That is, the authorities understood that after everything they had seen, people's faith in socialism "cracked." But no one came up with any innovations in order to try to “lay it on” at that time, and, most likely, simply did not dare to offer, fearing for his own life and freedom. The newspaper Pravda, for example, wrote about the need to “deeply and popularly explain the sources of our victory in the Great Patriotic War: the advantages of the Soviet social and state system, the strength and power of the Red Army, the role of the Bolshevik Party - the great party of Lenin-Stalin as an inspiration and organizer of victories our homeland. " That is, the basis of the victory over the enemy lay all the same “achievements of socialism in our country”: the dictatorship of the proletariat, the presence of a “Leninist-type” governing party led by the great Stalin, a collective farm system in the village, well, and, of course, a powerful army and navy led by Bolshevik commanders. And it turned out that the time around was already new, and the journalistic cliches are the same as before the war!
The newspaper Pravda is truly a storehouse of information about the war. For example, a photograph of a tank landing on tank BT-7.
However, since the topic of the past war has now exhausted itself, in the post-war period the Soviet press began to introduce with the new force into the consciousness of Soviet people an ideology about the unconditional advantages of the socialist system over capitalism. Again, in their striving to promote to the masses the idea of the superiority of socialism over capitalism, the newspapers began to use materials telling about life abroad, especially since traveling abroad for the Soviet people was again limited to a minimum. At the same time, publications on the events that took place in the countries of Eastern Europe in the post-war period became a great help. Describing the accelerated pace of economic recovery, industry, education systems in these countries, Soviet journalists often referred to their foreign colleagues in order to give more convincing material and create the impression that the state of affairs was unbiased about their own situation.
Soviet readers could read, for example, the report of the American observer of the Columbia broadcasting company Howard Smith, who visited European countries , who "pointed to the existing contrast between the improvement of the situation of most peoples in Eastern Europe and the deterioration of the situation in the West". And then Howard Smith made the following predictions about the development of Eastern and Western Europe: “The wealth and power of Western Europe will decrease even more during the life of the next generation, because this wealth and influence is still largely based on colonial empires, which are currently experiencing various stages of decay. " Reporting on the pace of recovery and development of the economy and the national economy in the young socialist countries, Soviet newspapers wrote that "many of these countries overtook other Western European states in their post-war reconstruction" . According to publications in Soviet newspapers, the countries of Eastern Europe began to flourish precisely from the moment when they embarked on the rails of creating a socialist system. The materials on life in these states were more like triumphant reports from the front of the struggle of socialism with capitalism than any other material! The leading role of the Soviet Union and its citizens, without which the population of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and other “countries of people's democracy” could not cope with the difficulties, was strongly emphasized.
Pravda under the heading “In the countries of people's democracy” constantly published grateful responses from the working countries of Eastern Europe. For example, it was reported that Czechoslovak workers achieved unprecedented labor productivity only thanks to the experience of the Soviet working people. In the article “Eternal Friendship,” the writer Jiří Marek conveyed the thoughts and feelings of Czech workers in this way: “The flourishing of our industry cannot be imagined without incorporating the rich Soviet experience. It is impossible to imagine the labor enthusiasm of our workers without the noble example of Soviet working people ”. Particular emphasis was placed in the article on the role of exchange of experience: “A steelmaker Losard from the Vitkovitsky metallurgical plants began to carry out high-speed melting, having studied the experience of the Soviet masters Frolov, Privalov and Subbotin”. However, it was not only the Czech metallurgists who managed to increase labor productivity by studying the experience of Soviet workers: “Our shipbuilders, miners, metallurgists, machine builders, railway workers are achieving better results thanks to the use of Soviet labor methods.” All this is due to the fact that “the power of the Soviet example at every step helps our workers to successfully overcome these difficulties, break down outdated technical standards and achieve unprecedented results.”
In the same vein, articles were written about other countries of the “socialist camp” . And what do you say to that? Someone else's experience, especially if it is so positive, of course, is a good thing and should be studied. But is it worth it to write about it so pathetically, this is the question, and the question is very important! However, this was just the beginning, because further, namely from 1947, Soviet newspapers began to publish more and more materials proving that Soviet science and technology were the most advanced among all European powers at that time. From these articles, Soviet readers learned that in India at the international exhibition in front of the Soviet car ZIS-110 “there was an admiring crowd of visitors” , and on a trip to Austria the car “Victory” is able to “overtake” the Opeli “without much stress” and Mercedes . Now, unlike 20-30s, Soviet newspapers no longer wrote about the outstanding achievements of Western scholars, but devoted their publications exclusively to Soviet . It was emphasized that according to the decision of the XIX Congress of the Communist Party, science in the USSR was intended to “take first place in world science” . In a word, having familiarized themselves with materials on life in Eastern Europe , Soviet readers could make an unequivocal conclusion that the USSR and its allies would soon expect an undoubtedly brighter future, while the countries of capitalism would soon have to wallow in terrible poverty .
