Military Review

Conflict on the CER: end of concession

They built, built

The CER itself was conceived as a large-scale project that forms the infrastructure and marked the beginning of the internationalization of domestic business through the export of capital. The construction and operation of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) was one of the most instructive examples of public-private partnerships at the international level.

The concession of the CER was conceived in 80 years to not only directly connect Chita with Vladivostok, but also to help Russian expansion in Northeast China. Wars and revolutions markedly reduced its effectiveness, which led to the sale of the CER to the Manzhou-Guo state in just 32 a year after the start of operation. But in August, 1945-th road completely paid for itself, ensuring the uninterrupted supply of the Red Army, smashing the samurai in Manchuria.

The construction of the CER is inextricably linked to history Structures of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which began to be built in 1891 year. Three years later, it turned out that it would be economically feasible to straighten the Far Eastern section of the road by laying a route through Manchuria. The main inspirer of the project S.Yu. Witte regarded it as a springboard for Russian expansion in China, which in its confrontation with Japan favorably perceived the strengthening of relations with Russia. At the end of 1895, on the initiative of S.Yu. Witte was organized by the Russian-Chinese Bank. China agreed to hold the railway through Manchuria to Vladivostok (and it was the Chinese who gave the name of the CER), and Russia received the coveted concession. But a number of foreign researchers believe that China, for which Manchuria was a periphery, hoped to settle there itself, relying on Russian infrastructure investments.

In May, 1896 was concluded in Moscow a secret agreement on the Russian-Chinese military alliance and the construction of the CER (the document was fully published only in 20-s). According to this agreement, the right to build and use the CER was not received directly by the tsarist government, but by the Russian-Chinese bank. This bank was under strict Russian state control, had capital in 6 million gold rubles, and 5 / 8 from these funds came from four French banks. The cost of building the road was almost two orders of magnitude more than the bank’s capital, and a significant part of the funding was raised through the issuance of securities. The first issue of bonds with a volume of 15 million rubles in 1897 was distributed by the Russian-Chinese Bank itself, subsequent issues by the Russian government.

At the end of the summer of 1896, a contract was signed in Berlin for the construction and operation of the CER (published only in 1916). The contract provided for the creation by the Russian-Chinese Bank of a special joint-stock company of the Chinese Eastern Railway. The capital of the Company was five million gold rubles (five thousand shares at the price of one thousand rubles). The chairman of the board of the CER Society was appointed by the Chinese government, and received maintenance from the Society. The road manager was appointed by the Russian government. From a financial point of view, it is the Russian government that is committed to guaranteeing the CER company to cover all the costs of operating the highway and servicing payments on bonds. The state lands necessary for the construction, operation and protection of the main line were transferred to the Chinese-Eastern Railway Society free of charge, and private lands were redeemed to them.

The CER company received a number of significant customs and tax benefits. After the construction was completed, the CER Society provided a lucrative loan to the Chinese government. At the same time, the Chinese government had the right to redeem the CER ahead of schedule through 36 years after its opening, but on conditions of full reimbursement of all construction costs, as well as repayment of all debts of the CER Company with interest. Otherwise, China received the road without compensation at the end of the term of the concession (that is, taking into account the launch of the road - 1 July 1983 of the year).

Construction of the road began immediately from two sides - from Vladivostok and Chita. In 1898, Russia received the right from China to extend the terms of the concession also to the construction of the southern branch of the CER that goes to Port Arthur, which was rented along with the site for the construction of the Dalniy port for 25 years. After the defeat in the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. this section went to the Japanese under the name of the South Manchurian Railway.

Survey work on the future railway line was carried out in record time, and as early as 1898, builders began excavation work (in the southern section, in 1899). At the same time, the city of Harbin was laid, which later became the economic center of all of Northeast China. Since 1898, the Dalniy commercial port (at present, the city of Dalian) has also been built by the efforts of the Chinese-Eastern Railway Society. At the same time, 30 million gold rubles were spent on its construction in seven years.

By the summer of the 1900, about 1,4 thousands of km of tracks (57%) were laid on the CER, including the southern branch, movement began in some sections. However, the Ihetuan (Boxing) Uprising broke out in China, and for the first time the XVUMX on June 23 was attacked by the CER. As a result, a significant part of the railway, infrastructure facilities and station buildings were destroyed. After the uprising, only 1900 km of tracks remained intact, and the losses amounted to 430 million rubles, but later the Chinese government reimbursed them to the CER Society. The railroad was rebuilt and completed in an accelerated mode, and in June 71 of the year it was ready - 1903 stations and 92 tunnels were built, although, as is usually the case in Russia, some additions were made during the mainline operation, including the period of the Russian-Japanese war . But even then, 9 new patrols (146 km of track) were laid for operational troop transfer.

