King Frederick II died, who was very calm about the Catherine’s plans for the division of the Ottoman Empire, old-fashionedly sarcastically noting that they would remain on paper. His successor to the Prussian throne, Frederick William II, was less loyal to Russia.

After 1782, Catherine II and her esteemed Western partner Joseph II no longer engaged in the discussion of the “Greek project” in correspondence. It seemed that both monarchs were concerned with much more concrete matters and problems than the possible division of the European legacy of the Ottoman Empire. But in fact, the Russian empress was far from putting the “Greek project” on the shelf. Diplomatic consultations with Vienna were only an important, but not the only way to achieve the fulfillment of Catherine II’s plan.

Another significant mechanism in the implementation of the Greek project were the Greeks themselves. According to the results of the Kyuchuk-Kainarji peace treaty, Russia received the right to establish consulates on the territory of the Ottoman Empire. Russia began the practical implementation of this clause of the agreement after the annexation of the Crimea, in 1783 – 1784. The regions of their appearance were the southern Balkans, Morea and the Greek islands. A total of 15 consulates were opened. Of course, most of these consuls were Greeks by descent. Back in 1775, in St. Petersburg, the Corps of Foreign Co-religionists was founded to train military and diplomatic personnel, primarily from the Greeks. The Russian consuls in the Ottoman Empire not only tried to protect the local population from the arbitrariness of the Turkish authorities, but also collected various information. Thus, Russia had a fairly wide agent network in the Balkans and had a good idea not only about the situation in the western, European, part of the Ottoman Empire, but also about the mood among the local population.

Catherine was counting not only on the power of her own army and navy, but also on the full cooperation of the Greeks. Despite the tough, sometimes merciless policy of Istanbul, among the Greek population did not quench their desire to gain state independence. Russia was associated with the main hope of liberation from Turkish domination. By the way, the Greeks were actively carrying out armed assistance to the Russian Archipelago squadron during the 1768 – 1774 war. And even then the Greeks were in the Russian service to work among the local population.

So the former trader from Thessaloniki, Georgios Papazolis, and now the captain of the artillery of the Russian army, traveled all over Greece as a reconnaissance mission in 1765, collecting information and establishing contacts with the right people. And therefore, when a Russian squadron appeared on the Mediterranean Sea, it was soon joined by detachments of the armed Greek population. After the signing of the Kyuchuk-Kainarji Peace Treaty, a significant part of the insurgents who fought against the Turks emigrated to Russia and other countries. The Greeks, of course, were not very happy with the outcome of the Russian-Turkish war 1768 – 1774 for themselves, since with its end they did not come close to their own independence. Still, they retained a high degree of sympathy for Russia, which they counted on in St. Petersburg.

Project remaining project

In January, 1787, the city of Catherine II, left the capital and went on a long journey through Novorossia. Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin was in a hurry to show the empress the results of his labors, all the more so since relations between Russia and Turkey were deteriorating, and few people doubted the proximity of the war. The Empress was accompanied by a huge retinue, including the ambassadors of England, France and Austria. Catherine II was so kind that she invited Joseph II to join the journey.


Fireworks in honor of Catherine during her trip to the Crimea. Unknown artist, the end of the XVIII century.


It's funny that at first the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was outraged that he, Caesar, at the first wave of the finger of some "ekaterinizirovannoy princess Zerbst" should rush to Kherson. However, having calmed down, the "Count Falkenstein" still rushed over. True, not in Kherson, but in the area of ​​Kanev, where they highly deigned to climb the flagship galera Dnipro.

Ally made very welcome. In that same Kherson, both monarchs entered through a stylized triumphal arch with the significant inscription “The Road to Constantinople”. In Crimea, the guests were shown the ships of the young Black Sea Fleet. Catherine was very pleased with what she saw and was doubly satisfied with the fact that all this could be seen by representatives of respected Western partners.


Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Count Kauenitz. Portrait by Jean-Etienne Liotar


The Empress clearly showed her Austrian ally that she was ready for an unfavorable course of events, and in turn waited for the full assistance of the Austrians. Joseph II returned to Vienna in a difficult state of mind. On the one hand, what he saw in the Crimea impressed the emperor. On the other hand, Chancellor Kaunitz, a long-standing opponent of the supporters of the division of the Ottoman Empire, with all the sophisticated tactfulness, again attacked his monarch, dissuading him from excessive rapprochement with Russia.

While both monarchs were thinking about their own, Sultan Abdul-Hamid I. entered into action. August 8, 5, Grand Vizier Koca Yusuf Pasha summoned the Russian ambassador to Istanbul, Yakov Ivanovich Bulgakov, and put forward an impossible ultimatum in advance: return Crimea, cancel all Russian-Turkish treaties and abandon the patronage of Georgia. Attempts to rally the Turks were useless, and on August 1787 12, the Sultan declared war on Russia.

To be continued ...
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Greek project as an attempt by Russia to crush the Ottoman Empire
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  1. moskowit
    moskowit April 23 2018 06: 41
    +2
    A serious project .... Catherine the second grandson called Constantine, thinking in the future to put him governor in Constantinople ...
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 April 23 2018 07: 18
      0
      Greece is a strange formation,
      the first contradiction, each nation has -relatives-people, except for one -Greek. As if the people arose from scratch. But the traditions wrote to Greece "great history", great feats, won wars, great Greek culture, but all these paper ones " the exploits of the Greek people do not meet, as usual, with reality.
      The Greeks are a fictional-synthetic people -one of the many novel projects. In general, Greece is a greece, a mountainous country.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 23 2018 07: 28
        +1
        and in general, what do we know about Greece? According to TI, Greece had its location not only the Balkans, but also the Apennine peninsula, the so-called Great Greece, but it was in antiquity i.e. in antireality (my name).
        We look at the old medieval map of the 17th century. Italy.
        on the old map of the 17th century, we see already on the Apennine peninsula on the toe of a boot such a name GREAT GREECE.
        And of course, as it should be in such a case, when reality does not fit with TI, the toponyms are immediately Russian
        -ROCCO GLORIOSA-what does it mean from Latin-RUSSIA NICE.
        -RUSCANO
        -ROSO
        RUSSIA IMPERIAL
        RUSSIA PICTRA
        -TORTOR AITA
        -ROSSA SILENTO
        -ROSSARUO
        -ROSO
        -LUGANI
        River ANCITULA and city ANCITULA i.e. The assignment of ANTI prefixes to the Russian names has already begun.
        ROSSELE River
        Well, ANSITULA is ce Tula i.e. hidden river and city.

        this is enough to understand who the Etruscans were and when they lived in this very Italy.



        In general, in Italy, the Rosso family is the most common, the rest is much smaller.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 23 2018 11: 36
          +2
          Quote: Bar1
          In general, in Italy, the Rosso family is the most common, the rest is much smaller.

          Well, everything, everything, convinced. Italy is the Russian land, the Etruscans are the Russians, Tula is an ancient Russian hidden word, and not the stake of Taydula, the wife of Janibek, who is also Russian himself (everyone knows that!), But I don’t know who is the Grand Duke Simeon Gody, Prince Igor Svyatoslavich or Prince Eugene of Savoy, and maybe all at once? Your opinion?
          By the way, when you go to reclaim your native Etruscanism from the adversary-Westerners, sign off here, okay? So that we can adequately prepare for the meeting of the winner, otherwise it can somehow turn out ugly - you are returning the lost Russian land somewhere, but we do not know.
          Oh, and do not forget when you go to war, take these cards with you, what are you showing here, capture. Desirable on paper softer. I think they will certainly be useful to you there.
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 April 23 2018 11: 59
            0
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Preferably, on paper softer.


            someone interested in historical themes, someone toilet, to each his own.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 23 2018 16: 13
              +2
              Quote: Bar1
              someone interested in historical themes, someone toilet, to each his own.

              Do you think that what you write is more related to history?
              Quote: Bar1
              and in general, what do we know about Greece?