In describing the events of foreign reality, Soviet newspapers, as in the years of the Great Patriotic War, painted a rather specific picture of the world in which the Soviet Union was always in the center of attention of all states. Everything that happens in the USSR aroused the keenest interest among the citizens of the whole world. The materials of the Soviet press created for the Soviet people the feeling that the whole world was watching, with bated breath, the development of events in our country, and all other events in the world were of a secondary nature. For example, judging by newspaper publications, the monetary reform and the abolition of the rationing system in the Soviet Union in 1947 for some reason provoked a strong reaction in the capitalist countries, and the evaluations of the Soviet government, given by the Western press, were only positive . For example, in the Austrian press, it was reported that monetary reform in the USSR had undoubted success, since “the totality of all the activities carried out by the Soviet government will bring to the workers and employees of the country a substantial increase in their real wages and thus an increase in their standard of living” .
Citizens of not only European, but also Eastern countries showed interest in our science, culture and art . All memorable days and holidays for Soviet citizens, according to Soviet newspapers, were most widely celebrated abroad . It was reported to the citizens of the USSR that “a large-scale rally was held at the crossroads of two streets in the working-class district of Delhi on the occasion of the 28 anniversary of the death of V.I. Lenin ”, and the holiday of 1 in May was celebrated by workers not only from Eastern Europe, but also from almost the entire world .
It is clear that a kind word and a cat are nice, but nevertheless journalists would have to know the best in stories from abroad about how the whole world admires matters in the USSR.
And again, as in previous years, in the post-war period, Soviet journalists described some facts of foreign reality, based on the political situation in our country. The same I.V. Stalin was praised not only in publications relating to the domestic political situation, but also in articles describing events abroad. From publications about foreign events, Soviet citizens could find out that the same boundless and deep love and devotion to the “leader of all peoples” I.V. was inherent in the inhabitants of capitalist countries. Stalin, who experienced themselves. Judging by the materials of central and regional newspapers, ordinary citizens of capitalist countries admired the wisdom, vision, simplicity and philanthropy of the leader of the Soviet Union to the same extent as they themselves. And of course, someone sincerely believed this, but this could not but have a truly negative impact on people who think.
A particularly illustrative example here is the Pravda newspaper article on life in Japan at the beginning of the 50s. For example, judging by newspaper publications, Japanese citizens simply overwhelmed feelings of joy and gratitude in response to Stalin’s appeal to the editor-in-chief of the Kyodo agency K. Iwamoto: “Stalin ... spoke clearly, simply and in a way that only a person who cares can say about the common people. And we, three ordinary Japanese guys, immediately understood: Stalin remembers us, he wishes us happiness ”. This message agitated, according to the interpretation of Pravda correspondent A. Kozhin, the whole of Japan: “the news of the historical message of I.V. Stalin with lightning speed spread throughout the country and excited millions of people. ” Since then, "millions of people in Japan live by the message of the leader of the Soviet people." After reading this article, Soviet readers could learn that the words of Stalin instilled courage and revived hopes for the best in the souls of the Japanese. That they "brought in the half-dark rooms a breath of fresh, invigorating wind, the invisible light of human participation and attention, with which only those who are well aware of how hard they live in their native, but enslaved land, could turn to them." Soviet people could conclude that only the head of the Soviet state could help the unfortunate Japanese, because "Stalin's words ignite a fire of self-confidence in the eyes of people, raise their self-esteem, striving for peace, for a better future." Meanwhile, only a person who did not know anything about Japan could write, he did not understand the psychology of the Japanese, and perhaps he had never been there. However, on the other hand, how could he have written otherwise, even if he had even grasped Japanese psychology? And here, of course, it was easier to “lie” about the Japanese than about the same Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, not to mention Yugoslavs and former “comrade” Broz Tito, who suddenly became an enemy overnight, because of contacts between them and our citizens almost none at all. However, there was a “puncture”, then there was a “puncture” - so gradually, the faith in our press and our journalists was shaken!
