VO begins a series of articles about people whose honor and conscience keeps Crimea during this difficult transition period. We are really very difficult to move on, I hope it’s not worth explaining what it is from.
The creation of such a cycle has been suggested for a long time, since our readers are interested in the events taking place on the peninsula. Because of the specifics of the Ukrainian “inheritance,” we often issue critical and incriminating articles. And this cycle is about good, about people with principles, about people who are worthy of performing their duty, who, thank God, is in the Crimea!
Let me introduce our first hero - the main director of the Drama Theater. B. Lavrenyov Black Sea Fleet, Honored Art Worker of the Republic of Crimea Yuri Makovsky.
The theater is located on Ushakov Square, in the former Sailor Club, known to everyone who has ever been in a hero city. A building with a spire, reminiscent of a Stalinist high-rise, from the tower of which every half hour on the city the call signs of the hero-city fall - a melody from the hymn “The Legendary Sevastopol”.
In Sevastopol there are two iconic theaters: a chic theater named after Lunacharsky on Primorsky Boulevard and the "tightened" theater fleet them. Lavreneva. And although both buildings are equally beautiful in architectural terms, their fates and missions are very different. Unlike the sleek theater named after Lunacharsky, the fleet theater is currently releasing premiere performances and collecting full houses in the absence of funding for new productions and additional state support, we will talk about this at the end of the article. In the meantime, about the good.
If you present the theater to them. Lavrenev’s man, it will be a toned-up 1 rank captain, weathered by the Black Sea winds, battle-hardened, the soul of a company, a connoisseur of thousands of interesting stories, possessing incredible charm and sense of humor, ready to take the first alarm and step forward, leaving a joke, rush into battle for the motherland.
The theater was often the first. For example, in 1982, director A.D. Smelyakov set up an experiment - the theater went to the site in the Chersonese museum-reserve with the play “Laughter and Tears of Chersonesus”, becoming one of the five theaters in the world working in the open air.
I would like to finish the introduction with words from the annals of the theater: “... there are only twenty of them. They are young, gambling, talented, bowing to Meyerhold, calling themselves "captives of the sea" ... They had just experienced their first acting triumph - the Red Navy and Sevastopol applaud them with the production of the Paris Commune, and behind the scenes they are waited by the order of K. Ye. Voroshilov about Education of the Professional Theater of the Black Sea Fleet ".
Further, the main director Yuri Makovsky will speak for the whole theater.
VO: Yury Vladimirovich, what is the theater named after him? Lavrenev?
Y. Makovsky: First of all, this is a “theater-warrior”. Last year we turned 85 years. Pretty solid age. Externally - this is a beautiful building in the city center. City chimes that beat every half hour. The theater played performances in times of conflict and hostilities in Afghanistan, in Chechnya and other hot spots. Under Ukraine, in addition to the fleet headquarters and military facilities from all civilian institutions, only the Russian flag was raised above our theater.
VO: To what extent do Crimean theaters satisfy the request of its inhabitants for culture? Do you have enough cultural product for Crimeans?
Y. Makovsky: All the theaters of the Crimea are very different - both in terms of their possibilities and in their level of financing. Of course, I think that theaters are needed. With those who say that there are too many theaters, I completely disagree. Theaters and should be a lot, then the level of culture will rise. I am for healthy competition. A cultural product is always lacking. Spiritual food is the one who does not experience spiritual hunger. This is a classic said.
VO: As it may seem, metropolitan theaters are not very willing to go to the Crimea. How do you maintain contact with the "big land"?
Y. Makovsky: Earlier (in Ukraine), performances of an entrepreneurial type came to the Crimea, a kind of “guest performers”, for whom it was only important to make money, therefore the quality of the product was extremely low. Now the situation is changing - interesting, strong Russian theaters come to us on tour: the Maly Theater, the Moscow Art Theater. A.P. Chekhov.
We have been cooperating with the theater “Pyotr Fomenko Workshop” for 10 years already. Every year they bring the premiere performance and give it on our site. There are very warm and friendly relations between our theaters. We are very grateful for their invaluable assistance in our difficult economic situation. Thanks to the workshop, we now have a multimedia screen and professional flooring in the theater.
VO: In 2017, you became the best military theater in Russia. How does it feel to be the best in Russia?
Y. Makovsky: You know, it is always easier to win than to hold on. Any reward imposes a certain responsibility when it is necessary to adhere to a high level, the highest quality product. And sometimes you find yourself in a mismatch with your capabilities, because, without investing, you will not get quality. We try, at least, to somehow get out and keep our level for the viewer.
VO: There are also richer cities with better-provided military theaters, which receive the attention of both military and city authorities. How can you be the best theater, based on the minimum of opportunities, how can you motivate actors so much?
Y. Makovsky: Migration, of course, exists, because in the theater there are low wages and, of course, it is very difficult to keep the actors. There is a great temptation to go where they pay more, for example, to the Academic Theater. Lunacharsky. It's always sad and sad when good actors leave.
