Military Review

Conquest of India

59
King João II, busy in the last years of his life with disputes with Spain and the pacification of the Portuguese nobility, died and did not have time to use the sea route to India, laid halfway to Bartolomeu Dias, and valuable information obtained by Covilhã. However, after the discovery of the “West India” by the Spanish expeditions of Columbus, the Portuguese had to hurry in order to secure for themselves the “rights” to Eastern India.


It is worth noting that residents of Eastern countries would be very surprised if they knew that they were planning to “discover”. It housed the countries of the Muslim world, the ancient highly developed states of India, China, Indochina and Indonesia. The level of their culture, knowledge, science and technology was much higher than in Western Europe. The Indian Ocean was crossed by a multitude of trade communications, along which vessels of various nations marched. And the ships were more powerful and more European, took on board hundreds of people. The Arabs controlled the Indian Ocean, they paved the way to China, and even to the Philippines and Japan. The Chinese and Malays have been to Africa and the Persian Gulf.

European “predators” dreamed of breaking into this rich, densely populated and developed world. The masters of the West knew about the countries of the East. They dreamed of capturing their wealth, subjugating themselves, sucking various goods and resources. Traditional land routes to the East closed Russia, Arabs and Ottoman Turks. The European invaders wanted to find a sea route to get to this rich and developed world, but not for the purpose of trade (it was an auxiliary task), but to rob, kill, rape, establish themselves there and establish their bestial order.

Conquest of India

Vasco da Gama Departure for India

Gama Expedition

A new expedition was organized by King Manuel. Everyone expected that the experienced and famous navigator Dias would be put at the head of the march, who seemed destined to complete the great work by destiny. But the king ordered otherwise. His choice fell on the young court Vasco da Gama. In the 1480's, Gama joined the Order of Santiago. Vasco from a young age participated in naval battles. In 1492, he brilliantly carried out the commission of King Joan. When the French corsairs seized the Portuguese galleon laden with gold, coming from São Jorge da Mina, Gama, on a high-speed caravel, walked along the entire Portuguese coast and seized all the French ships that stood in the roadstead. Upon learning of this, the French king, with apologies, was forced to return to Portugal a captured galleon with gold, and Vasco da Gama became a hero of the country.

The expedition was prepared carefully. As far as possible, they tried to foresee every little thing and any chance that could meet on the way. In this regard, Gama found himself in much more favorable conditions than Columbus. He placed three vessels at the disposal of Gama. Two heavy ships, 100-120 tons (i.e. 200-240 metric tons) each, are the San Gabriel, on which Vasco raised the admiral's flag (captain Gonçalo Alvaris, an experienced sailor), and the San Rafael, whose captain was appointed at the request of Vasco by his older brother Paulo da Gama, who also had not shown himself before, and the lightweight high-speed vessel “Berriu” of 50 tons (captain Nicole Quell). Moreover, flotilla accompanied the transport ship with supplies. Ships were built under the supervision of Dias, and he proposed replacing the oblique Latin sails with quadrangular ones and for the convenience of maneuvering in shallow waters to give ships less draft.

In the calculation for a three-year walk, special attention was paid to the strength and rigging of ships equipped with triple spare sets of sails and ropes. Considering that the voyage had to last for many months, we tried to load as much drinking water and provisions as possible into the ship’s holds. All barrels intended for water, wine, oil and vinegar were smeared with clay and fastened with iron hoops. The pantries are filled with cheap trinkets to exchange with savages. All the ships were well armed: even on a small Berriu 12 cannons were placed, the San Gabriel and San Rafael also carried heavy guns on 20, not counting the falcontes. The best navigator was the best Portuguese boatswain Peru Alenker, who sailed before in the same position with Dias. Especially carefully selected crew - from the best sailors, skilled pilots. The crew of all ships reached 140 - 170 people, including a dozen criminals. Gama begged them from the king to use for dangerous missions.


Vasco da Gama

8 July 1497 The flotilla came out of the Lisbon-Rishtella suburb. Soon the ships of the Portuguese reached the Canary Islands belonging to Castile, but Vasco da Gama ordered to bypass them, not wanting to give the Spaniards the goal of the expedition. A short stop was made on the Cape Verde Islands belonging to Portugal, where the flotilla was able to replenish supplies. On the coast of Sierra Leone, Gama, on the advice of Bartolomeu Dias (whose ship sailed with a squadron at first, then headed for the fortress of São Jorge da Mina on the Guinean coast), to avoid headwinds and currents off the coast of Equatorial and South Africa, to the southwest and plunged into the Atlantic Ocean. Having made a big hook, the flotilla rounded the dangerous lane. This was the way other sailors began to use. If Gama had advanced somewhat to the west, he would have discovered Brazil three years earlier.

The Portuguese did not see the land of 93 of the day. The hike seemed endless. Crew gripped fear. Only November 4 appeared coast of Africa. The ships moored to the bay, later they called St. Helena. Having landed on the coast, the Portuguese saw almost naked short-growing men (Bushmen) with skin of “the color of dry leaves”, smoked from the nests of wild bees. One managed to capture. Gama ordered to feed and clothe him, gave him a few threads of beads and bells and let him go. The next day, several Bushmen arrived, with whom Gama acted the same way, in two days, about fifty. For trinkets, they gave everything that was with them, but these things were of no value in the eyes of the Portuguese. When the Bushmen were shown gold, pearls and spices, they showed no interest in them. It was obvious that they were strangers to them. As a result, the acquaintance ended in a skirmish caused by the sailor, who offended the Bushmen with something. Three or four Portuguese were wounded by stones and arrows. Natives rejected with crossbows.