The positions of Japan strengthened and the uncertain status of the CER made itself felt as soon as Russia's relations with China deteriorated. Already in 1906, the Chinese questioned the conditions of a concession formally signed with a private Russian-Chinese bank. Russian diplomats had to defend all the conditions of the concession on the CER, since it was the only legal basis for the stay of Russian troops in Manchuria. At the same time, the refusal of the status of a state-owned enterprise ensured a more favorable attitude of the Chinese towards the Russian presence in the CER area.

In anticipation of the storm

The Russian-Japanese war did not allow the CER to concentrate on commercial shipments. Even after its termination the highway served military needs. Only with 1907, regular transportation of private goods and passengers was resumed on the CER.

In 1905, the southern branch of the CER and the access to the Yellow Sea were lost. Plans for the active use of the Trans-Siberian Railway for the transit of goods from Europe to Asia have been threatened. Cargo delivery by rail from Vladivostok to Hamburg or Liverpool was several times more expensive than transportation by sea. As a result, more ¾ traffic on the CER in peaceful 1907-1913. they were not connected with transit (tea, etc.), but by internal transportation and export of timber, coal and grain cargoes. Accelerated construction of the Amur railway - the Transsib section on the territory of Russia, also did not contribute to the prosperity of the CER.

From a financial point of view, the loss of the southern branch of the CER and the port of Dalniy led to large losses. With the consent of the Russian Minister of Finance, part of the bond capital and loans falling proportionally on the southern branch, as well as capital for the construction of the port and the city of Dalny and for the organization and operation of the shipping company of the Company were withdrawn from the Company's accounts. Bond loans attributed to these enterprises (5, 6, 8, 9 and 10) were canceled.

The short period of peaceful life of the CER did not have a large economic effect, although the traffic grew rather quickly. With the beginning of the World War, the highway again switched to military goods. The total freight turnover in 1914 was slightly reduced - to 1,1 million tons. Some economic revival in the Society of the Chinese Eastern Railway caused the transfer of the Ussurian railway located on the territory of Russia to it, which naturally caused controversy in the State Duma, since the state-owned enterprise was handed over to a formally private foreign road.

The development of the economic potential of Northeast China has increased the demand for the services of the CER and, consequently, its income. Already by 1910, the road did not have a shortage in operation, and in 1915-1917. The CER did not even need additional payments for the functioning of the Russian government. The financial problems of the CER Society were caused not so much by the activity of the road itself, but rather by participation in financing various projects for the development of Manchuria. As is customary, alas, in Russia, it was not done without inefficient, inappropriate use of funds. In addition, in the actual management of the CER, the Russian military administration always played a special role before the 1917 revolution.

An analysis of the economic role of the CER should not be limited only to an assessment of the activity of the main line itself (the length of the main branch was 1726 km plus access roads and forest branches), which indeed has been unprofitable for most of the years. Indeed, even the CER Society was not limited to the railway: it owned workshops in Harbin, a shipping company flotilla, power plants, Zhalaynor coal mines. The company received the right to explore and develop coal deposits at a distance of approximately 17,3 km (30 li) on both sides of the railway, but it was necessary to buy or rent land for coal mining. As for shipping, before the Russo-Japanese War, the CER Society was engaged in shipping by 20 ships, and after the loss of Dalniy, it owned only the river fleet on the Sungari.

On the other hand, thanks to the CER in Russian North-East China, Russian trade has sharply increased, and Russian entrepreneurs have implemented a number of investment projects. In addition, in Harbin, social infrastructure was developing rapidly, as they would now say. In general, by the end of 1914, Russian private investments in the region reached almost 91 million rubles, but this was only 15% of Russian direct investments in Manchuria - the rest was taken by the CER itself.

Sell ​​in a Soviet way

Civil war and intervention have not bypassed the CER, and its turnover in the 1918 year has decreased compared to the 1917 year in 170 times! Under the pretext of fighting against the communist influence of 27 in December 1917, the Chinese government banned the export of food, including tea, to Russia, and in January, 1918 closed the border altogether. At the same time, the white emigration gave a new significant impetus to the economic development of Harbin and the area around the highway.

By a decree of 17 (4) of December 1917, the Council of People's Commissars unilaterally changed the terms of the 1896 contract of the year and nationalized the Russian-Asian Bank, transferring its functions to the National (State) Bank. In February 1918, the former board of the Society of the Chinese-Eastern Railway in Petrograd was dissolved. Nominally, the CER transferred to the competence of the People's Commissariat of Railways of the RSFSR, although for several years the actual control over the main line did not belong to the new Soviet power.

When the Soviet Union and China established diplomatic relations in 1924, the USSR abandoned a number of “special rights and privileges in Manchuria. This led to the elimination of Russian concessions in Harbin and a number of other Chinese cities, however, the CER remained under the control and service of the Soviet side. In 1925-1927 Soviet-Chinese trade came to life, and, as a result, the volume of freight traffic on the Chinese-Eastern Railway began to grow.