In general, analyzing the materials of the Soviet press about life abroad after the war, one can come to the following conclusions: firstly, the manner of submission of publications about events in foreign countries completely coincided with the manner of presentation news materials about life in the country. Secondly, in the postwar years, as in the previous period, the Soviet press was engaged in activities that were very far from truly informing citizens about real events abroad. Instead, it, as before, served as a means of powerful, but ill-conceived and not at all flexible, totalitarian propaganda, the purpose of which was only to arm the Soviet people - "the advanced builders of socialist society" with "the correct understanding of the events taking place" . That is, the simplest and most correct thing for the then Soviet journalist to do was "to oscillate along with the party's line," and, in accordance with all its fluctuations, as before, to promote this very line in life!
Surprisingly, even then, in those years, and moreover, far from the very intellectual environment in the USSR there were people who openly opposed all these lies, even if they had to pay for it with freedom. So, for example, happened to a number of workers from the city of Kuibyshev (today's Samara), when in 1949 the political compass needle in the Soviet government “turned away” from the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito. It came to a complete rupture of diplomatic relations between our countries. At the same time, Comrade Tito immediately turned from a “great friend of the USSR” into a “bloody dog”, “leader of the fascist clique” and “hireling Anglo-American imperialism”. There was nothing new in such zigzags for the Soviet press. However, during this time, people have already become a little bit different, but they have seen a lot, heard a lot from eyewitnesses, so it was simply not possible with them. As before, there were people whom such a quick degeneration of our recent ally and supporter not only surprised, but also outraged, and they ... even expressed their opinion about all this out loud! However, as before, in the immediate environment of these people were those who immediately passed their words "where they should", with all the ensuing consequences.
For example, the involuntary victim of the “fascist Tito” was the brigadier of the plant No. XXUMX in the city of Kuibyshev (now Samara) 24-year-old Ilya Galkin. According to the materials of the investigation, this politically immature Kuybyshevets (surely such people met in Penza, not to mention Moscow and Leningrad, but in order not to waste time searching, we confined ourselves to the material that Moreover, Samara is not far from Penza! - the comment of SA and VO) “in the workshop of the plant in the presence of witnesses praised the treacherous policy of the Tito clique in Yugoslavia, while slandering the policy of the CPSU (b) and the Soviet government ".
Meanwhile, Galkin just said that the leader of the Yugoslav partisans, who had raided Hitler's invaders for four years, could not have become a fascist right away. “Comrade Stalin is wrong in the fact that we broke off relations with Yugoslavia,” said this brave man as a result. After that, the court found him guilty of "counter-revolutionary agitation" and sentenced him to imprisonment for eight years, followed by a defeat in electoral rights for three years, as if that his right to choose in the USSR at least something then meant!
Interestingly, during 1949-1952, no less than 30 people were convicted only in the Kuibyshev regional court "for praising Tito". At the same time, there were people of various social strata and financial situation: 36-year-old watchmaker Nikolai Boyko, 45 aircraft-plant engineer Peter Kozlov, Metallobtremont mechanic 48-year-old Fyodor Krajukhin and many others. All of them - and among them there were many participants in the war - for their "thoughts out loud" received a sentence in camps from five to 10 years .
While Stalin dealt with Josip Broz Tito and stigmatized him through the Soviet press, the war in Korea began, and, according to Soviet propaganda, the start of hostilities was provoked by the South Koreans, incited by the American imperialists, but the North Koreans only defended themselves and nothing more. A different interpretation of those events could have cost the Soviet man imprisonment for a very long time and, nevertheless, there were still people who did not believe all this, and, as they say, called things by their proper names.
An example of this is the fate of a Syzran resident of 67-year-old Moses Mintz, who for the first time hit the dock before the war. Then he worked as head of the housing and communal department of the Syzran city executive committee, but in 1940, at one of the meetings, he took unprecedented liberty to doubt the validity of the arrest and execution of the “Tukhachevsky group” (as we can see, the absurdities of the newspapers of that time were not the only ones who were surprised! - Note. .A. And V.O.). For this, he was expelled from the party, and then sentenced to five years in the camps. Returning from the “places not so remote”, Mintz got a job as a clerk in the cooperative artel, but still, as noted in the new indictment, “continued to remain in the Trotskyist positions”. In the summer and autumn of 1950, he, in the city of Syzran, in the presence of witnesses, “expressed slanderous lies about the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and at the same time slandered Soviet reality. From an anti-Soviet position spoke of the activities of the Soviet government in the struggle for peace and the prevention of war. "
Moreover, the defendant Mints, as it turned out during the investigation, regularly listened to Western radio broadcasts, and then expounded to his acquaintances an “enemy” point of view on events in Korea. At the same time, he compared these events with the beginning of the war between the USSR and Finland in 1939, when the Soviet government also stated that the cause of the conflict was provocations from the Finnish side. And now, he concluded, “we are dealing with one more example of deceit (this is necessary, and said so! - Approx. SA and V.O.), which is fighting for peace only in words, but in deed kindled another war. ”
After such recognition, the Kuibyshev Regional Court sentenced Moses Mintz to imprisonment under Art. 58-10 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR for a period of 10 years, followed by a five-year defeat in voting rights. As it appears from the data of the local archive, being in years he did not live to see the end of this term and died in a camp in 1956 at the age of 73 years .