Then the expedition moved along the coast further south, to the Cape of Good Hope. However, a violent storm has re-flown, forcing the flotilla into the open sea. The sailors were exhausted, it became cold. There was a riot. Losing hope of salvation, people demanded that Vasco turn the ships to the shore. The skippers and helmsmen begged the commander to change course, but Gama was firm. As a result, on November 22 the flotilla with great difficulty went around the Cape of Good Hope, after which it was necessary to stop for repairs in Mossel Bay. It was the "Shepherd's Harbor", where Dias had a clash with the natives. This time, the sailors behaved peacefully, they opened a "silent bargaining" and received trinkets (rattles and bells) from cowherds, sheep and ivory bracelets from shepherds. However, here the “idyll” soon ended. When the Bushmen began to show "obstinacy", Gama ordered them to be frightened by shots from ship cannons. The cargo ship was damaged so badly that it was no longer subject to repair. In addition, by that time part of the expedition’s sailors had died from scurvy and there were not enough people to continue sailing on all four ships, so it was decided to burn it.

In mid-December, the Portuguese passed the last padran, set by Dias on the banks of the Rio Infante (Elizabeth port). Then the waters began, into which no Portuguese ship had yet entered. Here the ships had to withstand the struggle with a counter current, which greatly slowed the voyage. Christmas Day (25 December), the Portuguese celebrated at sea, near the high bank, which Gama called Natal ("Christmas"). People at this time experienced great hardship. Fresh water was so scarce that food had to be cooked in seawater. A few days looking for a comfortable bay. 11 January 1498, the ships anchored near the mouth of a small river. When the sailors landed, they were approached by people who were very different from those they met on the coast of Africa. These were the tall, slender Bantu Negroes. A sailor who had previously lived in the country of Congo and spoke the local Bantu language addressed the audience, and they understood it (all the languages ​​of the Bantu family are similar). These were people with a more developed culture. The country was densely populated by farmers who processed iron and non-ferrous metals: the sailors saw iron tips on arrows and spears, daggers, copper bracelets and other decorations. They met the Portuguese friendly, and Gama called this land "the land of good people."

Moving north, the January 25 flotilla entered the estuary at 18 ° S. w., where several rivers flowed. Residents here have been well received by strangers. Two leaders appeared on the shore, wearing silk headdresses. They did not accept the pitiful gifts of the Portuguese. The negroes made it clear to the foreigners that they had come from a distant country and had already seen large ships more than once. From this, Vasco concluded that his flotilla was approaching the coveted India. Therefore, the river flowing into the ocean in this place was named Rio da Bonsch-Signalezh (“River of good signs”). But, despite the good reception and other "good signs", the Portuguese were hard. For a month the Portuguese stood at the mouth of the Kwakwa, repairing ships. Due to poor nutrition, scurvy flared up, a terrible disease caused by prolonged use of monotonous and not always benign food.

Only 24 February flotilla out of the estuary. Keeping away from the shore, bordered by a chain of islets, and stopping at night, so as not to run aground, she reached the 15 ° S in five days. sh. Port city of Mozambique. Arab dhows annually visited the port and exported mainly slaves, gold, ivory and amber (an aromatic substance used in perfumery). Vasco da Gama learned through a translator who spoke Arabic, that on these shores there are many settlements and cities founded by Arab merchants and slave traders who trade with India.

Thus, the Portuguese flotilla went to the desired places. This area was under the influence of the Muslim world. The Arabs controlled all trade routes and delivered oriental goods to Alexandria, Cairo, Oran and other cities, and from there Venetian and Genoese ships carried goods to European countries. The Arabs were masters of the Indian Ocean, and the Portuguese, before conquering India, had to break the resistance of the Muslims.

At first the Portuguese lied that they were Moors and sailed from North Africa. The local sheikh, believing that he was dealing with Muslims, paid a visit to the Portuguese, who greeted him politely and presented several modest things. An important and rich sheikh of courtesy accepted a modest gift. But at the second visit, when the Portuguese began to present him with the same trinkets again, he turned away from the poor gifts with contempt. Soon the sheikh realized that the newcomers were Christians, the worst enemies of the Muslims. Having seen dangerous competitors in travelers, local residents changed their attitude towards them. Sheikh decided to arrange a beating "infidels". However, he acted carelessly, the Portuguese quickly felt the hatred of the locals. When it came to clashes, Vasco da Gama took the ships to a small island (São Jorge). Before leaving Mozambique, the commander ordered his men to seize the pilots, as the pilots hired with the help of the sheikh fled. The Portuguese captured the pilot, but were then attacked when they disembarked to fetch water. In response, Gama began bombarding the city with cannons, forcing the sheikh to request peace. Nevertheless, new skirmishes soon began, and the Portuguese hardly managed to stock up on drinking water. At parting, the Portuguese seized two longboats, dividing rich booty between officers and sailors, and Gama ordered that the city be fired again with cannons.

