Military Review

"Air holes" paratrooper Minova

17
Leonid G. Minov became not only a pilot, but also a pioneer of parachuting in the Soviet Union. He survived the First World War and the Civil War, visited France and the United States, became the first Soviet man to make a parachute jump, won numerous awards, but this was not enough. Not enough to protect yourself from the rink of repression. But Leonid G. did not break down and remained faithful to his homeland.


"Air holes" paratrooper Minova


"In our opinion, he is quite qualified to teach ..."

Leonid Grigorievich was born on the twenty-third of April 1898 in the city of Dvinsk (now Daugavpils, Latvia). Here he graduated from a commercial school. When he was eighteen years old, Minov volunteered to go to the fields of the First World War. He was identified in intelligence. In September 1917, he became a member of the RSDLP (b). Could not pass him and the Civil War. Already in those years, Leonid G. dreamed of the sky. Therefore, having graduated from Moscow's 1920 Moscow Observation Pilot School in May, I went to the Polish front. A year later, Minov graduated from military pilot schools, first in Zaraisk, and then in Moscow.

When the Civil War died down, Minov took the position of instructor. And after some time - headed the flight of the first Moscow Higher School of military pilots. Leonid G. engaged not only to improve their own skills and training of other pilots, but also studied a variety of techniques of blind flight. Training cabins for pilots and a special chair were created especially for the development of this area.



A man of such a bright talent and perceptive mind was highly valued by his immediate superiors. They trusted him and, more importantly, believed in him. Therefore, in 1925, Leonid Grigorievich was sent to France as an aviation attaché at the trade mission of the Soviet Union. Thanks to his sociability, knowledge of foreign languages ​​and professionalism, Minov managed to win the favor of high-ranking French military and officials. And as a result, he managed to negotiate the purchase of four thousand aviation Ron motors. Of course, they were morally outdated, since they were released during the First World War, but the price tag made up for everything. Leonid Grigorievich bought workable power units at the cost of scrap. The Rones came in handy, since they went on to develop Soviet aviation, which at that time was noticeably lagging behind European ones.

In 1927, Minov returned to his homeland. Leonid Grigorievich hoped that after a long voyage, he would now be able to go head over to his favorite thing - flying. But less than a couple of years, as the head of the Red Army Air Force, Peter Ionovich Baranov, entrusted Minova with a new responsible task. This time, Leonid Grigorievich had to go even further - over the Atlantic Ocean. The pilot was required to collect information about the method of teaching US parachute jumpers. Also, he had to visit the company of the company "Irving", which was located in Buffalo. In those days, "Irving" was the world's leading company for the production of parachutes and various aviation equipment. In the USSR, they were not just interested in overseas developments. The fact is that parachuting in the country was in an embryonic stage of development. Minov understood all this perfectly, so he took his overseas business trip with the utmost seriousness.

Leonid G. for several days literally lived in the factory workshops "Irving", trying not to miss any, even the smallest details of the production of parachutes. Then he was taken to a military air base. Here Minov met with the testers and, as they say, gave them an interrogation with passion. Fortunately, knowledge of the English language has solved many problems and managed to do without a translator. By the way, the American side was pleasantly surprised by the Soviet guest. No one expected him to be so educated and erudite. And when Minov managed to make a good impression on representatives of the company's management, he began important negotiations. As a result, he was able, on favorable terms to both parties, to agree on the conditions for the purchase of a batch of parachutes. In addition, Leonid Grigorievich obtained a patent for their production in the Soviet Union.



Having observed the testing of parachutes from the outside, Leonid Grigorievich asked for permission to try to cope with Irving on his own. Representatives of the company agreed. And soon Minov made his first parachute jump from a height of five hundred meters. He had no problems with “taming the beast”. Americans are so impressed that they decided to joke, inviting a citizen of the Soviet Union to take part in competitions that were held in California. Minov appreciated the joke and, of course, immediately agreed.