However, he was not the only one who suffered from his misunderstanding of the Korean events. Those at the beginning of 50 in Kuibyshev gathered more than 15 people, so that among those arrested were 65-year-old retiree Valery Slushkin, and 36-year-old kolkhoznik Bari Khasanov, and 35-year-old artist of Novokuibyshevsky Palace of Culture Peter Zhelyatsky and many, many others. All of them, because of their political ignorance, went to camps for a period of four to six years .
But then the real farce began, because Nikita Khrushchev, who replaced Stalin as General Secretary, decided to “be friends” with Yugoslavia, visited Belgrade with a visit, during which he strongly emphasized that the previous confrontation was nothing but a mistake of the Stalinist leadership. Accordingly, a new course on the orders from the top immediately began an urgent review of criminal cases instituted against "supporters of Tito," most of which were immediately acquitted, released and rehabilitated "due to the absence of corpus delicti in their actions."
But the “victims of the Korean War” were so unlucky, because, although many of them were also released, they were not restored in civil rights, since Khrushchev’s point of view on the events in Korea had not changed. In addition, the Khrushchev Criminal Code also contained an article for anti-Soviet statements, which means that they were still guilty, although not to the same extent as before.
Well, how many such “truth-lovers” were condemned in the country, if there were more than 45 people in the Kuybyshev region? Probably quite a lot, but even more were, of course, those who were smart and careful enough not to say anything out loud, but at the same time to think the same way. But, nevertheless, their nihilism should have manifested itself in something else, and that’s what it didn’t manifest, it wasn’t good for our system or our state. There is no faith - no conviction, no conviction - no hope, no hope - and people lose heart, and they do badly even the fact that without much difficulty they could do much better. The house that was built on the sand will not stand, and it should be noted that the weakness of the information foundation of the Soviet government became a fait accompli by the beginning of the 50s.
1. True. 5 May 1946. No.107. C.1
2. Stalin's Banner. 6 September 1947. No.176. C.4
3. Stalin's Banner. 28 September 1947. No.192. C.4
4. True. 2 January 1953. No.2. C.3.
5. True. 5 January 1953. No.5. C.1; True. 9 January 1953. No.9. C.1; True. 14 January 1953. No.14. C.1; True. 17 January 1953. No.17. C.1.
6. True. 13 January 1952. No.13. C.3
7. True. 4 January 1953. No.4. C.4.
8. True. 10 March 1946. No.58. C.1; True. 2 January 1952. No.2. C.3; True. 22 February 1952. No.53. C.3; True. 13 March 1952. No.73. C.3.
9. True. 2 January 1953. No.2. C.1.
10. True. 5 March 1953. No.64. C.4; True. 1 August 1953. No.213. C.1.
11. Stalin's Banner. 20 December 1947. No.251. C.4.
12. Ibid. 19 December 1947. No.250. C.4.
13. True. 31 January 1949. No.31. C.4; True. 11 August 1949. No.223. C.1; True. 14 February 1952. No.45. C.3.
14. True. 23 January 1949. No.23. C.4; True. 22 January 1949. No.22. C.3; True. 22 February 1949. No.53. C.4; True. 23 February 1949. No.54. C.4; True. 24 February 1949. No.55. C.4; True. 25 February 1949. No.56. C.4.
15. True. 22 January 1952. No.22. C.3.
16. True. 4 May 1947. No.109. C.4; True. 2 May 1949. No.122. C.4.
17. True. 2 January 1952. No.2. C.3.
18. True. 5 May 1949. No.125. C.4.
19. Erofeev V. Concentration camp for politically illiterate // Secrets of the twentieth century. 2011. No.24. C.8-9.
21. Ibid. C.8-9.
To be continued ...