March 29 blew a favorable wind, and the Portuguese flotilla began moving again. The Arab pilot pretended that he did not understand that strangers wanted him. Then Vasco ordered "how to" carve it. The island, by which the Portuguese sailed during the execution, was named the “Island of the hewn”. 7 April flotilla approached the port city of Mombasa, where then the rules of a powerful sheikh. A major slave trader himself, he probably felt in the Portuguese rivals, but at first he was well received by foreigners. The Portuguese, fearing attack, embarked on the high seas, despite a friendly reception. They were aggressively invited to the city, but Vasco did not dare to make a visit to the local sheikh. Sheikh Mombasi, obviously, received information about what happened in Mozambique, but decided to pretend to be a friend. He sent generous gifts to foreigners, including oranges, thanks to which many sailors got rid of scurvy. The sheikh also promised spices as soon as the ships entered the port. He offered the Portuguese to open a trading post in his city. But at night the boats with his warriors circled around the parking lot of the Portuguese, making attempts to slowly chop off the anchor ropes or climb on ships.

To find out the sheikh’s true intentions, Gama ordered two Arabs to be captured and tortured in order to find out from them about the “conspiracy in Mombasa”. They tied their hands and poured on a naked body a boiling mixture of oil and tar. The unfortunate, of course, confessed to the "conspiracy," but, since they, naturally, could not tell any details, the torture continued. Prisoners with their hands tied out of the hands of the executioners, rushed into the water and drowned. On April 13, the flotilla moved on and seized an Arab vessel with a rich cargo of gold and silver in several leagues from the site. 19 people captured (into slavery).

Thus, the Portuguese predators reached the rich coastal region in East Africa, which was under the influence of Muslims (Arabs). There were important trade routes that went from India to North Africa. The main subjects of bargaining were gold, silver, cloth, spices, pearls, rubies and slaves. The Portuguese got into a bright, rich and populous world and immediately began to rob, torture and kill.

To be continued ...
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 20 2018 05: 39
    +8
    The European invaders wanted to find a sea route to reach this rich and developed world, but not with to trade (it was an auxiliary task), but in order to rob, kill, rape, establish itself there and establish its bestial order.

    Tse was different: get rich. And for this, funds were used that were considered normal for the development of society: you might think the peoples of Asia and Africa were cherubim and did not kill and did not rob and did not establish their own order in relations with each other ....
    1. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 06: 58
      +5
      Well, actually, if you read the history of Europe, then the history of Europe will appear as a series of endless wars, violence, robbery, the slave trade and genocide. Whereas in Asia, wars were not an example less.
      1. Proxima
        Proxima April 20 2018 13: 28
        +6
        Quote: Kot_Kuzya
        Well, actually, if you read the history of Europe, then the history of Europe will appear as a series of endless wars, violence, robbery, the slave trade and genocide. Whereas in Asia, wars were not an example less.

        Anything on the forums can be subtracted, but SUCH belay If the history of Europe, albeit with a stretch, can still be imagined as progressive development (the change of economic formations, the development of science, technology, etc.), then the history of Asia (with some exceptions, of course) seems like continuous conquests, not history, but some kind of meat grinder.
        1. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 20: 14
          +3
          Ah, yes, yes. The Romans campaigned, the Gauls and the Germans flocked with flowers, the Vandals, Goths and Huns also lived exceptionally peacefully, Charlemagne conquered his empire not with a sword, but with a kind word, the Vikings also engaged exclusively in sheep breeding and fishing, there were no genocides of Irish, Jews, well about the alleged cruelty of the Swiss, who won fame and independence with their sword, this is nothing at all. Why will we recall such trifles as the White and Scarlet Rose War, the Hundred Years War, the Thirty Years, the Seven Years, for the Spanish Succession, the Northern, the bloody French and English Revolutions, the twenty-year Napoleonic Wars, the Austro-Prussian, Prussian-Danish, Franco-Prussian, Eastern, Balkan, First and Second World Wars. Phew Tired of typing. And I wrote only those wars, which are the most significant. And small fingers in general are not enough to print.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 20 2018 22: 38
            +1
            Quote: Kot_Kuzya
            And I wrote only those wars that are the most significant

            Yeah ... And the Turkic, Oguz, Karluk Haganates, the Arab Caliphate. the Seljuk and Khorezmshah empires, the Guri sultanate, the Mongol empire, and the empires of Timur and the Great Mughals were created exclusively peacefully. with strict observance of human rights ...
            Quote: Kot_Kuzya
            Phew Tired of typing. And I wrote only those wars, which are the most significant. And small fingers in general are not enough to print.
          2. RUSS
            RUSS April 21 2018 07: 44
            +1
            Quote: Kot_Kuzya
            Ah, yes, yes. The Romans campaigned, the Gauls and the Germans flocked with flowers, the Vandals, Goths and Huns also lived exceptionally peacefully, Charlemagne conquered his empire not with a sword, but with a kind word, the Vikings also engaged exclusively in sheep breeding and fishing, there were no genocides of Irish, Jews, well about the alleged cruelty of the Swiss, who won fame and independence with their sword, this is nothing at all. Why will we recall such trifles as the White and Scarlet Rose War, the Hundred Years War, the Thirty Years, the Seven Years, for the Spanish Succession, the Northern, the bloody French and English Revolutions, the twenty-year Napoleonic Wars, the Austro-Prussian, Prussian-Danish, Franco-Prussian, Eastern, Balkan, First and Second World Wars. Phew Tired of typing. And I wrote only those wars, which are the most significant. And small fingers in general are not enough to print.