In the conditions of the competition it was said that it was necessary to make the jump from a height of four hundred meters. And you need to land in a circle with diameters of thirty-five meters. Of course, the Americans hardly thought that Minov would be able to fulfill this standard. However, Leonid G. did not just make a worthy performance among professionals, he took third place. At the same time, Leonid G. made the parachute jump just the second time. The American press was delighted.

When the time of the trip came to an end (Minov managed to make another jump), he received a certificate stating: “USSR citizen L.G. Minov received a course in inspection, care, maintenance and use of parachutes manufactured by the Irving parachute company” ... In our opinion, he is quite qualified for teaching the use of Irving parachutes, as well as for their inspection, care and maintenance. ”

After returning home, Leonid G. made a report on the trip to the United States at the headquarters of the Air Force. And his work was approved by the authorities. Curiously, after Minova, brigade engineer Mikhail Savitsky was also sent overseas. In the USA he spent a month during which he studied the technology of parachute production. And when he returned, Mikhail Alekseevich headed the first parachute manufacturing plant in the USSR.

The work went at an accelerated pace. And by the end of 1931, about five thousand parachutes were released. Moreover, one batch of seventy pieces was made according to the design of Savitsky himself. These parachutes were called PD-1.



According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the country's leadership literally caught on the idea of ​​parachuting. Viktor Suvorov in the book “Icebreaker” has lines that well illustrate the situation in the country: “Parachute psychosis raged in the Soviet Union simultaneously with a terrible famine. In the country, children swell up from hunger, and Comrade Stalin sells bread abroad to buy parachute technology to build giant silk mills and parachute factories to cover the country with a network of aerodromes and aeroclubs to raise the skeleton of a parachute tower in each city park to prepare thousands instructors to build parachute dryers and storages to prepare a million well-fed parachutists, the weapons, equipment and parachutes they need. ”

And Leonid G. just doing his job. After an overseas business trip, he received a position that was not previously in the USSR — he became the first instructor in parachute training. He was to carry out gigantic work on the introduction of parachutes in aviation.

Soon the first training camps took place. They were conducted on the basis of the eleventh aviation brigade in Voronezh. Minov had to acquaint pilots with parachutes, as well as demonstrate their capabilities. Before the flight, the duty officer on the part Yakov Davidovich Moshkovsky asked Leonid Grigorievich to allow him to take the jump. Minov agreed and appointed his friend Moshkovsky assistant.

Parachute jumps were a great success. After which a few dozen aviators followed the example of Minov and Moshkovsky.

Then Leonid G. allowed Peter Ionovich Baranov to report. And he asked: “Tell me, is it possible in two or three days to prepare, say, ten or fifteen people for a group jump? It would be very good if, in the course of the Voronezh exercise, it became possible to demonstrate the release of a group of armed paratroopers for sabotage actions on the territory of the “enemy”.



Minov did not disappoint the commander of the Air Force. On August 2, 1930, two groups of paratroopers, six in each, jumped. The first group was led by Leonid Grigorievich, the second - by Jacob Moszkowski. And this day was the birthday of the Red Army Airborne Forces.

On August 10, 1934, the Central Council of the Osoaviakhim of the Soviet Union adopted a decree conferring the honorary title Master of Parachute Sports of the USSR. The first one received a certificate, of course, Leonid G., the second - Moshkovsky.

Under the roller of repression

When the purge period began, Osoaviahim did not stand aside. On May 22, 1937, Chairman of the Central Council Robert Petrovich Eideman was arrested. During interrogations, “physical measures” were applied to him. And he could not resist, admitting that he was participating in the military-fascist conspiracy in the Latvian underground organization. But this confession was not enough. From him demanded "accomplices." And, in the end, Eydman negotiated two dozen people, thirteen of whom were employees of Osoaviahima. All of them were immediately arrested.

On June 11, 1937, Eydman was sentenced to death by the Special Court Presence of the USSR Supreme Court. And the very next day he was shot along with Tukhachevsky, Yakir and other military men.

