Military Review

As the Portuguese and Spanish "predators" divided the world

38
Since 1444, the Portuguese sent whole flotilla to Africa for "live goods." People were hunted like wild animals with specially trained dogs.


Portuguese expeditions

The Portuguese prince Enrique did not participate in sea expeditions, but by constantly encouraging the navigators and patronizing the explorers of the new lands, he received the name "Sailor", under which he entered history.

Cape Non (Nun) on the west coast of Africa has long been considered the fateful boundary for all navigators. The very name of the cape - “Non”, in Latin means “no” - speaks of how he enjoyed notoriety. In 1419, this cape was rounded off by two Portuguese noblemen, João Gonçalu Sarku and Tristan Teischer, sent by Prince Henrique. A violent storm carried their ship far into the open sea, where they discovered an island called Porto Santo by them. Having surveyed the island, the travelers returned to Portugal. A year later, they returned and noticed another wooded island, which they called Madeira - “Wooded.”

After that, 15 years passed before the Portuguese were able to go around Cape Bochador, guarded, as they said then, by strong sea currents and winds. Only in 1434, captain Gil Eanish, a brave and ambitious man, passed by this cape after the third attempt. The feat of the captain was then compared "with the most glorious exploits of Hercules." Encouraged by this success, Antan Gonçalvesh in 1441 year and Nunyu Tristan in 1444 year progressed further south. The first brought some golden sand from the banks of the Rio de Oro, and the second reached the mouth of the Senegal River, where he captured several Negroes, whom he brought to Lisbon and served at a very high price. That was the beginning of the Negro trade, a trade that literally devastated the Black Continent, which covered the Europeans with shame for four centuries. Tens of millions of blacks were killed and sold into slavery, died from hunger, exhaustion and disease, from inhuman conditions during transportation and slave labor.

Since the 1444 year, the Portuguese have sent entire fleets to Africa for "live goods". People were hunted like wild animals with specially trained dogs. Entire areas were devastated. Part of the tribes entered into an agreement with the Portuguese and engaged in hunting for people of other tribes in the depths of the mainland. Enlightened Enrique Enrique approved human trafficking and demanded a fifth of the income from this shameful and bloody business (but very profitable). The Portuguese chronicler, praising his compatriots, wrote about one successful expedition: “Finally, the Lord God was pleased to give them a victorious day, fame for their work and reward for damages, because on this day men, women and 165 children were captured.

Such a lucrative business undoubtedly accelerated the promotion of the Portuguese even further - to the southern shores of West Africa. In 1445, Dinish Dias rounded Green Cape and explored part of the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The following year, the Portuguese discovered the Azores. In 1456, the expedition of the Venetian Alvise de Kadamosto, who was also in the service of Henry the Navigator, opened the eastern group of Cape Verde. Every fear of the unknown disappeared. The fatal frontier, behind which, as it was believed before, “the air burns like fire” was left behind. The expedition followed the expedition, each giving new information. The African coast seemed endless. And the further the travelers traveled to the south, the further the desired cape moved away - the extreme southern point of the continent, which it was necessary to go around in order to reach coveted India.

Promotion of the Portuguese along the west coast of Africa continued after the death of Henry the Navigator. The Portuguese king João II added the title of ruler of Guinea to his title. Diogo Kahn in 1484 - 1486's. He explored the western coast of Africa from the equator to the Tropic of Capricorn, nearly beat Bartolomeu Dias in the discovery of the southern tip of the continent. Kahn reached Cape Cross, on which, according to custom, the captain of the ship erected "padran" - a stone pillar with the Portuguese coat of arms. In 1487, João II sent overland two officers, Peru da Covilhã and Afonso di Paiva, to search for Prester John (the legendary Christian state) and the "land of spices". Covilian was able to reach India, but on the way back, having learned that his companion died in Ethiopia, he went there and was detained there by order of the emperor. However, Covilha was able to convey to Portugal a report on his journey, in which he confirmed that it is realistic to reach India by sea, having rounded Africa.