True, then a new aggravation of relations between the two countries began, and the role of provocateurs had to be played by detachments formed from former White Guards who had settled in Harbin. In July, 1929, with their support, the Chinese attempted to alienate the road.

The raid on the board of the CEL in Harbin and its institutions along the entire line of the road to the station Pogranichnaya was accompanied by the arrest of Soviet employees and the rupture of diplomatic relations. At the same time, the authorities of Mukden and Nanking refused from a peaceful settlement of the issue, which in August led to the rupture of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Kuomintang China. The Mukden troops and the Russian White Guards began military operations against the Soviet troops in the Amur and Transbaikalia, but units of the Special Far Eastern Army, entering the territory of Dongbei, unexpectedly quickly defeated them.

The outcome of the conflict was summed 22 December 1929, in Khabarovsk - the Chinese were forced to sign a protocol to restore the status quo of the CER. The Chinese authorities even pledged to disarm the White Guards, sending their commanders out of Dongbei. The USSR responded immediately with the withdrawal of troops from the north-east of China. These events and received in the historical literature the name "Conflict on the CER".

But already in 1931, Japan began the seizure of Manchuria, and it became clear that the fate of Soviet participation in the CER concession was predetermined. After many months of negotiations, which began in June 1933 of the year and were accompanied by hard trade at a price when there were several series of counter offers, the USSR and the puppet state of Manzhou-Guo agreed to sell the CER for 140 million yen. The USSR agreed to receive two-thirds of the sum with Japanese goods for two years, another part - in cash upon the conclusion of an agreement, and something - even Manzhou-Guo Treasury obligations guaranteed by the Japanese government (with an annual yield of 4%).

In August, 1945, after the defeat of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, the CER returned to Soviet control. Already on August 14, the Soviet-Chinese agreement on the China Changchun Railway was signed (the CER and the southern branch to Port Arthur, which returned to its subordination, was named). This document established a joint company on a parity basis for operating the road solely for commercial purposes with the subsequent transfer of the entire road to China free of charge in the 1975 year. But at the height of Stalin’s friendship with Mao Zedong, the road was finally transferred to the PRC much earlier, at the beginning of the 1950s.
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  1. moskowit
    moskowit April 16 2018 06: 28
    Interesting ... Unfortunately, the authors paid very little attention to the military conflict on the CER ...
    1. moskowit
      moskowit April 16 2018 06: 45
      Although they put the word "conflict" in the title of the article .....
      It’s easy to find a very interesting book online ... I sincerely recommend it ...
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 16 2018 08: 06
        Quote: moskowit
        It’s easy to find a very interesting book online ... I sincerely recommend it ...

        There are three of these books; the last ends in 1991.
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist April 16 2018 17: 34
      Moskvit, if you or someone else from comrades is interested in Russian-Chinese relations and the issue of conflict on the CER, I recommend the book: A. Ostrov, "In the Battles for the Celestial Empire. Russian Trace in China." The author talks about Russian-Chinese relations from the rally of the Ietoans “boxing uprising”, about the conflict on the CER, the help of the Soviet Union to China (without Russia and the Soviet Union they were ZERO), Chinese provocations from the Tuapse ship, “some should remember these events, military conflict in Damansky. If you look at what the Chinese did to us in 1967 and Pan Pedro is now heaven and earth. The author reinforces everything with links to documents.
      I believe that this book will appeal to all those who have a serious opinion of this issue.
      I can still recommend: Yanchevitsky's “At the Walls of Immovable China,” the author talks about Boxer’s restoration, he himself is a participant and an eyewitness of those events, but it is worth a lot. The book is on the Internet in Litres (I don’t “make friends” with him like money). Even the introductory passage shows: a good book
  2. Amurets
    Amurets April 16 2018 07: 33
    Thank. Good but not enough. Authors, it was possible to write a whole series of articles on this topic. “The CER suffered the first losses in 1905. By the way, it played a rather negative rather than a positive role in the Russo-Japanese war. The commander-in-chief adjutant A. Kuropatkin, very afraid to lose the only railway link connecting our troops with Russia, constantly pressed to the southern branch of the CER, hampering the freedom of maneuver and making it easier for the enemy to bypass and reach.
    In 1924, the USSR and China signed an agreement on joint operation and ownership of the road. Now the staff of the CER should have been half Chinese, half Soviet. But in reality, parity was not respected for long. There was a civil war in China, and the warring parties tried to use the CER for their military interests. This led to the fact that in January 1926 the Soviet road manager Ivanov even banned transportation for the Chinese.
    More than twenty thousand Soviet employees and railway workers arrived on the CER. In the “alienation strip” there was a unique situation that existed before only in the Far Eastern Republic (1920–1922): the peaceful coexistence of the “red” and “white” (the number of which ranged from 70000 to 200000 in different years). "Https: / /
    1. podymych
      April 16 2018 08: 12
      Kuropatkin, alas, did not allow him to actually bring him to a sufficiently competent maneuver during a retreat. That is why he clung to the CER that the closer to Russia, the more powerful the flow of supplies and reinforcements. And the flaunted Witte, at the suggestion of the tops, who were frankly afraid of the revolutionaries, clearly hurried with the signing of the peace. We would draw time while reserves would be so much that the exhausted Japanese would have passed everything to us. Why did everything so famously work out in 45, just because we already had a military industry in the east of the country? Is it only due to the large number of troops that were holding in case of a Yap strike? No, and again no - communications began to function normally! But even that, it took almost three months to transfer from the West to the East
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 16 2018 08: 42
        Quote: podymych
        No, and again no - communications began to function normally! But even then, it took almost three months to transfer from West to East