Then the deputy Eideman Voskanov, the head of the Aviation Administration Tretyakov, the head of the Central Aeroclub Deutsch, and others came under the rink. Soon came the turn and Minova. He was also accused of military conspiracy. But they did not hurry with his arrest, having decided to wait a bit. Most likely, Yakov Moszkowski would have been sentenced to death, since he too had “plans”. But a tragedy occurred. In 1939, Yakov Davidovich passed a medical commission. The doctors' verdict for Moszkowski was sad: he was allowed to make a maximum of a dozen more jumps. Affected by numerous injuries he received during his service.

Successfully overcoming the mark of five hundred jumps, Moszkowski made another one. But the next one became fatal for him. That day the weather was too windy. But Yakov Davidovich did not stop it. He made his five hundred and second jump and was already preparing to sink into the water of the Khimki reservoir, when a powerful gust of wind blew it away. And Moshkovsky hit the side of the truck.


Jacob Moshkovsky and Leonid Minov


The resulting cranial trauma was incompatible with life.

In the fall of 1941, the roller of repression still reached Minov. Like everyone else, he was accused of conspiracy, but not sentenced to death. He was given seven years of camps and the same - links. This is what Mikhail Grigorovich recalled, with whom Minov was serving a sentence: “At the beginning of the 1940's, in the Son were the camp sites of Sevzheldorlag, the prisoners were building the North-Pechora railway. The column, to which we were transferred, was engaged in the construction of a railway bridge across the Synya River. Between the camp and the bridge was an earthen quarry, from which we drove the wheelbarrows and carried the soil on stretchers to the approaching embankments to the bridge under construction. The soil was clayey, very frozen and developed by hand very hard. We did not comply with the norms and received bread according to 400-500 grams. This period was very difficult, probably the most difficult during our time together with LG. stay in the North.

After six years, Leonid Grigorievich was deprived of all awards. But, despite all the difficulties that fell to the lot of Minov, he managed to return to freedom when his sentence had expired. And at the end of March, Leonid Grigorievich 1957 was reinstated in rights to awards.



Minov continued to do what he loved. And for many years he headed the Federation of Aviation Sports of the capital. And he died in January 1978.
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 19 2018 06: 15
    +2
    On May 1937, XNUMX, the chairman of the Central Council, Robert Petrovich Eideman, was arrested. During interrogations, “physical measures” were applied to him. AND he could not stand it, admitting that he is participating in a fascist military conspiracy and in a Latvian underground organization.

    Oh, how, the valiant red Latvian shooter, who boldly spilled rivers of Russian blood, turned out to be a banal coward and even ... a fascist ... Like almost all his comrades, Latvian shooters.
    In the fall of 1941, the rink of repression nevertheless reached Minov. Like everyone else, he was accused of conspiracy, but was not sentenced to death. Him gave seven years of camps and the same number - links.
    In fact, it was a retribution for this error:
    In September 1917, he became a member of the RSDLP (b).
    .
    It is generally incomprehensible WHAT was happening in the minds of those who planted such people as Ming-dedicated, talented, extremely useful for the country! What kind of system was there that allowed SUCH ..... request
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx April 19 2018 11: 46
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      In fact, it was a retribution for this error:
      In September 1917, he became a member of the RSDLP (b).
      It is generally incomprehensible WHAT was happening in the minds of those who planted such people as Ming-dedicated, talented, extremely useful for the country!

      The bloody, merciless and senseless Soviet Power in all its glory ... After all, everyone knows that people came to the Communists only crystal-clear, intelligent, with a strong will and morally stable. And NEVER! among the Communists there were no shifters, stupid, dishonest, careerists, and simply wrong people in something.
      No, well, really - how can a communist and a paratrooper hero make mistakes, get confused with bad people? No, of course! Just in the fall of the 41st year, the gebists did not have any worries, they became bored, so they rolled an innocent man into camps. And they still treated him well, because they could have shot him. And eat it.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 20 2018 06: 44
        +1
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Bloody, merciless and senseless Soviet Power in all its glory ..

        yes
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        After all, everyone knows that only crystal clear honest, intelligent, with a strong will and morally stable people joined the Communists. And NEVER! among the Communists there were no shifters, stupid, dishonest, careerists, and simply wrong people in something.