As the Portuguese and Spanish "predators" divided the world

Padran (stone pillar), installed by Vasco da Gama in gratitude to the Virgin Mary for the return of the expedition from India. Nazar, Portugal

Ship Bartolomeu Dias

In the same year, the king instructed Bartolomeu Dias to go in search of a path to India around Africa. Expedition Dias consisted of three ships, one of which was commanded by his brother Diogo Dias. Under the command of Dias were excellent sailors who sailed earlier under the command of Caen. Dias sailed from Portugal in August 1487, and no details remained on the first part of this expedition. It is known that Dias went to the mouth of the Congo River and then walked along unfamiliar banks. In one of the harbors Dias left a freighter - the smaller of his caravels - guarded by nine sailors. In January, 1488, the storm began, which forced Dias to go out into the open sea. A few days later he tried to return to the bay, but the land was not visible. The struggle with the sea lasted a month. The farther the ships moved south, the more the temperature dropped. Ships carried far into the ocean. Sailors considered themselves dead.

The wanderings continued until February 3 1488, when, turning north, the Portuguese saw the coast of Africa east of the Cape of Good Hope. Landing on the shore, Dias discovered a Hottentot settlement. Negroes accompanying the squadron could not find a common language with the natives, a conflict occurred with them. The Portuguese urgently had to push off. Diash wanted to sail further east, but upon reaching the bay of Algoa (near the modern city of Port Elizabeth), all the officers who were under his command spoke in favor of returning home. The sailors, exhausted by a long expedition and hunger, also wanted to return home, otherwise threatening to revolt. The only concession to which they agreed was three more days to the northeast. In such a short time, Dias ships did not have time to go around the whole southern tip of Africa and reached the mouth of the river, which was named after the captain of the second caravel, Rio di Infanti. Once near the Indian Ocean, Dias was severely disappointed and was forced to turn back.

As a result, the mouth of the Great Fish, where the padran established by him was discovered in 1938, was the limit for the advancement of Dias' expedition to the east. On the way back, the Portuguese went to the cape, to which they had walked for so long. He was called the Cape of Storms (Stormy) in memory of the dangers and difficulties they experienced during the storm, when they first skirted it. Subsequently, the king, who placed great hopes on the sea route to Asia opened by Dias, renamed it the Cape of Good Hope. In August, Dias arrived at Angradush-Voltash harbor. The freighter during this time fell into disrepair, and of the nine sailors left, six died, and the seventh died of sudden shock when he saw his countrymen. The return was calm. The ships made a short stop at the fort of São Jorge da Mina ("The Mine of St. George"). There, Diash took on board the gold received by the governor of the colony from the natives. In December 1488, the expedition returned to Portugal. Flotilla Dias was in the campaign 16 months and 17 days. It was the longest of all the voyages undertaken before the Portuguese.

Strange as it may seem, not only did Diash not receive any reward for his amazing journey, which led to such a great success, but for an unknown reason, he even fell into disgrace. He was no longer assigned to lead any expedition. Only after the death of João II, through 9 years after the return of Dias, did the Portuguese finally send an expedition to India. At the head of it was put Vasco da Gama. Dias was entrusted with the management of the construction of the ships, since he knew from personal experience what kind of design vessels needed to sail in the waters of South Africa. According to his orders, slanting sails were replaced by rectangular, and the hulls of the ships were built with the calculation of small draft and greater stability. Also, in all likelihood, it was Diash who gave Vasco da Game advice as he sailed south, after Sierra Leone, moving away from the coast and making a detour across the Atlantic, because he knew that this was the way to bypass the band of adverse winds. Dias accompanied him to the Gold Coast (Guinea), and then went to the fortress of São Jorge da Mina, whose commandant was appointed. When Vasco da Gama returned and confirmed the correctness of the Dias guesses, a more powerful fleet headed by Pedro Cabral was sent to India. In this journey, Dias commanded one of the ships. He participated in the discovery of Brazil, but during the transition towards Africa a terrible storm broke out and his ship disappeared. The brave navigator died in the waters of the Atlantic in the spring of 1500 year.