            The Russian Empire also joined Central Asia in a not entirely peaceful way.
            1. Kot_Kuzya
              Kot_Kuzya April 21 2018 08: 28
              +5
              But Russia arranged genocide of the local population in Central Asia, as did the British in America and Australia?
              1. RUSS
                RUSS April 23 2018 08: 24
                0
                Quote: Kot_Kuzya
                But Russia arranged genocide of the local population in Central Asia, as did the British in America and Australia?

                95% of all dead Indians died from diseases brought by Europeans.
                1. Kot_Kuzya
                  Kot_Kuzya April 23 2018 08: 49
                  +3
                  Do you think that 95% of Jews died from diseases brought by Nazi Nazis, and not from genocide? Or were 15 million civilians of the USSR also not killed by the Nazis, but died from diseases introduced by the Germans?
                  1. RUSS
                    RUSS April 23 2018 10: 07
                    0
                    Quote: Kot_Kuzya
                    Do you think that 95% of Jews died from diseases brought by Nazi Nazis, and not from genocide? Or were 15 million civilians of the USSR also not killed by the Nazis, but died from diseases introduced by the Germans?

                    I was the answer about the death of the indigenous peoples of America, but you jumped on a completely different topic.
                    1. Kot_Kuzya
                      Kot_Kuzya April 23 2018 14: 13
                      +1
                      US Genocide is a proven fact. You cannot deny this.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 April 20 2018 07: 27
      +1
      So firearms helped to defeat the Arabs Vaska de Gama? But this is again a historical contradiction. According to TI, gunpowder from China first came to the Arabs in the 13th century. and it was kind of even improved, and only then to the Europeans. So the Arabs should have firearms.
      http://2mir-istorii.ru/izobreteniya/1850-izobrete
      nie-poroha.html
      You can recall the siege of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks smashed the city from cannons. That is, again the firearms came from the east. Again, something is wrong.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 20 2018 07: 46
        0
        all problems begin with an incorrect chronology. Samsonov also succumbs to these tricks. Traditional history stumbles literally at every step.
        Most likely, the conquests began much later in the 17th century, closer to the 18th century, when non-Europeans suddenly appeared on the thrones of European monarchs.
        And the conquest most likely went first through intrigue and then military conquest. That is, everyone knows the expression “ancient” - “divide and conquer”, but not everyone understands what it means. And this means that we must first weaken a strong opponent, divide his country into “dissent and opposition”, which will undermine the foundations and undermine the foundations of the state, and then come external forces will take over the country.
        To weaken order in the country, such a well-known trick as RELIGION was used. It is religion that spreads confusion and doubt in the minds of people. It seems to be Christianity, but here you have Orthodoxy and Catholicism and Calvinism, and Protestantism and many other directions, so there is a constant struggle of ideas , therefore, constant wars, and the same ruling elite, or external invaders always benefit from these wars. The same thing is Islam, Islam is also not homogeneous, so wars between their own constantly break out, which is what the conquerors-parasites use.
        All this can sit now, when, for example, the Islamic and Arab world is split and is constantly attacked and destroyed, the same thing happened then in the 17-18-19 centuries, but everything that happened in the 17th century was sent to antiquity / antireality or, as in this case in 15th century.
      2. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 08: 23
        +2
        In 1453, guns were already with everyone. As for the claim that gunpowder was invented in China and firearms in Europe became known from the East, this is a myth. Gunpowder was invented in Europe independently of the Chinese, and Europeans came up with the idea of ​​using gunpowder for weapons on their own.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 20 2018 08: 53
          0
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          In 1453, guns were already with everyone. As for the claim that gunpowder was invented in China and firearms in Europe became known from the East, this is a myth. Gunpowder was invented in Europe independently of the Chinese, and Europeans came up with the idea of ​​using gunpowder for weapons on their own.


          probably not quite so, for example, in the old painting "The Capture of Constantinople by the Turks" it is shown that the besieged were fired from small-caliber firearms, while the Turks already had siege mortars. What does this say? That the Turks were more advanced in terms of fire fighting and taking cities.