              You, apparently, regrettably little. Even more regrettable is that you don’t want to know more. Dug out somewhere (it looks like Fomenko and Nosovsky, but I could be mistaken here) a bunch of pseudo-historical rubbish using homegrown historical linguistics as applied to the 17th century maps, filled with the lacuna of their own knowledge with this rubbish and now consider yourself an educated person who if does not know, then this is not necessary to know.
              About the Minoan civilization heard? About Mycenaean? Generally, about the Aegean civilization in general? This is all the archaeologists have invented, and not historians, so ask, there are many finds with dating.
              And more.
              "Rosso" - in modern Italian means "red". And the "red" in the sense of color, and not beauty, as in Russian, where these concepts were once synonymous. A "beautiful" in Italian will be "Bello." laughing
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 April 23 2018 16: 42
                0
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Do you think that what you write is more related to history?


                I think ...

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                You, apparently, regrettably little. Even more regrettable is that you don’t want to know more. Dug out somewhere (it looks like Fomenko and Nosovsky, but I could be mistaken here) a bunch of pseudo-historical rubbish using homegrown historical linguistics as applied to the 17th century maps, filled with the lacuna of their own knowledge with this rubbish and now consider yourself an educated person who if does not know, then this is not necessary to know.


                why pseudo-historical trash? They are quite respected medieval cartographers, for example, the Dutchman Abraham Ortelius, he has a lot of things that does not coincide with your story, others, Paolo Farlani, Nicola Sanson, are all famous people in their circles. They depicted reality according to all representations of that time, and not the current German history concept.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                About the Minoan civilization heard? About Mycenaean? Generally, about the Aegean civilization in general? This is all the archaeologists have invented, and not historians, so ask, there are many finds with dating.


                Of course, you heard, and you heard how the same Crete was called on the old maps? I think they have not heard, but heard that the old maps do not have the city of Sparta and that Sparta appears only in the 19th century?

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Rosso - in modern Italian means “red.” Moreover, “red” in the sense of color, not beauty, as in Russian, where these concepts were once synonymous. And “beautiful” in Italian will be “bello”


                Well, yes, the uncle in Italian is _rosso_ of course _redny_, but in Latin, and the description of the card is Latin _ red_ it is _red or rubrum_, so the villages and towns in Italy are called Russians, not red.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master April 23 2018 17: 39
                  +1
                  Quote: Bar1
                  Well-respected medieval cartographers

                  Exactly. And it’s very sad that their writings are used to create what I call pseudo-historical trash. By the way, the credibility of their cards corresponds to the level of their own knowledge, rather than the present, very low. Or will you now prove to me that the Bering Strait or the Drake Strait does not exist or did not exist in the 17th century? Or maybe you think that these, without irony, dear specialists of SAMI crawled across Europe and mapped it? I will disappoint you - they used various sources, mainly travelers' stories, and based on their stories they drew their maps. And these stories have been oh how fantastic, you can also see this by looking at these cards more closely.
                  Quote: Bar1
                  Did you hear how the same Crete was called on the old maps?

                  You probably mean the name Kandia? Heard, so what?
                  Quote: Bar1
                  card description - latin

                  Latin something Latin. Only the authors provided information for description in the languages ​​spoken at that time and in that place. How do you translate from Latin the name "Nougrod" and "Solofki", marked on the map of the same Orteli? By the way, Solovki is on it, but Arkhangelsk is not. Was it not then? Or did Ortelius not know about him? Understand that you are a naive person, the medieval cartographer had an idea of ​​what he was depicting on the map, only from the stories someone relied (had to) on the authenticity of these stories and the honesty of the narrators, who often left much to be desired. In this case, the Italian spoke with him in Italian, Russian - in Russian, the Spaniard - in Spanish, and this is at best, and at worst had to use retelling from Italian, Russian or Spanish. So "rosso" on the map of the XVI century. this is Italian "rosso", and not Latin, like "Nougrod", "Solofki" and "Vstiug" - Russians Novgorod, Solovki and Ustyug, not Latin.
                  Quote: Bar1
                  on old maps there is no city of Sparta

                  And what is there?
                  1. Bar1
                    Bar1 April 23 2018 18: 06
                    0
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    . And it’s very sad that their works are used to create what I call pseudo-historical rubbish.