Portuguese expeditions north of the equator

Portuguese expeditions south of the equator (15 century)

The first section of the world

At this time, Portugal has a strong contender. As a result of the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, the largest Pyrenean states were united and a united Spain was created. In Europe, a powerful state. With the help of the urban bourgeoisie, the royal couple curbed the violent nobility and large feudal lords. By creating in 1480 - 1485. the Inquisition, the kings turned the church into a powerful tool of absolutism. Spain defeated Granada, the last stronghold of Muslims on the peninsula. As a result, the war ended, which lasted several centuries. Many nobles, knights were left without work. To beat and rob on the peninsula there was no one else. Now they sat idle and became even more dangerous for the monarchy and the cities. In recent years, the Reconquest of the kings in alliance with the townspeople had to wage a stubborn struggle against predatory noble gangs.

Thus, the royal power, the urban bourgeoisie, the nobility and the church were interested in expansion. The royal authorities had to find a way out for the accumulated energy of the Spanish hidalgo in order to prevent an internal explosion. The royal treasury, especially the Castilian, was constantly empty, and overseas expeditions to Asia promised fabulous incomes. The nobles dreamed of land ownership overseas, but even more - about the gold, silver, and jewels of "China" and "India", since most of the nobles were indebted to usurers. The church wanted to turn the Gentiles into the "true faith" by strengthening the power of the king and the Roman throne. The bourgeoisie required initial capital. Everyone needed gold, various colonial goods. Quite rightly described the conquistadors contemporary of Columbus, the author of "The shortest report on the ruin of India" and the multivolume "History of India", Bishop Bartolome Las Casas: "They walked with a cross in hand and an insatiable thirst for gold in the heart."

It was then that the Colombian Genoese suggested Ferdinand and Isabella to find a western Drog in India. From the beginning, Columbus proposed the Portuguese king, João II. After much delay, the Portuguese king handed over his project to 1484 to the academic council, which had just been organized to compile navigational aids. The Council rejected the ideas of Columbus. Apparently, the excessive rights and advantages that Columbus was saying to himself in the event of an enterprise’s success played an important role in the king’s refusal. After much delay and study of the project, Columbus with the help of the monks was able to find the most reliable foothold: he became close to the Spanish financiers (with royal financial advisers, with the Seville merchants and bankers). In 1492, Columbus discovered islands off the coast of America.

The news of Columbus’s discovery of “Western India” alarmed the Portuguese. In their opinion, the rights granted to Portugal by the popes (Nikolai V and Calixtom III) in 1452 - 1456 were violated. These rights, recognized by Castile itself in 1479, confirmed by Pope Sixtus IV in 1481, gave the right to own lands open to the south and east of Cape Bohador, "up to the Indians." Now India seemed to elude them. The Castilian queen and the Portuguese king defended their rights to land overseas. Castilla was based on the right of the first discovery, Portugal - on the papal awards. And the Spaniards objected that the monopoly concerns only Africa. Only the head of the Catholic Church could resolve the dispute peacefully. Pope was then Alexander VI Borgia. He received bribes from both sides and offended no one.

3 May 1493. Papa’s bull Jnter cetera (“By the way”) produced the first section of the world, giving Castile rights to the lands it opened or would open in the future - “lands lying against the western parts on the ocean” and not belonging to any or a Christian sovereign. In other words, Spain in the west received the same rights that Portugal had in the south and east. 4 May 1493 in the new bull (second Jnter cetera) dad tried to pinpoint the rights of Castile more precisely. He granted to the eternal possession of the Castilian kings "all the islands and continents ... open and those that will be open to the west and south of the line drawn ... from the Arctic pole ... to the Antarctic pole ... [This] line must be at a distance of 100 leagues to the west and south of any of the islands, commonly called the Azores and Cape Verde. " It is clear that the boundary set by the second bull cannot be drawn on the map. Already then they firmly knew that the Azores lay far to the west of the Cape Verde Islands. And the expression "to the south of the line drawn ... from ... the pole ... to the pole", that is, to the south of the meridian, is simply ridiculous.