          1. Kot_Kuzya
            Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 10: 52
            +1
            This is an art picture, do not study history on it. For example, in medieval drawings, Alexander the Great is depicted in European armor. Does this mean that Macedonian wore European armor?
            Byzantine sunset went on for centuries, by 1453 only small pieces remained around Byzantium around Constantinople, and the Ottoman Empire, which at that time was at the zenith of power, took Constantinople by assault and siege. And the Romans themselves, for example, refused the help of Rome, since they hated Catholics even more than Turks. But the Turks at that time did not oppress the peoples according to their religion; in the Ottoman Empire, the Orthodox were not discriminated against. Therefore, a lot of Romans were not averse to becoming subjects of the Ottoman Empire.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 April 20 2018 12: 29
              0
              Quote: Kot_Kuzya
              This is an art picture, do not study history on it


              this is not just a picture, but an illustration from a medieval source of a book, therefore the reliability of a source close to the event itself is always higher than a distant one.
              And it is on this basis that the images of the same Alexander the Great are also more reliable than what was recently invented.
              A criticism of the same Fomenko-Nosovsky and other historians who criticize the official version of history is based on the fact that the modern conception of history is built on its ordered character by the authorities, and this story is made by German historians Baer, ​​Miler, Schlozer, which has already been proved. For example There are studies that the history of Lomonosov is falsified and differs from the author's invariant of his own works, for example, in chemistry.
              Your vision of history is simplified and naive.
              However, the nature of the distribution of gunpowder went from East to West according to TI anyway. So the contradiction in the colonization of the Portuguese of India remains.
              1. Kot_Kuzya
                Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 12: 34
                +2
                If the Indians were more developed, then THEY would sail to the Portuguese and begin to conquer them. Doesn’t such a simple thought come to you?
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 April 20 2018 14: 04
                  0
                  Quote: Kot_Kuzya
                  If the Indians were more developed, then THEY would sail to the Portuguese and begin to conquer them. Doesn’t such a simple thought come to you?

                  no, it doesn’t come; only the peoples who despise and hate the peoples around, who want to take away not everything themselves, begin to fight
                  other nations have good, mother taught you, never take someone else's?
                  For example, the Russian army was never used for attack, only for defense.
                  You would need to correct the worldview of behavior in society.
          2. Arakius
            Arakius April 20 2018 13: 52
            +4
            Cronogolites do not know that European craftsmen cast cannons to the Turks to capture Constantinople?
            1. Weyland
              Weyland April 20 2018 22: 42
              +2
              Quote: Arakius
              Cronogolites do not know that European craftsmen cast cannons to the Turks to capture Constantinople?

              How do they know! Hungarian Urban, who was casting guns for Mehmed, first offered his services to Byzantium, but the emperor had the treasury empty, and the "concrete boys" there refused to lend him the dough. When Mehmed took Kontmantinopol and found out this story, he figured out these "specific boys", and dismissed the loot laughing
              1. Arakius
                Arakius April 20 2018 23: 21
                +2
                When Mehmed took Kontmantinopol and found out this story, he figured out these "concrete boys", and dismissed the loot laughing

                I read that the "real patients" holding Galata were not touched by the sultan. In the end, it was their neutrality that helped him take the city

                Nevertheless, they did not manage to escape punishment for treason. They betrayed Emperor Constantine in order to oust the Venetians who supported him from the region, and as a result, the sultan covered the trading bench with himself
                1. Weyland
                  Weyland April 21 2018 10: 43
                  0
                  Quote: Arakius
                  I read that the "real patients" holding Galata were not touched by the sultan.

                  I was not talking about merchants, but about aristocrats
      3. BAI
        BAI April 20 2018 09: 50
        0
        1. To begin with, gunpowder appeared not in China, but in India.
        Most likely, the inventors of gunpowder were the peoples of India or Indochina. In the mentioned regions, a lot of nitrate is found in the soil. It can be assumed that after the fire was made, the nitrate, which was in the soil beneath it, could melt and then in the rain, mixed with ash and coal, dried in the sun, it could become capable of producing an explosion.

        There is evidence that 1500 BC gunpowder-like explosives were known in India. The Sanskrit text of Hindu law of that time reads:

        The commander should not use any guile in war, should not use poisoned arrows, nor fiery tools, large or small, nor any fire-fighting devices.

        This document, most likely, is not about firearms, but about throwing guns, like ballists that threw jugs and boilers with burning or explosives.

        Although there is such an opinion:
        When and where the gunpowder itself appeared - in India, China or Arabia, is still unknown. Many sources claim that gunpowder was invented independently in India and China at about the same time.

        2 Real gunpowder appeared in Europe not from China.
        The real explosive substance - nitrocarbon powder - appeared in Europe around the 10st century. AD According to some information, it was brought by the Moors to Spain, according to others - by the Greeks to Constantinople. However, gunpowder had no military use for a long time. At first it was used as an incendiary, and much later they began to be used as explosive and propellant. So, the first powder rockets were known to the Chinese since the XNUMXth century. This is confirmed by Chinese sources describing such missiles as flying firearms, which, when launched by burning powder, burned everything within a radius of XNUMX steps.

        3. Arabs' firearms appeared earlier than in Europe, but then the Arabs were significantly behind in this matter.
        The first information about the combat use by the Arabs of weapons such as firearms dates back to the XNUMXth century. But the true history of firearms still began in Europe at the turn of the XIII-XIV centuries.

        And this is obvious - where wars are waged more intensively, weapons develop there faster.

        Well, if you move away from the academic approach to history, you can not ignore non-traditional sources.
        If I’m not mistaken in the Mahabaratra, there are such words in the description of the military conflict: “A shining ball of fire that kills all life with its light” - as they say, find 10 differences from a high-altitude nuclear explosive. It is 5000 BC
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 20 2018 10: 05
          0
          Quote: BAI
          To begin with, gunpowder appeared not in China, but in India.


          this can be finished. Source?