                    I imagine how sad it would be for them to know that their works are called "pseudo-historical rubbish"
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    Or you will prove to me now that the Bering Strait or the Drake Strait does not exist or did not exist in the XNUMXth century.


                    Drake, I don’t know, but the Bering Strait was called Aninsky until the 18th century, that is, the Ainsky people lived in the Far East until the civilizers destroyed them. And besides, why on earth did the Romanovs name the Bering, if the first, even by TI Cossack Timofey Khabarov passed these places? This is a copyright violation, that is, plagiarism-theft, and this is a crime.


                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    You probably mean the name Candia? Heard and what

                    so that the island of Kandia, the same name was called so until the 19th century, how can this be?

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    Only here is the information to describe the authors received in those languages ​​that were spoken at that time and in that place


                    the fact is that in those places in Italy they spoke Russian, for example, a map of the 17th century is written
                    --Great Greece
                    -Russia and Rossianum
                    and these names are no longer just Rosso for which you cling to, as for RED, but are already read exactly how - Russia.

                    Names such as
                    -TROY Hercules yard

                    Accordingly, the question arises - So where was the Trojan War, maybe in Italy? And Greece is there.



                    and don’t even think that medieval cartographers were uneducated people, it was precisely the masters and artists of their craft, and not just artisans, and besides, if the Russians lived in Italy, then Ortelius could not call their cities red.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    At the same time, the Italian spoke with him in Italian, Russian - in Russian, Spaniard - in Spanish, and this is in the best case, and in the worst had to use paraphrases from Italian, Russian or Spanish.


                    in those days there was neither Italian, nor French, nor Spanish, there was vulgar / undeveloped Latin for some primary documents and Russian as the language of UNIVERSAL communication.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    By the way, Solovki is on it, but there is no Arkhangelsk. Wasn’t it then?


                    about Arkhangelsk. The first name of this city
                    1. Bar1
                      Bar1 April 23 2018 18: 12
                      0
                      Quote: Trilobite Master
                      By the way, Solovki is on it, but there is no Arkhangelsk. Wasn’t it then?


                      about Arkhangelsk. The first name of this city is Kolmygorsk
                      and the neutral name New Earth was called
                      -Galan. From here the Glossy Ocean.

                  2. Bar1
                    Bar1 April 23 2018 18: 17
                    0
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    And what is there?


                    in 19 the city began to be called Mystra, then it began to be called Sparta, already in the 19th century
                    near the city of Android.
                    So the chronological stages of the city’s existence
                    -Sparta
                    -Lacedemuna
                    -Misister
                    -Mistra
                    -Sparta
                    something like that
                    Well, the very name of Sparta is very remarkable in the root of the ARD, so you can doubt the antiquity of the city, but if there is no ancient Sparta, then what kind of TI can be?
                    http://chronologia.org/dc/dcboard.php?az=show_mes
                    g & forum = 263 & topic_id = 50187 & mesg_id = 51
                    513 & page =
                2. alatanas
                  alatanas April 24 2018 09: 31
                  0
                  _red or rubrum_

                  What is it? Probably from the English-Latin dictionary?
        2. Severski
          Severski April 23 2018 18: 08
          0
          Some 1000 years ago, Sicily and southern Italy were part of Byzantium and there the Greeks made up the majority of the population. There is still a Greek population in southern Italy.
      2. Severski
        Severski April 23 2018 18: 05
        0
        Look for related peoples for Albanians or Basques for example.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 23 2018 18: 22
          0
          Quote: Severski
          Look for related peoples for Albanians or Basques for example.