Thus, the pope divided the globe in half according to the “papal meridian” lying in the 100 leagues (about 500 km) of Cape Verde Islands. What lay to the west, the Spaniards received, and to the east - the Portuguese. However, in Lisbon were unhappy. The papal decision formed the basis of the Spanish-Portuguese negotiations, which ended with the Tordesillas Treaty of 7 June 1494. The Portuguese already then doubted that Columbus had reached Asia. Therefore, they did not insist that the Spaniards completely abandoned the transatlantic voyages, but sought only a transfer of the "papal meridian" further to the west.

After much debate, the Spaniards made a concession: the line was drawn in the 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. The contract does not specify from which island 370 leagues should be counted and in which leagues to calculate. Apparently, we are talking about the sea league (about 6 km). The papal throne did not argue with this decision. Once again, tore off a good sum with the contracting parties and approved the agreement.


Spanish-Portuguese demarcation lines

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
How did Western expansion begin?

How did Western expansion begin?
Why created the myth of the "Mongol" invasion
How do Portuguese "predators" create their empire
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 19 2018 05: 53
    +7
    What to say about human trafficking - such was then the level of development of society.
    But the courage and dedication of sailors who went on crazy expeditions on fragile boats is admirable hi
    1. Proxima
      Proxima April 19 2018 10: 07
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      .... the courage and dedication of mariners who embarked on insane expeditions on fragile boats is admirable hi

      Stefan Zweig has a book, The Feat of Magellan. The mind is incomprehensible! recourse At that time, at the limit of technological opportunity, which was offset by the courage and recklessness of medieval mariners circumnavigate the globe! hi
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 19 2018 10: 52
        0
        Quote: Proxima
        Quote: Olgovich
        .... the courage and dedication of mariners who embarked on insane expeditions on fragile boats is admirable hi

        Stefan Zweig has a book, The Feat of Magellan. The mind is incomprehensible! recourse At that time, at the limit of technological opportunity, which was offset by the courage and recklessness of medieval mariners circumnavigate the globe! hi


        it would be nice for this Zweig to get acquainted with such maps on which the word _Magalanika_ simply means UNKNOWN / UNKNOWN.
        Map 17c Paris.

        1. Proxima
          Proxima April 19 2018 11: 45
          +5
          Quote: Bar1
          .... it would be nice for this Zweig to get acquainted with such maps on which the word _Magalanika_ simply means UNKNOWN ...

          It's too late for him to get acquainted with such cards. Zweig left our world in 1942.
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 April 19 2018 13: 09
            0
            Quote: Proxima
            Quote: Bar1
            .... it would be nice for this Zweig to get acquainted with such maps on which the word _Magalanika_ simply means UNKNOWN ...

            It's too late for him to get acquainted with such cards. Zweig left our world in 1942.


            I mean, it is unlikely that this Magelan existed physically, most likely it is a literary image / stamp, but Zweig simply fulfilled an order from historians, like Alexey Tolstoy and Peter1.
            1. Proxima
              Proxima April 19 2018 14: 27
              +3
              Quote: Bar1
              .... I mean, it is unlikely that this Magellan existed physically, most likely it is a literary image / stamp, but Zweig simply fulfilled an order from historians, like Alexey Tolstoy and Peter1.

              Thus, it is possible to deny the circumnavigation of Drake. belay And about the card, even if it is real, I did not see anything seditious in it.
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 April 19 2018 14: 54
                0
                Quote: Proxima
                Quote: Bar1
                .... I mean, it is unlikely that this Magellan existed physically, most likely it is a literary image / stamp, but Zweig simply fulfilled an order from historians, like Alexey Tolstoy and Peter1.

                Thus, it is possible to deny the circumnavigation of Drake. belay And about the card, even if it is real, I did not see anything seditious in it.


                did not see? bad, the word in the word _magallanic_ clearly has the root of the GAL, so this is also some sort of Galia. Well, Magellan is some kind of gal.
                1. Proxima
                  Proxima April 19 2018 17: 10
                  +5
                  Quote: Bar1
                  ... did not see? bad, the word in the word _magallanic_ clearly has the root of the GAL, so this is also some sort of Galia. Well, Magellan is some kind of gal.