          Quote: BAI
          2 Real gunpowder did not appear in Europe from China


          not from China? And not from India? And not from Vietnam? Where did he come from?

          I read today that smokeless gunpowder was first invented by the French, and then, and perhaps in Russia at the same time, it’s very close to the 20th century and it’s not clear what to say about the 10-15th centuries?
          1. BAI
            BAI April 20 2018 11: 50
            +1
            this can be finished. Source?

            Tishunin I.V.
            A brief history of the development of gunpowder
        2. Arakius
          Arakius April 20 2018 13: 44
          +5
          Full-fledged gunpowder is impossible without purified nitrate, and the process of purifying nitrate was invented in Europe in the 13th century. And immediately then guns and guns appeared, which in just a few decades spread throughout Eurasia
        3. Weyland
          Weyland April 20 2018 22: 45
          +2
          Quote: BAI
          "A shining ball of fire that kills all life with its light"

          There is even more interesting - the "Brahma weapon" that kills babies in the womb. Sounds like a cobalt bomb! And shooting down enemy fire arrows on the fly with your own arrows is very similar to a missile defense system!
        4. Bar1
          Bar1 April 21 2018 08: 04
          0
          Quote: BAI
          To begin with, gunpowder appeared not in China, but in India.
          Most likely, the inventors of gunpowder were the peoples of India or Indochina. In the mentioned regions, a lot of nitrate is found in the soil. It can be assumed that after the fire was made, the nitrate, which was in the soil beneath it, could melt and then in the rain, mixed with ash and coal, dried in the sun, it could become capable of producing an explosion.
          There is evidence that in 1500 BC gunpowder-like explosives were known in India. The Sanskrit text of Hindu law of that time reads:



          I didn’t find something in Tishunin, on the contrary, Tishunin writes this your quote

          The appearance of black powder dates back to ancient times. It is believed that explosive mixtures like smoky gunpowder were known many years BC to the peoples of China and India, where nitrate spontaneously stands out from the soil. It is only natural that the populations of these countries could accidentally discover the explosive properties of nitrate mixed with coal, and then reproduce and apply this mixture for various purposes. then to the peoples of Europe.


          The first reliable case of the widespread use of guns dates back only to 1232 AD, when the Chinese besieged by the Mongols in Kaifeng defended themselves with cannons fired with stone cores and used explosive bombs, firecrackers and other firearms, which included gunpowder ...

          http://www.airbase.ru/books/authors/t/tishunin-i-
          v / powstory /

          About Indochina, where did you get this from?
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 21 2018 10: 53
            +1
            Quote: Bar1
            Most likely, the inventors of gunpowder were the peoples of India or Indochina. In the mentioned regions, a lot of nitrate is found in the soil.

            That's interesting, why then not Egypt and Iran? The very word "nitrate" (sal nitrum) means "salt from Nitria" - this is such a desert in Egypt (hence the "nitrate"). And the name of the desert in Iran "dasht-e-Kevir", which is usually translated as "salt desert" is more correctly translated as "saltpeter" - in some places it is extremely dangerous to make a fire there - it can blaze! It is very likely that the Egyptian priests knew how to make gunpowder - but they too carefully kept a secret even from the pharaohs! For example, they knew how to do alcohol 35 centuries ago - and alchemical works on this topic appeared in the III-IV century, and industrial production - after another thousand years!
      4. Arakius
        Arakius April 20 2018 13: 34
        +4
        According to TI, gunpowder from China first came to the Arabs in the 13th century. and was kind of even improved and only then to the Europeans

        There are great doubts about this. Yes, the Chinese knew the powder mixtures and used them in rockets and fireworks, but they were still far from full gunpowder. A normal gunpowder suitable for use in cannons and guns cannot be created without purified nitrate, and the process of cleaning nitrate was invented only by Roger Bacon in the 13th century - and immediately, for less than a century, guns and guns spread throughout the continent from Europe

        You can recall the siege of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks smashed the city from cannons. That is, again the firearms came from the east. Again, something is wrong.

        The cannons were cast to the Turks by European craftsmen. In particular, the largest bombard that destroyed the walls of Constantinople was cast by the famous Hungarian caster Urban
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 20 2018 15: 37
          0
          Quote: Arakius
          The cannons were cast to the Turks by European craftsmen. In particular, the largest bombard that destroyed the walls of Constantinople was cast by the famous Hungarian caster Urban


          this is a lie and a lie precisely because again traditions harness the horse in front of the engine first and the gunpowder and guns came from the east, jumped over the Turks, ended up in Europe, and then came to the Turks, it doesn’t happen.

