Spring 1921 of the year was hot in every sense. Chaos and crisis reigned in the country. To put up with the power of the Bolsheviks, the sailors were tired first, then the peasants. It was at this time that Dybenko became useful to the party elite. For services he was honored with his first order of the Red Banner. The irony is that "the reward found its hero" for the suppression of the uprising of their own "brothers" - the sailors of Kronstadt.
In that confrontation, Pavel Efimovich used the so-called “barrage detachments”. By order of Dybenko, the soldiers fired at their own, who either refused to attack the fortress or retreated.
Not without the pathos so beloved by Pavel Efimovich. In his address to "the comrades of the old sailors of Kronstadt" he declared: "Save the honor of the glorious revolutionary name of the Baltic, now disgraced by the traitors. Save the Red Baltic Fleet! ”
After the suppression of the uprising, the deputy head of the special department Yudin reported: “The 561 th regiment, having moved a half and a half to Kronstadt, refused to go on the offensive. The reason is unknown. Tov. Dybenko ordered to deploy the second chain and shoot at the returnees. The 561 regiment is taking repressive measures against their Red Army soldiers in order to make them go on the offensive. ”
Dybenko tried to curry favor with Lenin, because he feared for his future. Therefore, with particular bitterness, he began to suppress the rebellion of the sailors. Moreover, the fact that his old acquaintance, Stepan Petrichenko, was at the head of the insurgency did not stop him either. The top of the party praised the irony - the former rebel punished the current rebel.
The exact number of sailors killed in that uprising is still unknown. Estimates by historians range from seven to fifteen thousand people. Personally, Dybenko issued more than two thousand death sentences. Those sailors who were promised pardon for the surrender of the fortress were sent to a concentration camp. Of course, no one came back from there. Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky, after the suppression of the uprising, recalled: "I have been in the war for five years, but I cannot remember ever seeing such a bloody massacre."
When the rebellion was over, Pavel Efimovich became the commandant of Kronstadt. While in a new position, Dybenko again remembered his literary talent. And soon he wrote the book "Rebellion", where he described in detail the bloody events of March 1921. Of course, he paid special attention to his exploits and heroism. He dedicated the book to Alexandra Kollontai. One more thing is interesting: many researchers have doubts that it was Dybenko who wrote the “Rebellion”. After all, he was illiterate. Contemporaries recalled that if it was required to write a sentence in a few words, Pavel Efimovich had certain difficulties. Therefore, authorship is attributed to just Kollontai. Therefore, it is not known for sure whether Dybenko himself created other books: “October in the Baltic,” “In the bowels of the tsar’s fleet"," From the bowels of the tsarist fleet to the Great October Revolution "," Revolutionary Baltic. "
At the new place Dybenko failed to stay. Already in April, an uprising of peasants broke out in the Tambov region. He, as the main “expert” in the insurrection, was sent to eliminate this problem. And Dybenko tried his best, saying: “It’s not necessary to go wild with these bastards ...”
How many people died during the suppression of “Antonovshchina” is not known for sure. According to various estimates, the number of victims exceeds eleven thousand people. The dead people are the price paid by Pavel Efimovich for the love of the party elite. He was called the "hero" and given the post of chief of troops of the West Black Sea coast. Dybenko in the halo of glory and greatness returned to familiar places. Here, by the way, he was also well remembered. The events of 1919, many have deposited in memory. And in June, 1921, Pavel Efimovich became the commander of the 51 th Moscow (Perekop) rifle division.
In Ukraine, hunger reigned. Dybenko’s soldiers plundered villages, killing residents who refused to obey and share their food. Pavel Efimovich looked at the behavior of his subordinates through his fingers, explaining that soldiers need to “eat well”. Naturally, the confrontation began again with representatives of local authorities. Dybenko called them "idlers" and offered to "disperse" the Odessa executive committee. Those, in turn, tried to achieve the transfer of the hated "hero." But their attempts were unsuccessful. To all requests, Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze, the commander of the troops of Soviet Ukraine, answered succinctly: “watch Vybenko vigilantly.” The reputation of the unreliable commander did not affect the career of Pavel Efimovich.
For two families
Continuing to abuse alcohol, Dybenko graduated from the Military Academy, and the external "as particularly talented." And all the controls, and even the thesis for him, of course, did Kollontai. And Pavel Efimovich at that time was “exploring the situation” in the taverns of Odessa. Alexandra Mikhailovna tried to sensitize her husband: “Your body has already succumbed to the destructive poison of alcohol. If you drink a trifle and you lose your mental balance. You have become all yellow, the eyes are abnormal ... ”Dybenko just waved away.
Soon he had a new sweetheart - Valentina Stafilevskaya. For a while Dybenko tried to live in two families. When Kollontai found out about this, she decided to finally break with her husband. But ottyagivala this moment to the last, as if, believed that her husband would change. But when Pavel Efimovich once again returned home in the morning, she declared: “Don't lie. I don't care where you were. It's all over between us. On Wednesday I am going to Moscow. Totally. You can do what you want - I don't care. ”
Then there were a few more scandals and, in the end, Kollontai declared her husband a divorce. Dybenko reacted painfully to the threat. Here is what Alexandra Mikhailovna wrote in her diary: “Pavel quickly, in a military manner, turned and hurried to the house. I was wondering: why is he in such a hurry? But I was slow. Why, why did I not rush after him? Rising along the stairs of the terrace, I heard a shot ... Pavel was lying on the stone floor, a trickle of blood was flowing over the French. Paul was still alive. The Order of the Red Banner rejected the bullet, and she walked past the heart ... It was only later that I learned that that evening the “beautiful girl” gave him an ultimatum: either I or she.