                  Maybe MageEllan some Mage? With the help of witching charms and made a circumnavigation lol
                  1. Bar1
                    Bar1 April 19 2018 17: 33
                    0
                    Quote: Proxima
                    Quote: Bar1
                    ... did not see? bad, the word in the word _magallanic_ clearly has the root of the GAL, so this is also some sort of Galia. Well, Magellan is some kind of gal.

                    Maybe MageEllan some Mage? With the help of witching charms and made a circumnavigation lol


                    the fact is that the “great discovery” of round land, as well as America, is not true. America already had cities where white people lived. For example, in Los Angeles on Brighton Beach, there are also stone fragments used as material for the malls images of bearded people who are very similar to the idols of ancient Russia, as well as images of Cossacks.

                    http://repin.info/iz-tmy-vekov/slavyanskie-bozhes
                    tva-na-plyazhe-brayton-bich
                    directly, this does not mean primacy in geographical discoveries, but it already makes one doubt the textbook history.
            2. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 19 2018 18: 42
              +4
              "it is unlikely that this Magellan physically existed," ////

              How did not exist? Fomenko proved twice or two that Magelan is Mikluha Maclay.
              Don't you feel the resemblance yourself? : Magelan - Maclay. Both are travelers.
              In the glory of Russia, Mikluha Magelan made his famous journeys. And he wanted to join all new lands to Russia. But the evil anti-gal James Cook (actually not Cook, but Kaka was his last name) lured him into a trap and ate him.
              The legend that the aborigines ate Cook was invented in the Vatican to divert attention from the obvious fact that Cook actually ate Mikluha Magellan.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 19 2018 07: 19
    +2
    What inner confidence should be - go forward. And force others.
    The hardest, but legendary era.

    Remove selected paragraphs - and almost a classic presentation. Food for the minds of young men.
  3. Forcecom
    Forcecom April 19 2018 08: 40
    +1
    Slavery appeared when a person began to reproduce more resources than was necessary to maintain his life and will accompany humanity in one form or another all the time of its existence.
  4. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr April 19 2018 09: 04
    +16
    And I really like the story of Macau.
    How much rope does not curl - one end.
    Although the colonialists not only took, but also gave, equipped. Without this, too, no way.
  5. Bar1
    Bar1 April 19 2018 09: 14
    +1
    not the best study by Alexander Samsonov, this part of the article, what do the Portuguese and Spaniards divide according to TI the whole world we know, but what did you do at that time, what did Samsonov call the Russian superethnos, watched how impudent small countries divided the world into parts? Here, something is wrong.
    Of the documents available to us now, medieval maps have remained. Let's look at the maps of Africa of those times. Firstly, the Niger river flows in a completely different direction, as modern maps show us, but after all, Niger is the third river in Africa along the drain. I looked at the maps and it turned out that the image of the river on the maps was corrected only in the middle of the 19th century. And before that, Niger flowed like this.


    Those. the Niger River and the Senegal River were combined, so how can this be? How could you not notice the mouth of the huge river to travelers who sailed along the coast of Africa?
    Immediately paying attention to the fact that in Africa there are strange names that, of course, are not suitable for Africa in the framework of TI.
    -Glory



    -Ardra
    -Yuda
    Galla


    Galata
    -Rosh



    Galata


    - Belafra is, what is it? White Africa?

    1. BAI
      BAI April 19 2018 09: 34
      +5
      - Belafra is, what is it? White Africa?

      If the Portuguese spoke Russian, then yes. And Benin is the territory belonging to Ben (Creek).
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 19 2018 09: 57
        0
        Quote: BAI
        - Belafra is, what is it? White Africa?

