31 August 1938 in Moscow, at the Main Military Council of the Red Army, a “debriefing” took place. It was attended by Stalin, Voroshilov, Budyonny, Shchadenko, Shaposhnikov, Kulik, Loktionov, Pavdov, Molotov, Frinovsky. Marshal Blucher was also called. On the agenda was the question of what happened on Lake Hassan, why Soviet troops suffered such losses and how the commander of the Far Eastern Front, Blücher, acted. By the way, Blucher was already removed from the post of commander, at the time of the "debriefing".
Indeed, the operation on Lake Hassan was not very successful due to the actions of the commander. Marshal Ivan Konev, for example, believed that Blucher simply did not have enough modern military knowledge - he stopped at the level of twenty years ago, the events of the Civil War, and this led to disastrous consequences for Soviet soldiers. The self-confidence of the marshal also played a role. He often acted independently and even contrary to the position of the central leadership of the country. For example, when 20 on July 1938 of Japan gave the USSR an ultimatum, demanding to transfer part of Soviet territory to Lake Hassan to Japan, Marshal Blucher, who commanded the Far Eastern Front, made an absolutely adventurous decision to try to resolve the conflict between the USSR and Japan.
Needless to say, the front commander did not and could not have the authority for such negotiations. But Blucher, without informing Moscow, sent a special commission to the border, which established that the alleged Soviet border guards were to blame for violating the border by three meters. After that, Blucher made a new mistake - he contacted Moscow and began demanding the arrest of the head of the border area. But the Soviet leadership did not understand the Marshal’s initiative and did not approve, demanding that Blücher immediately withdraw the commission and begin his direct duties - organizing military resistance to the impending Japanese attack.
From where Marshal Blucher had such a desire for self-willed, independent actions, and even in the 1938 year, when power was as hard as possible for any deviations from the course. Many party and military leaders were punished for far less deeds and far less strange initiatives. Apparently, Blucher was sure of his unsinkability - after all, luck smiled at him for a long time, with a wide smile. So, shortly before the events on Lake Hassan, in December 1937, Vasily Blucher was elected a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and later incorporated into the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Obviously, this circumstance also allowed Blucher to consider himself not only as a military leader, but also as a political figure.
Vasily Blucher was among the first five Soviet commanders who were given the rank of marshals. 21 November 1935, the Marshal's titles were received by the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR Kliment Voroshilov, the Chief of Staff of the Red Army Alexander Egorov, the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense Mikhail Tukhachevsky, the Inspector of the Red Army Cavalry Semyon Budyonny and the Commander of the Special Far Eastern Army Vasily Blucher. Moreover, the position held by Blucher did not imply such a high rank. It is obvious that Stalin considered Blucher as a very promising military leader, who in the foreseeable future, firstly, could make great victories over the likely adversary - Japan, and secondly - to occupy a higher position in the system of the People's Commissariat of Defense. At that time, Vasily Blucher was envied by many military leaders - the commander of the Special Far Eastern Army enjoyed the obvious sympathy of Stalin. At the same time, almost all the 1920 and 1930s of Blucher spent in the Far East - he never received the “Moscow” appointment and higher posts in the Defense Commissariat.
For almost two decades spent in the Far East, Blucher, apparently, felt almost the "owner" of this huge and rich region. It’s no joke - since 1921, to be the "main military authority" of the entire Soviet Far East. 27 June 1921 31-year-old Vasily Blucher, who previously commanded the 51 Infantry Division that fought in the Crimea, was appointed Chairman of the Military Council, Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic and the Minister of Military Affairs of the FER. Thus began the Far Eastern, the longest, epic in the life and career of Vasily Blucher.
When, in 1890, in the village of Barshchinka, Rybinsk district, Yaroslavl province, the son of a peasant Konstantin Blucher and his wife Anna Medvedeva was born a son, Vasily, no one could imagine that in thirty years he would occupy the post of general. Year of study in the parish school - that's all the education of the future red marshal in those years. Then there was the “school of life” - a boy in a shop, a laborer at a machine-building plant in St. Petersburg, a mechanic at a car-building plant in Mytishchi. Young Blucher, like many representatives of the working youth of that time, was carried away by revolutionary ideas. He was fired from a factory in St. Petersburg for taking part in rallies, and in 1910 was arrested for appealing for a strike. However, in modern literature they also cite another version - that no worker and, especially, a revolutionary, at that time Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukher was, but served as a clerk of one merchant, fulfilling intimate duties, incidentally.
In 1914, the First World War began. 24-year-old Vasily Blucher was to be called up for military service. He was enlisted in the 56 th Kremlin reserve battalion, and then sent to the 19 th Kostroma regiment of the 5 th infantry division in the rank of private. Soon he was awarded the St. George Medal of the IV degree, was awarded the St. George's Cross of the III and IV degree and was promoted to junior non-commissioned officer. However, if the fact of awarding a medal is reliable, historians do not find documentary information about the crosses of St. George and awarding the rank of junior non-commissioned officer. In any case, the fact that Blücher was seriously injured by a broken grenade is reliable. Blucher was taken to a military hospital, where he was literally dragged from the dead. Because of the injuries received by Blücher, the commissioners are with a pension of the first category.
Returning to civilian life, he settled into a granite workshop in Kazan, then worked in a mechanical factory. In June 1916, Blucher became a member of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party of the Bolsheviks. He met the October Revolution in Samara, where he became a member of the Samara Military Revolutionary Committee, an assistant to the head of the Samara garrison and the head of the provincial security of the revolutionary order. Vasily Blucher’s military career in Soviet Russia began with these middle-level positions.