But I think the essence of the theater is not financial motivation, although all of us are people who have to live for something, but something else that unites people into a family called theater is a kind of desire to do something beautiful that can get a response in the visual hall, awaken new thoughts and feelings. And it is very difficult to overestimate, this is what makes people work. As leading theater managers say: the key to success in a theater is a quality performance. If this piece of art is made interesting, then there will be full halls, then the viewer will believe.
VO: The day before the interview, we were staging at the Theater. Lunacharsky. A lot of people in evening dresses, in suits. And some are dressed very democratically. What do you think people should not come to the theater in sneakers?
Y. Makovsky: (sighed) It depends on a lot. Firstly, on how we meet them and in what situation they get into. Probably (maybe I'm wrong), but a person who has fallen into a beautiful theater in sneakers will feel uncomfortable, because his appearance will be dissonant with the situation. It seems to me that next time he will think about what to come.
Although, of course, this is a very controversial issue. Here is the Academic Theater. Lunacharsky has a wonderful building specially built for the theater, everything is adapted for the viewer, they are great, make exhibitions, meet creative people, use modern forms of communication with the viewer, educate the viewer in this way, increase his cultural level.
We cannot yet afford such things, but there are many interesting projects in our creative portfolio. We organize exhibitions of photographers and theater artists, creative laboratories, it is very interesting. As soon as it becomes possible to do these projects necessary for creative movement and development, we will implement them.
It is important that the viewer be met by beautiful lobbies, polite ticket collectors and the highest culture on the stage, then there is a chance that it will make people think and raise the general cultural level. The first minutes in the theater are very important, because the theater begins with a hanger.
VO: How long can this process last in Crimea?
Y. Makovsky: I cannot say that the Crimean spectator differs in some way from the capital. Everywhere someone comes in sneakers, everything is very democratic. I'm not really against sneakers in the theater. Probably, the genre of drama theater as a public one can, perhaps, tolerate such a form. For example, the opera house - everything is more serious here, very few people will go in sneakers, although it may be ... Probably, this is not the main thing. The main thing with which the viewer in these sneakers out of the theater, which will make in his head and heart. If he brings out some new meaning, and this new experience will be useful to his consciousness, his soul - this will be a victory. Maybe the sneakers will then disappear. All this is interconnected.
VO: You said about the academic theater. Now so often the theaters of Sevastopol, and indeed all of Russia, are looking for new, non-classical techniques. How do you feel about using such directorial moves as a naked body? Can this help in the disclosure of ideas?
Y. Makovsky: A painful question for today's society. First of all, there must be a very accurate, tough motivation. And if it is organic and without it, nothing can be done, then there will be no awkwardness in the auditorium.
Recently, I watched the play Master and Margarita at the Moscow Art Theater. There is a key scene when Margarita gets naked and gets ready for the ball. For example, in the cinema, this scene can be solved in an enormous number of ways. In the theater it is more difficult - here we resort to subtle techniques, depending on the artistic decision of the performance, its stylistics, and the director's intention. In the performance of the Moscow Art Theater, the role of Margarita is played by Natalya Shvets, my student, and therefore I particularly biasedly watched her work on the stage. And I was absolutely not embarrassed by anything, on the contrary, everything was aesthetically pleasing and high. But if this is vulgar for the sake of shocking, then I am absolutely against it.
VO: Since we went to the people in the theater, please tell us about your actors.
Y. Makovsky: Young people from different universities come to us, with different levels of education, with different levels of crafts. Therefore, in order to educate the artist and bring to a certain level, it takes time. Someone is already a master, someone just arrived. All are in different forms. But the level of our troupe quite suits me, in my opinion, it is quite high.
I try to invite directors-educators, because we have a lot of actors with a Crimean education, which is very insufficient. Once I invited Yekaterina Granitova-Lavrovskaya to work as a teacher at GITIS. It was a gift of fate! She has many productions: in the Mayakovsky Theater, in Et-cetera, in France, in China. This is a great school for our artists.
Catherine put us "Three Sisters". Chekhov for 85 years, we never went. It was a breakthrough for the theater. Very good performance. Then she put on a play based on the stories of the Sevastopol author A. Averchenko “Under the Canvas Heavens” and even “A Midsummer Night's Dream” by V. Shakespeare. We learned from our experience that the process of raising the professional level of actors in native walls gives excellent results.
VO: What is the policy of choosing a repertoire in your theater?
Y. Makovsky: We put Russian and foreign classics. But now, as you know, everything is not so simple with copyrights. Now there are heirs of the classics, heirs of the heirs. Often we have almost no money to pay royalties. Therefore, we choose non-copyrighted plays. However, in the repertoire we have Moliere, Shakespeare, Chekhov, Sukhovo-Kobylin, Kolyada, Sigarev.
The theater also has a business card. At one time, we really wanted to write our play based on real letters from different historical periods of the history of Sevastopol. We wanted to devote it to the relationship between a man and a woman, which has been at all times. For example, many are interested in whether there was love in the life of Admiral Nakhimov. Indeed, through a love line, you can better understand a person. The result is a play covering the most important war periods - the Crimean War, the Civil War, and the Great Patriotic War. We made the play "I am waiting for you on Grafskaya". The Count's pier for Sevastopol residents is a sacred, sacred place, something that connects all times.