        If the Portuguese spoke Russian, then yes. And Benin is the territory belonging to Ben (Creek).


        you probably know that in English _rab_ it is _slav_, and in Latin _rab_ it is _sklav_? That is, the Slavs and Slavs are slaves in terms of Western culture. This means only one thing that the Slavs were indeed slaves of the West, but we don’t know when it was. It is possible to assert with confidence about Russian serfdom, when the Russian people were really enslaved by the German rulers of Russia. What other white slavery is known from the foreseeable -not a story made up? This is the slavery of the Irish, whom the antigals / Angels exiled into slavery in America, this is a half-known fact.
        So there is another map of the beginning of the 19th century German, again on which Africa is clearly
        -Clavlen coast
        -Biafra, which used to be -BELAFRA, and this is already deliberate falsification.



        So the whole coast of WHITE SLAVES, then we must comprehend what it is?
        -Sklavene is with KOLOven
        Well, who are the Falconers / Falcons called? So called Russian warriors.
        1. BAI
          BAI April 19 2018 11: 24
          +4
          White slave (Russian) = Branco escravo (port.)
          Where do you see the coast of white slaves?
          On the territory of Russia there is the river Voblya. But I dare to assure you, its name has nothing to do with the original Slavic exclamation, which means an extreme degree of surprise and amazement.

          No need to read a foreign text in Russian.
          and in Latin _rab_ it is _sklav_

          slave (Rus.) = servus (lat.)
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 April 19 2018 12: 29
            0
            Quote: BAI
            White slave (Russian) = Branco escravo (port.)
            Where do you see the coast of white slaves?
            On the territory of Russia there is the river Voblya. But I dare to assure you, its name has nothing to do with the original Slavic exclamation, which means an extreme degree of surprise and amazement.

            No need to read a foreign text in Russian.
            and in Latin _rab_ it is _sklav_

            slave (Rus.) = servus (lat.)

            from dense? why are you going to the historical forum?
            https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Склавины
            https://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/slave

            at least read the terminology before climbing into the unknown, and even more so to answer.
  6. BAI
    BAI April 19 2018 09: 21
    +2
    After all, it was possible to do without the Slavic superethnos. Immediately a perfectly normal article turned out.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 April 19 2018 10: 01
      0
      Quote: BAI
      After all, it was possible to do without the Slavic superethnos. Immediately a perfectly normal article turned out.

      you don’t have to investigate history at all, everything is already laid out on shelves, everything is clear, everything has already been stolen before us i.e. invented, and equate history scholars with Holocaust researchers and conduct an article through the Duma. Do you investigate history, doubt? To jail.
      1. BAI
        BAI April 19 2018 11: 36
        +4
        Explore history, doubt? To jail.

        The fact is that this is not research, but the transformation of history into a farce, a joke, etc.
        How do your "studies" differ from "studies: Alexander Dubin:
        : “Recently, Ukrainian historical science has taken a giant step forward, which has global significance.
        Thanks to the titanic research work of our leading scientists, the persistent search for enthusiastic patriots, on the basis of indisputable facts, the historical truth has finally been partially restored, which consists in the fact that Ukraine is the cradle of world civilization, and we, Ukrainians, are its creators. ”

        Or from the "research" of Alexander Stankov:
        It turns out that the name "Kiev" comes from the name of Queen Eve, who founded it. According to Stankov, in the language of some ancient people (ancient ukrov?) “Ki” means “place,” and “Eve” is part of the Queen’s name.

        Please note - manipulating words and parts of words is exactly your method.
  7. Lizzzard
    Lizzzard April 19 2018 10: 12
    0
    An interesting story about courageous people who put everything on the line and hit the big jackpot, if you omit the patches about the suffering of the unfortunate blacks and Muslims.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 April 19 2018 17: 26
      +5
      Yeah, at the same time, the facts of the slave trade, say Muslim pirates, which for centuries devastated the coast of Europe, are somehow delicately hushed up.
      By the way, back in the first half of the 19th century, the chances of getting into some kind of Zindan in Algeria were rather big during a trip around the Mediterranean.
      Until the Europeans (and even the Americans already) cleared this cesspool with their squadrons, they still could not refuse the "business".
      And you can (and should) remember about the Crimean Tatars. When did they make their last raid on Little Russia there? Already in the middle of the 18th century.
      Well, the Negroes themselves willingly traded their compatriots (in the racial sense) - who is the evil Pinocchio for them?
  8. kalibr
    kalibr April 19 2018 14: 31
    +6
    Quote: Bar1
    Explore history, doubt? To jail.