Dybenko survived thanks to the care of Kollontai. But the suicide attempt did not change her decisions. She left her husband and went to Moscow. And Pavel Efimovich married young Valentina in 1923 year. But the health of "sailor" strongly passed. He now and then complained of pain in his heart, periodic loss of consciousness. Valya, who married a “hero of the revolution,” was surprised to find that Dybenko was a banal alcoholic with a difficult temper and poor health. She didn’t need such a “hero”. Dybenko first encountered a situation where he did not do what he wanted. Valya did not perceive him, she "turned the novels" with diplomats and generals. True, Pavel Efimovich was also not very loyal ... Besides, he unexpectedly missed his first wife. When the sailor learned that Alexandra Mikhailovna became an adviser to the USSR Embassy in Norway, she sent her a letter: “I love you! I want to go to Norway. ” In other epistles, he complained to Kollontai about his wife, calling her "intolerable." Therefore, a divorce for both was a huge relief.
At the beginning of the 30-s, Dybenko had a new passion - athlete Zinaida Erutina. Nothing good came out of this relationship either. Yerutina threw drunken Dybenko, throwing him a child. And the boy was not from him.
The ordinary wife of Zinaida Karpova became the third wife of the “hero of the revolution”. She left her husband for him, trying to save Pavel Efimovich from his addiction to alcohol. It turned out badly. True, for a short time, Dybenko still changed his mind. But the quiet family life with his wife and two step-sons was not for him. In addition, in the 1933, he was given the Volga Military District. Here, Dybenko began a confrontation with another “hero of the revolution” —Compearer Ivan Kutyakov. Both had by that time three orders of the Red Banner and many legends about the "glorious past." They were trite closely in the same military district. Kutyakov, who was Dybenko’s deputy, was extremely disagree with this situation. Therefore, he tried his best to push his boss in every possible way.
For Kutyakova, it has become an everyday thing to send denunciations to his boss in Moscow. By and large, Ivan Semenovich did not lie in his slander. But in the capital and without him, they knew about Dybenko's deep drunkenness, and about his very scarce military talents. Tukhachevsky also opposed Pavel Efimovich, but this also led to nothing. Moreover, Dybenko even went to Germany for an internship. Ended voyage failure. The Germans were laconic: "From a military point of view - absolute zero." But Pavel Efimovich continued to hold the post, was reinstated in the party and became a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In 1937, the repression began. Kutyakov, arrested in May of the same year, came under attack. Dybenko could not feel safe. But he held on, in every way ingratiating himself before the authorities. When Tukhachevsky came to him to take Privolzhsky district, Pavel Efimovich long pulled, and then took part in the arrest of Mikhail Nikolayevich.
But it was getting harder to stay afloat every day. Pavel Efimovich accepted the rules of the game and became “echelons” to send denunciations of his colleagues to Moscow. He visited the indictment process against Tukhachevsky. Such behavior brought its dividends. Dybenko became one of the members of the Special Court Presence, which passed the verdict on the “military case”.
Having sent the highest military leaders to the death penalty, Pavel Efimovich felt secure for a short time.
But ... several months passed and Dybenko was summoned to the meetings of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee. Here they asked him to "open up." Pavel Efimovich with horror learned that he was suspected of spying for Germany and the USA. Dybenko was spinning, as they say, like in a skillet. And ... again managed to delay the seemingly inevitable death. He was released. But the sailor understood perfectly well that this was only the beginning. He panicked and sent a letter to Stalin, in which he wrote: “I was not one minute alone with the Americans. After all, I do not speak American. "
But at the end of January 1938, Stalin and Molotov signed a special resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on the fact of the “betrayal of Dybenko”. It was for certain established that he was in contact with the American representatives (spies?) And in general, "morally decayed ... gave a very bad example to his subordinates." It was also said that Sister Dybenko, who lived in the United States, received allowances from the Americans, allegedly at the request of Pavel Yefimovich. Most likely, Dybenko and, however, tried to recruit, but he ... this did not seem to understand. And the tops simply decided to play it safe, because the sailor was tired of everyone for a long time. And the services of the “hero of the revolution” in the changed world were no longer needed.
But first, he was fired from the army, appointing Deputy Commissar of the forest industry, in the "order of the last test." He went to the Urals to inspect the camps for political prisoners, that is, to monitor the implementation of the plan for logging in the GULAG system. I wonder if Dybenko understood the subtle hint and cynicism of the party? Because only a few days later, Pavel Efimovich was arrested in Sverdlovsk. He was accused of “military-fascist conspiracy” and connections with Tukhachevsky, called the spy of the USA and Germany (and the accusation said that he worked for them already from 1915 of the year). The investigation lasted five months, during which interrogations alternated with torture. In the end, Pavel Efimovich confessed to all crimes except espionage. Trying to escape, he wrote to Stalin, emphasizing his merits in establishing the power of the Bolsheviks. But Joseph Vissarionovich did not spare the disgraced "hero of the revolution." And in July 1938, Dybenko was shot.
Pavel Efimovich was rehabilitated after the XX Party Congress in 1956 year.