As commissioner of the consolidated detachment of the Ufa and Samara Red Guards, Blucher took part in the hostilities in the Urals, where he headed the Chelyabinsk Military Revolutionary Committee. The working detachments of the Southern Urals acted in an extremely difficult situation. In the Combined detachment of the South Urals partisans, Blucher became deputy commander. Gradually, the squad expanded and included in its membership 6 rifle, 2 cavalry regiment, artillery division. By September 1918, this working army numbered about 10 thousands of people and was soon transformed into the 4 Ural (from 11 November 1918 of the year - 30) rifle division. Vasily Blucher was appointed commander of the rifle division. So 28-year-old demobilized soldier, yesterday's worker with a one-year education, took the general's post by the standards of the old army commander of the rifle division.
During the 54 of the day, Blucher’s units traveled 1,5 thousands of kilometers across difficult-to-reach areas — mountains, forests, and swamps of the Southern Urals, defeating enemy regiments of 7. For this, the divisional commander Vasily Blucher was awarded the Order of the Red Banner under the number 1. Thanks to the Ural campaign, an unknown worker yesterday, unknown to anyone, instantly entered the military elite of young Soviet Russia. 6 July 1919, Blucher led the 51 Infantry Division from Tyumen to Lake Baikal. In July, the 1920 division was transferred to the southern front - to fight Wrangel, after the defeat of which the division was redeployed to Odessa, and Blucher, being its commander, became the head of the Odessa garrison.
In June 1921, he became chairman of the Military Council, commander-in-chief of the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic and military minister of the FER. It was under the command of Blucher that the white formations of Baron Ungern, General Molchanov and others that were operating in Transbaikalia, Mongolia, and the Far East were crushed. Volochaevskaya offensive operation became the high point of Blucher, after which the division commander was recalled to Moscow.
27 April 1923 was appointed Blücher temporarily performing the post of commander of the garrison of the city of Petrograd with the duties of commander of the 1 rifle corps, from 1922 he was included in the Central Executive Committee. In the autumn of 1924, Mr. Blucher, who had already had experience in hostilities in the Far East and Transbaikalia, was sent to China as a military adviser to Sun Yat-sen. In China, Blucher stayed until 1927, after which he served as assistant to the commander of the Ukrainian military district, I. E. Yakir, and on August 6, 1929 was appointed commander of the Special Far Eastern Army. All the following nine years of life Blucher spent in the Far East. In February, 1934 was elected a candidate member, and in the 1937 year - a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.).
Of course, for a person with no education, it was a colossal career, from which one could easily “dizzy”. This is what happened. Unfortunately, instead of engaging in raising his educational level, Blücher “went out of control” - he began to drink heavily. Meanwhile, the situation in the region is heating up. 25 March 1935 of the year Blucher was sent a directive on the actions of the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army in the event of war with Japan, but he, as reported later by the Red Army Chief of Staff Egorov in a report to Voroshilov, "got sick of the disease you know" and did not go to the April 7 for communication. Naturally, such a lifestyle prevented the full command of the army. Nevertheless, 2 June 1937, Stalin gave such a description of the marshal: "Blucher is an excellent commander, he knows his district and does a great job of educating the troops." Before the collapse of the career remained a little over a year.
At the beginning of 1938, Blucher even asked Stalin about trusting himself, to which Joseph Vissarionovich responded that he fully trusted the marshal. 24 September 1938, after the famous “debriefing” following the battles on Lake Hassan, recalled to Moscow, Blucher was given an apartment in the Government House. However, instead of settling down in a new apartment, four days later, on September 28, Blucher and his family immediately went to Adler - to the residence “Bocharov Ruchei”, where he settled in Voroshilov’s country house. Apparently, he already heard rumors about possible problems. At the cottage Voroshilova Blucher with his family spent almost a month.
On the morning of October 22, 1938, Marshal Vasily Blucher, his wife Glafira Lukinichna and brother Pavel were arrested. Blucher was taken to Lubyanka, to the internal prison of the NKVD, where Marshal and yesterday's favorite of Stalin spent eighteen days. During this time, he managed to interrogate 21 times. Blucher testified against himself, in which he admitted to participating in the “anti-Soviet rightist organization”, “military conspiracy”, sabotage in the military sphere, as well as to “complete the picture”, drunkenness in the workplace and moral decay.
9 November 1938 of the year in 22 hours 50 minutes Vasily Blucher died suddenly in the prison doctor's office. According to the official autopsy results, the marshal’s death was caused by a blockage of the pulmonary artery by a thrombus formed in the veins of the pelvis. On the morning of November 10, Blucher’s body was cremated. Many sources emphasize that Blucher’s death was a natural consequence of the most severe torture and beatings that the marshal was subjected to during his eighteen-day imprisonment. Practically all the members of the family of Vasily Blucher were repressed. His first wife, Galina Pokrovskaya, was shot, whose marriage ended in 1924, i.e. 14 years before the arrest of Blucher. The second wife, Galina Kolchugin, was also shot, and the third wife, Glafira Bezverkhova, was sentenced to 8 years of camps. Blucher's brother Pavel, who served as the air commander at the headquarters of the Air Force of the Far Eastern Front, was also shot. Rehabilitated Blucher in 1956 year. After rehabilitation, streets, towns, schools, and ships were named after Blucher.
Marshal Blucher can be considered one of the most controversial and mysterious figures in the Soviet stories 1920's - 1930's Without detracting from his merits during the Civil War, it is still worth noting that many critical assessments of a military leader are true - this is a low level of education with a lack of desire to improve knowledge, and disregard for their duties, and arbitrariness in decision making. But was Blucher actually a member of the anti-Stalinist conspiracy? The answer to this question has long been taken to the grave by the participants of those tragic events.