At several free shows, the performances were crowded. And then I understood the purpose of art, patriotic, real art. Our actors were recorded in self-defense detachments on Nakhimov Square. We were inside the situation and, probably, this concert was played by the guys so deeply, absolutely honestly, to tears cleanly. In our production there is a block dedicated to women in war. The song “In the fields under the snow and rain” plays, front shots of women carrying out wounded soldiers are on the screen, and the actors stand and sob, although they play for the hundredth time. Because they understand the value of life. When you keenly felt how everything hung in the balance, what was the threat, how these brigades rode here from Kiev, you cannot play otherwise.
We also really appreciate the concert performance we did in 2014. Called "The war has passed through you." We really wanted to express in the production everything that we felt in the days of the Russian spring. For us it is very valuable. The statement is also based on documentary photographs, letters of the Great Patriotic War. We even took excerpts from plays written at the time where they say “Our Crimea”, but about the victory over the Germans in 1944. With the events of 2014 year, the performance has a direct connection. It describes the state that we felt then, even before the referendum, when ominous silence reigned outside, and everyone in the transport was simply silent, even the phones did not call anyone. This moment disconnected everyone, the tension was terrible and lasted for several days.
VO: According to the previous answer, I already know the answer to my next question. But still I want to hear it from you. What is the mission of the fleet theater?
Y. Makovsky: You know, in peacetime, our theater is the same as the others. We have quite obvious goals - we need talented performances in order to keep the brand and match the armed forces of Russia so that we can be proud of the country through our work. But when the Motherland gives an order, we put on our overcoats, unlike other theaters, and go to the front. During the Great Patriotic War, theater artists worked for the front. Concert teams showed performances on the front line, went to the ships, in part, to the airfields.
Part of the troupe was evacuated from besieged Sevastopol only at the end of June 1942, a few days before the carpet bombing by fascist aircraft. On the day of the premiere of the play “Front” by A. Korneychuk, costumes and decorations burned down during the bombing - then the artists “borrowed” the uniform from the spectators, the military officers, and the performance was played in it. In a word, we are a theater-warrior, this is our mission ...
About the important
Unfortunately, Yury Vladimirovich gladly talks only about the creative process, but prefers to remain silent about the problems. But we were able to find out from other people that the best Russian military theater has terrible problems.
The fact is that formally the theater of the Black Sea Fleet. Lavrenyov is not a theater at all, but a structural subdivision of the military unit No. XXUMX or simply a “military town”. As a result of the reforms of the civil “effective manager” of Serdyukov, the theater was ceased to be financed, deprived of accounting, bank accounts, printing, reduced staff. This, among other things, deprived the theater of the opportunity to participate in the grant support of Russian theater communities. The situation is very reminiscent of the classic anecdote about Vasily Ivanovich, in which the fly, which failed to crawl without its torn off legs, at the conclusion of Petka “lost her hearing”. The same with the theater - the Ministry of Defense deprived the theater of everything, but it requires full-fledged functioning.
And the theater still lives, because much in Russia is done contrary. The fleet theater produces premieres, collecting new decorations from old ones, repainting billboards, dressing actors on stage in clothes donated to the theater by caring businessmen. And people come and enjoy the art, without even knowing what the price is given to the theater team.
The level of productions of the theater under the direction of Yuri Makovsky (the budget of the performance 100 thousand rubles) is often higher than the performances of the Academic Theater. Lunacharsky, whose budget for one performance is 5 million rubles.
At the festival "Star Mask", where the theater. Lavrenyov was recognized as the best theater of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the ministerial ranks promised an early transfer from the status of “military town” to FSBU (federal budgetary state institution). But things are there! The problem is that someone from the Ministry of Defense does not want to once again lift a finger as part of their duties.
For a long time we understood exactly what a hitch occurred, and when we found out, it became both funny and bitter at the same time. Issue price - 400 thousand rubles! And the “hero of the occasion” is the Department of Property Relations of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, which should carry out work on the transfer of land under the theater to the ownership of the Ministry of Defense, because it is still Ukrainian property.
400 thousands are needed for the preparation of technical documentation for the land of the military camp No.06984. And it seems that while the Defense Ministry does not plan these funds for the theater, military officials unsubscribe with streamlined phrases drawn up in the future tense.
From open sources, we found that the person on whom the decision of the question of life and death of the theater of the Black Sea Fleet them depends Lavrenev, is Tokarchuk Vitaly Viktorovich, head of the FGKU Crimean Territorial Administration of Property Relations of the Ministry of Defense of Russia.
On behalf of the grateful spectators of the theater of the fleet and the VO portal, we express our concern with the issue of transferring the theater to FBSU status and in the future we will closely monitor the situation and wait for a positive decision of the Ministry of Defense together with the theater-warrior team.