        And as a result of endless physical cleanings from endless shifters, stupid, dishonest, careerists survived .... they are the Khrushchevites, Brezhnevites and Gorbachevites .. yes lol
        Were they not cleaned? recourse Did you clean a little? request Or did a party, like a magnet, attract such people? yes
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        No, well, really - how can a communist and a paratrooper hero make mistakes, get confused with bad people? No, of course! Just in the fall of the 41st year, the gebists did not have any worries, they became bored, so they rolled an innocent man into camps. And they still treated him well, because they could have shot him. And eat it.

        No, well, in fact, it’s better to drop them, just in case, into the camps and deprive the country of a valuable specialist. fool
        In view of the huge number of worries, in order not to be mistaken, they were shot just in case FIRST TWO HERO USSR Smushknich and GSS Rychagova, Stern, a bunch of other generals (October 41). A bullet is the best judge, right, that is, a judge? fool
  2. avaks111
    avaks111 April 19 2018 07: 31
    +8
    It’s not clear why the passage from the Suvorov “Icebreaker” !?
    1. k174oun7
      k174oun7 April 19 2018 08: 03
      +6
      Not just incomprehensible, but unacceptable, talking about the wonderful patriot Minov L.G. , who made a significant contribution to the development of parachuting, to cite a slanderous passage from the writings of one of the most infamous betrayers. This Rezun not only betrayed and sold his comrades, but still continues to shit. Still Skripal would quote.
      We will remember the patriots. Traitors place in the trash.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 19 2018 21: 33
      +1
      I also do not understand why this quote is from such a stinking source.
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 19 2018 09: 11
    +3
    A sad story about a brave man. Besides those who survived 40 thousand officers disappeared forever. There were pests, there were conspirators, but not on the same scale!
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene April 19 2018 20: 13
      +5
      Quote: andrewkor
      40 thousand officers disappeared forever.

      In 1937-1939, about 40 thousand commanders were dismissed from the army and navy for various reasons (illness, old age, drunkenness, moral decay. Of these, 9579 senior officers were arrested. Of the number of those arrested, 1457 were reinstated in 1938-1939. In the years 1940–1941, about 2–3 thousand more were reinstated in military service and about 1,5–2 thousand were sentenced to the VMN.
  4. shuravi
    shuravi April 19 2018 09: 54
    +6
    Quote: Olgovich

    Oh, how, the valiant red Latvian shooter, who boldly spilled rivers of Russian blood, turned out to be a banal coward and even ... a fascist ... Like almost all his comrades, Latvian shooters.


    Well, you are definitely a hero. You cannot be broken. lol

    It is generally incomprehensible WHAT was happening in the minds of those who planted such people as Ming-dedicated, talented, extremely useful for the country! What kind of system was there that allowed SUCH ..... request


    Yes, such a system, which in less than twenty years from scratch, could build the same aviation industry.
    What the present in the Russian Federation has achieved is even a shame to say.
  5. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 19 2018 14: 23
    +2
    Viktor Suvorov in the book “Icebreaker” has lines that well illustrate the situation in the country: “Parachute psychosis raged in the Soviet Union at the same time as a terrible famine. In the country, children swell with hunger, and Comrade Stalin sells bread abroad to buy parachute technology,

    PERFECT ARGUMENT- quote from the "Icebreaker" traitor rezun. The writer you "krazavchig" ... Then you have Dybenko
    went to the Urals to inspect the camps for political prisoners, that is, to monitor the implementation of the plan for logging in the Gulag system