    Do you research? Have you finished? Which university and in what specialty? Then, probably, graduate school, and yes, they defended a dissertation on a chosen topic, well, say, “Historical toponymy of the Middle Volga”? Then came every 5 years of 5 articles in the editions of the Higher Attestation Commission, and in the "Questions of History", right? Is that all you have? But no, this is not a study. It’s as if to explain more clearly to you, clearly ... this is when the boy wants to, “like an uncle”, and he has a pussy back and forth, but there’s no sense. It's too early! So with your "research" - back and forth, and it turns out ... one stupidity.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 April 19 2018 14: 49
      +1
      Quote: kalibr
      Quote: Bar1
      Explore history, doubt? To jail.

      Do you research? Have you finished? Which university and in what specialty? Then, probably, graduate school, and yes, they defended a dissertation on a chosen topic, well, say, “Historical toponymy of the Middle Volga”? Then came every 5 years of 5 articles in the editions of the Higher Attestation Commission, and in the "Questions of History", right? Is that all you have? But no, this is not a study. It’s as if to explain more clearly to you, clearly ... this is when the boy wants to, “like an uncle”, and he has a pussy back and forth, but there’s no sense. It's too early! So with your "research" - back and forth, and it turns out ... one stupidity.

      I read your articles, but although there is education, and even a scientific degree, but the title of researcher does not suit you in any way. Basically, you “research” what has already been written by someone in the West, so it’s inappropriate to boast of your historical background in your case.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr April 19 2018 17: 45
        +1
        I asked you, asked very politely, although I slipped at the end of the example for the sake of ... something. But this is generally an example. So do not translate the answer to me. They don’t do that. Moreover, I’ll even tell you more, you are absolutely right that I am investigating what was written by someone. But there is a special scientific discipline called HISTORIOGRAPHY. You can look in the wiki what is this or in the VAK passport. And moreover, the theme of my main scientific work is just like this: "Modern English-language historiography of the knightly arms of the West and the East" (1958 -2012 gg.) And it was on this topic that the final monograph in Germany was published. So boasting is quite appropriate. Such work in Russia was performed for the first time. Even academic degrees are awarded in the specialty of historiography. The passport of the specialty is VAK 07.00.09. That is, you can verify the truth of my words. And it’s not my fault that you do not know this. But I still hope that you answer exactly my questions. I do not ask for an address, place of work, full name and the card number of Sberbank, but this is quite possible to give.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 19 2018 18: 48
      +1
      You are trying, like a follower of the theory of flat earth, to explain that it is round.
      It does not channel. Flat means flat. Dot.
  9. Spnsr
    Spnsr April 19 2018 14: 52
    0
    The author is getting excited! The world began to be divided two, or even three centuries later, and the British and Russian Empires shared it ... And these, so to speak, were opened for sharing
  10. Weyland
    Weyland April 19 2018 16: 52
    +1
    income from this shameful bloody industry (but very profitable).

    The most profitable - the profit margin was 2500% (for comparison, in the spice trade - 600%).
    "My father, sir, so that you know
    was a major merchant in Greece.
    And the most profitable part
    he worshiped the slave trade. "(" Dog in the Hay ")

    That was the beginning of the Negro trade, a trade that literally devastated the Black Continent, which covered the Europeans with shame for four centuries. Tens of millions of blacks were killed and sold into slavery, died from hunger, exhaustion and disease, from inhuman conditions during transportation and slave labor.
    Europeans - a loose concept! Who was called 150-200 years ago a sick man in Europe, "recall? Under Turkey were all the Balkans and all of North Africa - and it was the Turks and their Arab vassals who brought out more slaves from Africa than all the other Europeans combined!
  11. kalibr
    kalibr April 19 2018 18: 00
    +1
    Quote: Bar1
    For example in Los Angeles on Brighton Beach