          By the way, please do not source Wikipedia.
          1. Arakius
            Arakius April 20 2018 23: 23
            +3
            Please - any school textbook on the history of the Middle Ages for the 5th, 6th, 7th grade (or when is it taught there?). Your post shows that you did not master the school curriculum
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 21 2018 01: 32
              +6
              Which is charming with the Fomenkovites, that they don’t need to master anything, to teach anything.
              Any smack they can reason with a thoughtful look, something like this:
              "the similarities between World War II and Napoleon and the Great Patriotic War with Hitler are striking. Even the names are similar. Consequently, we are talking about the same event, and more than 100 years between them simply does not exist. We reduce this hole in traditional chronology. In the end of the war, Hitler-Napoleon took poison on St. Helena near Berlin in 1945. A new bright page of the new chronology of mankind from Fomenko was opened "
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 April 21 2018 08: 06
                0
                Quote: voyaka uh
                Which is charming with the Fomenkovites, that they don’t need to master anything, to teach anything.
                Any smack they can reason with a thoughtful look, something like this:
                "the similarities between World War II and Napoleon and the Great Patriotic War with Hitler are striking. Even the names are similar. Consequently, we are talking about the same event, and more than 100 years between them simply does not exist. We reduce this hole in traditional chronology. In the end of the war, Hitler-Napoleon took poison on St. Helena near Berlin in 1945. A new bright page of the new chronology of mankind from Fomenko was opened "

                this is a lie Fomenko and Nossovsky did not write.
                1. Arakius
                  Arakius April 21 2018 08: 48
                  +5
                  But, guided by their method, future historians will find considerable parallels between Napoleon and Hitler:
                  "Napoleon was born in 1760.
                  Hitler was born in 1889. difference of 129 years
                  Napoleon came to power 1804
                  Hitler came to power 1933 difference 129 years
                  Napoleon entered Vienna 1809
                  Hitler entered Vienna 1938 a difference of 129 years
                  Napoleon went to Russia in 1812
                  Hitler went to Russia in 1941 the difference is 129 years
                  Napoleon lost the war in 1816
                  Hitler lost the war in 1945 a difference of 129 years
                  Both came to power when they were 44 years old.
                  Both attacked Russia when they were 52 years old.
                  Both lost the war when they were 56 years old. "


                  And they will make a logical conclusion: the history of the alleged 19-20 centuries. artificially increased by 129 years to conceal the struggle of the righteous Russian Horde-Empire against the spiritless West
                  1. Bar1
                    Bar1 April 21 2018 08: 54
                    0
                    Quote: Arakius
                    Napoleon was born in 1760.


                    lies right from the door Napoleon was born in 1769, why are you lying?

                    https://24smi.org/celebrity/3918-napoleon-bonapar
                    t.html
                    1. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 21 2018 08: 59
                      +2
                      it’s him that a new Napoleon-Hitler was to be born yesterday, 129 years have passed
                      take popcorn and wait for what will happen in 44, 52, 56 years
                      France was already, Germany was already - what have remained there for countries nearby?
                      1. Bar1
                        Bar1 April 21 2018 09: 03
                        0
                        Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                        it’s him that a new Napoleon-Hitler was to be born yesterday, 129 years have passed
                        take popcorn and wait for what will happen in 44, 52, 56 years
                        France was already, Germany was already - what have remained there for countries nearby?


                        Please note that there is no one on the topic on the forum, but right after throwing in their message someone plusanul him without checking.
                    2. Arakius
                      Arakius April 21 2018 21: 30
                      +3
                      I do not lie, but use the Nosovsky-Fomenko method. They shuffled dates in their New Chronology exactly the same way.
                      1. Bar1
                        Bar1 April 22 2018 07: 10
                        0
                        Quote: Arakius
                        I do not lie, but use the Nosovsky-Fomenko method. They shuffled dates in their New Chronology exactly the same way.


                        unlike you, academician of mathematics A.T. Fomenko knows how to count such stupid things as he doesn’t write to you.
                2. Stiletto_711
                  Stiletto_711 April 21 2018 22: 00
                  +1
                  Quote: Bar1
                  this is a lie Fomenko and Nossovsky did not write.

                  Rzhu wallowing under the table laughing laughing laughing
              2. Weyland
                Weyland April 21 2018 10: 56
                +3
                Quote: voyaka uh
                A new bright page of the new chronology of humanity from Fomenko "

                It’s even easier to prove that Bush Sr. and Bush Jr. are the same person. "Traditional historians claim that Bush Sr. was allegedly the father of Bush Jr. This opinion is obviously absurd - it is well known that the United States was a democracy, and there the power was not transferred from father to son!" laughing
              3. Stiletto_711
                Stiletto_711 April 21 2018 22: 01
                +1
                Quote: voyaka uh
                Which is charming with the Fomenkovites, that they don’t need to master anything, to teach anything.
                Any smack they can reason with a thoughtful look, something like this:
                "the similarities between World War II and Napoleon and the Great Patriotic War with Hitler are striking. Even the names are similar. Consequently, we are talking about the same event, and more than 100 years between them simply does not exist. We reduce this hole in traditional chronology. In the end of the war, Hitler-Napoleon took poison on St. Helena near Berlin in 1945. A new bright page of the new chronology of mankind from Fomenko was opened "

                That's right to tears. Plus! laughing
      5. RUSS
        RUSS April 23 2018 08: 28
        0
        Quote: Bar1
        You can recall the siege of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks smashed the city from cannons. That is, again the firearms came from the east. Again, something is wrong.