    I forgot to clarify, but what was done in the Main Directorate of the Camps - did they harvest wood, or was it done directly in the camps?
  6. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 19 2018 15: 05
    +1
    And yet such a moment, in the Aviation Encyclopedia, says, He served in the Air Force Office of the Red Army (1929-1933), the Aviation Administration of Osoaviahim (1933-1940), a participant in the Great Patriotic War. Author of many developments, including catapults for launching gliders into the air, auto-start systems for take-off gliders.
    In "Dictionaries and Encyclopedias on the Academician" write - "... In 1940, Minov was repressed; he spent 7 years in the camps and 7 years in exile ..."
    The author of the article - "... In the fall of 1941, the rink of repression nevertheless reached Minov. Like everyone else, he was accused of conspiracy ..." I wanted to clarify with the author, and who else is it? Accidentally not: .. "That's what Mikhail Grigorovich recalled, with which Minov was serving his sentence:" In the beginning of the 1940s in the Son ... "- is it still autumn 1941, or is it still 1940?
    The truth about the nutrition of prisoners is not a gulag but the year coincides
    Order of the NKVD of the USSR No. 00943 "On the introduction of new food and clothing allowances for prisoners in the ITL and ITK NKVD of the USSR"
    August 14, 1939 Moscow
    Owls secretly.
    1. To enter into force on July 1, 1939, the norms of food and clothing allowance for prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR according to appendices Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 1b and norms for replacing some products with others, according to Appendix No. 17.

    2. For prisoners working beyond the Arctic Circle, as well as in underground work, these standards increase by 25%, excluding the norms of bread, salt, bay leaf and pepper.

    3. For prisoners in Norilag, Vorkutlag and the Abez branch of Sevzheldorlag, maintain the food and clothing allowance approved by the plan for 1939/40.

    4. Standards for meat, vegetable oil and sugar are introduced from the IV quarter of 1939.

    5. All previously established by the orders of the OGPU - the NKVD and the orders of the GULAG of the NKVD of the USSR, the norms of food and clothing allowance for prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR - to cancel.

    Appendix: norms.

    Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR

    Appendix № 1
    NORMA No. 1
    allowances of prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR, for those who do not work out production standards, economic services, investigative and disabled people (per 1 person per day in grams)
    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread 600 Surrogate tea 2
    Wheat flour 85% 10 Potatoes and vegetables 500
    Different grits 100 Tomato puree 10
    Meat 30 Capsicum 0,13
    Fish 128 Bay leaf 0,2
    Cooking Oil 0 Salt 20
    Sugar 10
    Note:

    1. Prisoners who are engaged in basic production work and develop standards up to 60% receive food at this rate.

    2. Prisoners who develop production standards from 60% to 99% inclusive, receive in addition to the indicated ration of bread according to the following scale:
    №№ п / п% for development 1st category 2nd category 3rd category and higher
    1
    2

    60-79%
    80-99%

    100 grams
    100

    100 гр.
    200

    200 гр.
    400

    The beginning OOS GULAG 'NKVD 1st Quartermaster SILIN

    Appendix № 2
    NORMA No. 2
    allowances of prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR engaged in basic production work and fulfilling the production rate (per 1 person per day in grams)


    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread 1200 Sugar 13
    Wheat flour 85% 60 Tea surrogate 2
    Different groats 130 Potatoes and vegetables 600
    Meat 30 Tomato puree 10
    Fish 158 Capsicum 0,13
    Vegetable oil 12 Bay leaf 0,2
    Macaroni 10 Salt 20
    Note:

    1. Prisoners working out production standards not based on basic work (1st and 2nd category of bread scale) receive 1000 grams of bread. per day, of which 200 gr. bread is sold for a fee through a stall.

    2. For prisoners working out production standards for basic work, the bread standard (3 category and above) is set at 1200 g. per day, of which 1000 gr. released for free, and 200 grams through a stall for a fee.