          The syntax is dominated by a relatively free word order. The vocabulary of the Albanian language, in addition to the native Indo-European vocabulary, includes a significant number of borrowings of different times from Greek, Latin, Slavic, Turkish, Italian, French. In the process of long historical interaction with the languages ​​of other groups (Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian), the Albanian language developed a number of pan-Balkan structural and typological features (the so-called Balkanisms), forming a Balkan language alliance with these languages.


          it’s also a synthetic nation, there is nothing of its own, Slavs by blood, but by culture. Well, you see for yourself, some kind of mixture, the same ukers just started in the 20th century.
      3. Seal
        Seal April 28 2018 16: 54
        0
        In the North German saga of Tidrek (Dietrich) of Berne, recorded in Norway, it is believed that in the middle of the XIII century, there is an interesting moment. The duration of the saga belongs by its author to the era of the Great Migration of Peoples (IV-VI centuries). The allies and the protagonists of the saga - Tidrek Bernese and Attila, the king of Hunnaland, have well-known historical prototypes - the founder of the Ostrogothic kingdom Theodorich of the Amal family (d. 526) and the ruler of the Huns Attila, who lived in the XNUMXth century. AD

        Ilias from Russia in the saga - the son of the Russian prince Gertnit, who owned Russia, Poland, Hungary, the land of Wilkins and part of Greece. “King Gertnith,” the saga narrates, “had two sons from his wife, the eldest was called Ozantrix, the youngest Valdemar, and the third son, whom he had from the concubine, was called Ilias, he was a peaceful and affable husband.” Before his death, Gertnit shared his possessions between his sons: the eldest, Ozantrix, became king of the Wilkins, the younger, Waldemar - king of Russia and Poland, Ilya - Greek Jarl. After the death of Gertnith, the saga reports, his sons waged bloody wars with the Huns of Attila and Tidrek who came to his aid. The war, which was going on with varying success, ended unsuccessfully for the Russians: Ozantriks and Valdemar died in battle, the Hilks captured the kingdom of the Wilkins, the Russian cities of Polotsk and Smolensk; Jarl Ilias was forced to lay down his arms. Attila saved Elias's life and accepted him among his husbands, making him ruler of Russia.
        It is noteworthy that in the 1204th century another Nenets poem was dedicated, dedicated to Ortnit, the nephew of Ilya the Russian mother, and this offspring of the legendary Russian kungs rules in Garda, in Lombardy (Northern Italy). In this case, it does not matter how historically reliable the content of the poem is. It is important that the presence of “Russians” in Lombardy did not surprise German storytellers even in the XNUMXth century. On the other hand, in a story about the fall of Constantinople in XNUMX, the Novgorod chronicler recalls that one of the leaders of the crusaders was from Bern, "the evil Dedric was still alive." In Novgorod, therefore, they also remembered the Tidrek, and they remembered it as a sworn enemy of Russia.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 23 2018 07: 41
    0
    From a distance it seems harmonious: both the development of the country, and a strong army and diplomacy.
  3. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 23 2018 11: 21
    +2
    I like the articles of this author. The main thing is that the increase in their number should not be at the expense of quality.
    smile
    The reconstruction of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople is certainly an interesting idea and its implementation would be extremely useful for Russia. Dacia, as I see it, was understood as a southern Slavic state, a prototype of Yugoslavia ... Somehow it doesn’t surprise that such ideas didn’t inspire enthusiasm in Western Europe - the English and French didn’t get a piece of Turkish pie for purely geographical reasons, Austria, even taking into account possible territorial acquisitions, the emergence of two Orthodox states on its southern borders, with the pro-Russian authorities, was also somehow not very necessary.
    So the idea, although useful for Russia, but, it seems to me, is completely utopian.
    1. Weyland
      Weyland April 23 2018 13: 44
      0
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      od Dacia, as I see it, understood the state of the southern Slavs, a kind of prototype of Yugoslavia ...

      Actually, historically, Dacia is a solid piece of modern Romania.
  4. Seal
    Seal April 28 2018 16: 48
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    About the Minoan civilization heard? About Mycenaean? Generally, about the Aegean civilization in general? This is all the archaeologists have invented, and not historians, so ask, there are many finds with dating.

    Excuse me, really, with dating? Just the same, archaeologists found signs, such as “With this half-chair, Master Gams begins a new batch of furniture. 1865 St. Petersburg "? Well, that is: "With this palace (house, shed, well ....) the master (for example, Themistopoulos) in 1200 BC begins the construction of a new series of palaces (houses, sheds, wells ...).
    What language were the tablets in?