        This is so, because the “supergun” thanks to which the Turks broke the wall of Constantinople was made to the Turks by a military engineer, Hungarian by nationality Urban.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 20 2018 06: 16
    +1
    "We got to -
    So you proved it all "(c).
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 20 2018 07: 57
    +4
    An interesting, detailed historical opus, we look forward to continuing until the collapse of the Empire. It is curious that small European countries, the same Portugal and later Holland, with differences in ideology, Catholicism and Protestantism, have achieved impressive results in colonial expansion. The thirst for profit itself is already " religion, "worship of the Golden Calf! Also, the spread of Islam, under the guidance of the merchant Muhammad, went along the world trade routes!
  4. Arakius
    Arakius April 20 2018 13: 41
    +8
    The article as a whole is delusional. The main motive for Europeans to “open” India was precisely the termination of trade with this very India and China - when the Turks took Constantinople in 1453, they cut the last trade route (the “Great Silk Road”), along which Indian spices and fabrics were delivered to Europe, Chinese porcelain and silk. The prices of these goods (now smuggled) immediately skyrocketed and European merchants began to look for ways to India and China, bypassing the Osmkne Empire

    Actually, it is trade that explains European expansion. In particular, the Russians conquered Siberia not because they really wanted to increase the territory of Russia, but because one of the main export items of Russia was sable, which had already been knocked out in Russian forests, but it was still full in Siberia
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 20 2018 19: 53
      +3
      This article is one of a large series of delusional articles (and the least delusional of them).
      The common goal of all the articles is to show that the great geographical discoveries of Western European countries were conceived with a single main goal: to surround and then destroy Russia.
      The Portuguese could not even imagine how global and insidious they were.
      I look forward to continuing: about the British and the Dutch. Then this will begin! wassat
      1. Arakius
        Arakius April 20 2018 20: 13
        +2
        The Portuguese could not even imagine how global and insidious they were.

        Of course they couldn’t, but in the 15th century they had very little idea of ​​what was in the east of Eastern Europe. Russia, Western Europe will only open Sir Richard Chansler a century later. And, by the way, it was him and others like him that the indefatigable trading activity to buy Russian furs would give life to the plan to conquer Siberia the Stroganovs
        1. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri April 20 2018 23: 24
          +2
          Hmm ... what about the embassies under Ivan III? Yes, and earlier ... And also Anna Yaroslavovna - generally, the 12th century :)
          1. Arakius
            Arakius April 20 2018 23: 28
            +3
            Historiography was poorly developed in the Middle Ages. Because European kings of the mid-15th century did not know what Russia was in the 11th century, but they were well versed in the system of feudal subordination and knew that the Golden Horde was the overlord of small principalities in eastern Europe, which is why they were indicated on maps of that time (and even a lot later) this territory together as "Tataria"

            PS The first ruler of Russia, who declared himself king, was Grand Duke Ivan Ⅳ. Guess exactly why?
      2. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 20: 17
        +2
        The sons of Israel, of course, know the most wassat . You have direct access to the ten families that own the world.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 20 2018 21: 19
          +4
          I’m directly calling the top ten and asking about the evil Portuguese. laughing
  5. Rav Rav
    Rav Rav April 20 2018 20: 11
    +1
    All Western Europe criminals !!!
  6. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri April 20 2018 23: 22
    +1
    The Portuguese and Arabs were worth each other: both of them were predators.
  7. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 22 2018 10: 10
    +4

    Bar1
    "Academician of mathematics A. Fomenko knows how to count" ////

    It is proved and justified that no Fomenko existed
    in the reality. He is a mistake (like many other mistakes) of traditional historical chronology, nothing more.
    In the time of Jesus Christ (Dmitry Donskoy) there lived a man named
    Thomas. He did not believe that Dmitry Donskoy wounded during Kulikovskaya
    battle ascended to heaven. And he even put his hand in Dmitry’s wound to make sure
    that it is real (see the Gospel of Nosovsky). Because of this, he was nicknamed
    Doubting Thomas. Later, he became first St. Thomas, and then the so-called mathematician Fomenko, invented by Nosovsky. The existence of which in the 20th century is also in doubt
    for people who can think and reason, how could he write the Gospel of Thomas?
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 April 22 2018 11: 22
      -1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Bar1
      "Academician of mathematics A. Fomenko knows how to count" ////

      It is proved and justified that no Fomenko existed
      in the reality. He is a mistake (like many other mistakes) of traditional historical chronology, nothing more.
      In the time of Jesus Christ (Dmitry Donskoy) there lived a man named
      Thomas. He did not believe that Dmitry Donskoy wounded during Kulikovskaya
      battle ascended to heaven. And he even put his hand in Dmitry’s wound to make sure
      that it is real (see the Gospel of Nosovsky). Because of this, he was nicknamed
      Doubting Thomas. Later, he became first St. Thomas, and then the so-called mathematician Fomenko, invented by Nosovsky. The existence of which in the 20th century is also in doubt
      for people who can think and reason, how could he write the Gospel of Thomas?

      this is nonsense, and you are the one who carries nonsense.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 22 2018 16: 10
        +3
        Do not cling to traditional chronology
        in biographies of Fomenko and Nosovsky. Think wider!
        These people lived much earlier than it seems.
        Hence their extraordinary knowledge of historical
        events. They were present at many of them!
        A new chronology puts these prominent people on
        several centuries earlier than previously thought.