    The beginning OOS GULAG NKVD quartermaster 1st rank SILIN

    Appendix № 3
    NORMA No. 3
    supplementary to norm No. 2 of the allowance of prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR, for those working with the Stakhanov methods (per 1 person per day in grams)
    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread 200 Vegetable oil 3
    Wheat flour 85% 50 Animal fats 5
    Different cereals 20 Pasta 7
    Meat 50 Sugar 7
    Fish 34 Potatoes and vegetables 150
    The indicated food is sold for a fee with deduction of the value from the due reward.

    The beginning OOS GULAG NKVD quartermaster 1st rank SILIN

    Appendix № 4
    NORMA No. 4
    additional allowance for prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR, for engineering and technical workers (per 1 person per day in grams)
    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread
    Wheat flour 85%

    Different groats

    Meat

    Fish

    300
    80

    20

    30

    60

    Vegetable oil
    Animal fats

    Pasta

    Sugar

    Potatoes and vegetables

    5
    3

    12

    8

    200

    Notes:

    1. Crediting to the indicated ration is an act of encouragement for excellent work quality and high labor productivity indicators.

    2. Enrollment is made by order of the head of Dep. camp, site and department for personal selection.

    3. A ration is issued in addition to norm No. 1 for free.

    The beginning OOS GULAG NKVD quartermaster 1st rank SILIN

    Appendix № 5
    NORMA No. 5
    allowances of prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR (per 1 person per day in grams)
    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread 1100 Surrogate tea 2
    Wheat flour 85% 61 Natural tea *** 0,3
    Different groats 127 Potatoes and vegetables 650
    Meat 39 Tomato puree 10
    Fish 155 Dried fruits *** 0,5
    Herring * 5 Potato flour *** 0,3
    Vegetable oil 14 Capsicum 0,13
    Animal fats ** 4 Bay leaf 0,2
    Macaroni 10 Salt 20
    Sugar 17
    Appendix № 10
    NORMA No. 10
    allowances of prisoners in forced labor camps and colonies of the NKVD of the USSR, for weak workers (per 1 person per day in grams)


    Product Name Quantity Product Name Quantity
    Rye bread 1000 Macaroni 30
    Wheat flour 85% 50 Sugar 20
    Medium flour 85% 10 Surrogate tea 2
    Different cereals (except dietetic.) 160 Potatoes and vegetables 750
    Meat 30 Tomato puree 10
    Fish 260 Capsicum 0,13
    Vegetable oil 13 Bay leaf 0,2
    Animal fats 15 Salt 20
    Note:

    1. At this rate, working weak prisoners are fed for the duration of their stay in weak teams, regardless of their production tasks.

    2. The ration is issued free of charge.

    The beginning OOS GULAG NKVD quartermaster 1st rank SILIN
  7. Pattern
    Pattern April 19 2018 17: 22
    0
    Quoting V. Suvorov is inappropriate here. Too pathetic.
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene April 19 2018 20: 12
      +3
      Quote: Pattern
      Quoting V. Suvorov is inappropriate here. Too pathetic.

      In scientific and journalistic articles, referring to the "creations" of traitor V. Rezun among researchers and journalists is considered bad form. Everyone knows that he enjoys the glory of a bullet gun.
      1. LeonidL
        LeonidL April 21 2018 03: 29
        +1
        He is a typical custom-made fake player, moreover, arrogant and unprincipled. No matter how much his lies are proved or exposed, he doesn't give a damn and continues his scribbling activity!
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 19 2018 17: 26
    +1
    Quote: avaks111
    It’s not clear why the passage from the Suvorov “Icebreaker” !?

    I wanted to ask myself
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 19 2018 17: 38
    +1
    The author, if you were to allow me to doubt: “Jacob Moszkowski would have been sentenced to death as well” if I am talking about 1937 and partly 1938, I agree, and in 1939 the repressions almost stopped more precisely, “plans to expose” were canceled. Y. Zhukov and the Kremlin wrote a lot about this.
  10. LeonidL
    LeonidL April 21 2018 03: 27
    +1
    To quote Rezun is generally indecent for the author of an interesting article, especially his hysterical interpretation of what is happening then.