    Is Brighton Beach in Los Angeles? He is in the very south of Brooklyn, and Brooklyn is in New York
    1. Curious
      Curious April 19 2018 18: 57
      +2
      For a researcher of such a scale piercing time as a red-hot knife, oil, some 3800 km does not matter.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 April 19 2018 19: 14
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      Quote: Bar1
      For example in Los Angeles on Brighton Beach

      Is Brighton Beach in Los Angeles? He is in the very south of Brooklyn, and Brooklyn is in New York


      Judging by the preservation of the stones, which turned out to be barely sprinkled with sand, the destruction of the temples occurred recently - in the middle or end of the twentieth century. Unlike New York Brighton Beach, California Brighton Beach is often called New Brighton Beach. It is located near the small town of Capitola, about an hour's drive from Silicon Valley. Brighton Beach did not begin to be built up as a city, but remained as a site of untouched nature. Now it is State Park with a California State Beach. It is believed to be the most beautiful State Park camping on the coast south of San Francisco. Previously, everyone was allowed here, now it is necessary to obtain an admission. Vacationers come in their own cars, stop at the campsite, connect to power, take shelter from the rain under the built wooden canopies. It seems that with the equipment of this place, as a resting place, all the remains of Russian churches and Russian sculptures were demolished.

      https://ari.ru/ari/2013/04/27/nadpisi-na-kamnyah-
      s-brayton-bich
      1. Curious
        Curious April 19 2018 20: 21
        0
        Apparently the article was written by the same outstanding researcher of history and geography, like you.
        The place you are talking about has never been called and is not called Brighton Beach. China Beach was called, then New Brighton. And in this New Brighton there is
        New Brighton State Beach - New Brighton Beach.
        And there are twelve such New Brightons in the world from Australia to the USA.
        And Brighton Beach is alone in New York. By the way, on this Brighton Beach found exactly the same sculptures. "Traces of an ancient Slavic civilization were found in New York" - https://www.eg.ru/science/382115/. It can be seen that someone decided to joke on Chudinov.
        Locals say that granite scrap on Brighton Beach is most likely the remains of a city water tank, which in 1903 was broken and taken to the beach for the construction of breakwaters. That is why holes from mounting elements are found on blocks. Faces, according to locals, appeared there between 1976 and 1979. And they allegedly carved their supposedly elderly eccentric foreigner, there is even a version that this is Ernst the Unknown.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 19 2018 20: 25
          0
          Quote: Curious
          Apparently the article was written by the same outstanding researcher of history and geography, like you.
          The place you are talking about has never been called and is not called Brighton Beach. China Beach was called, then New Brighton. And in this New Brighton there is
          New Brighton State Beach - New Brighton Beach.
          And there are twelve such New Brightons in the world from Australia to the USA.
          And Brighton Beach is alone in New York. So push on geography.


          why should i click? I gave you a link to them and write.
          1. Curious
            Curious April 19 2018 20: 35
            +1
            You look, I added a little comment there. And to search for all the folklorists is no time enough. So you yourself there talk to each other, through the Astral, or how you find each other.
        2. Bar1
          Bar1 April 19 2018 23: 40
          0
          Quote: Curious
          Locals say that granite scrap on Brighton Beach is most likely the remains of a city water tank, which in 1903 was broken and taken to the beach for the construction of breakwaters. That is why holes from mounting elements are found on blocks. Faces, according to locals, appeared there between 1976 and 1979. And they allegedly carved their supposedly elderly eccentric foreigner, there is even a version that this is Ernst the Unknown.


          proof of?
          1. Curious
            Curious April 20 2018 01: 41
            +2
            I do not need them, but you can go and talk with the local population. In the end, you are a historian and researcher. I’m not trying to convince you. Do you want to see Russian gods in America? Some do not see this, and not only in America. The main thing - do not bother normal people with your visions and look at your health.
          2. kalibr
            kalibr April 20 2018 12: 58
            +3
            But I would still like to get an answer to my questions "with whom I have the honor." It is not good to get away from directly asked questions, it can be interpreted very badly.