        I agree with you. At the Yalta Conference, Stalin therefore said that he needed three months after the end of the war in Europe to transfer troops to the Far East. Although it came across in memoirs, it is rarely true that after January 1, 1945, soldiers and officers discharged from hospitals were sent not to the western fronts, but to the 1st; 2nd Far Eastern and Transbaikal fronts
    2. kan123
      kan123 April 22 2018 07: 29
      Kuropatkin did everything according to the textbooks - he was building up the group, and she demanded to be tied to the source of her strength, to the rear - to the warehouses along the railway. No one except the Japanese, until then, conducted such operations with whole armies. This was the first example of maneuver warfare. What does the Japanese have to do this involuntarily - while trains from the Heb. parts of the Republic of Ingushetia, drove manpower and supplies of the Russian army, the Japanese ate the last.
      Kuropatkin could only wait for them to run out of breath and keep the defense, - he writes in his memoirs that he could not accomplish this, due to stupid officers, in all positions. In translation, this meant that in St. Petersburg, by all sorts of intrigues, noblemen were appointed, they wrote down their posts, and they came to Kuropatkin with "moths the size of a footcloth" signed by Her Highness, and they began to create art, and Kuropatkin had to run, grabbing his ass, so that he himself would not be surrounded with his headquarters by the ancestors of the noblemen. Already then it became a habit to receive posts from the hands of the empress.
  3. antivirus
    antivirus April 16 2018 09: 04
    We have little experience participating in the "life of other states." Britons have enough. here they’re climbing with their "vision of chemical attacks."
    need cultural expansion.
    What Mikhalkov and Shargunov can offer Bulgaria (all the Balkans) and Syria? —The answer to this question gives %% the profit of Gazprom and Rosneft. including taxes to the budget of the Russian Federation.
    And not vice versa, sponsorship money for the culture from the "oil industry"
  4. iouris
    iouris April 16 2018 12: 09
    Very similar to South Stream.
  5. andrew42
    andrew42 April 16 2018 17: 31
    CER as a concession in the territory of the Chinese state, without being included in Manchuria as part of Russia, is utter stupidity. This is not "export of capital", but its release and return to someone else's pocket. If the tsarist government can still be justified, since Manchuria seriously intended to wring it out, then without such annexation (let us call it by its own name), this is a situation like a suitcase without a handle, and it requires money, and it is a pity to refuse. Alas and ah, doing business with the Chinese in such a way that a "Chinese manager" is appointed - you can immediately write off capital investments as losses because the Chinese will squeeze out as soon as they get access to the disposal of money, at all times, that earlier, now. The guarantee of such investments can only be "guns", and 100% legal, military, economic control over the territory, plus the ethnic composition of the population as a sufficient condition (see the phenomenon of "Maidan"). Do not FIG build such "structures" if the land is not yours - it is clear to the "summer resident", and even more so about the state.
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 16 2018 17: 57
    Authors, I am disappointed: could do 2-3 articles on this topic and tell more.
    In general, Russian-Chinese relations are a very, very interesting topic. Starting with the Nerchensky Treaty, a curious detail: the then State Security then checked and then questioned diplomats. Apparently, there were reasons for the Robbery’s order to be interested in this agreement.
  7. nnz226
    nnz226 April 16 2018 18: 13
    Russian flag. Konovyazi.
    The talk of the Cossacks.
    No to the former and timid connection, -
    Russian rock is like that.

    Engineer. Open the gate.
    Flask. Carbine.
    - We’ll build a Russian city here,
    Let's call it Harbin.
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 16 2018 19: 14
    In my opinion, the agreement on the CER at that time corresponded to the interests of Russia and China: in the case or not, now there’s a different conversation, Russia received Port Arthur, if I couldn’t need Dalniy, then I needed a railway. The authors provide interesting figures about profits
  9. Sanya Terek
    Sanya Terek April 16 2018 20: 13
    One of the necessary prerequisites for the successful construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria was the creation of reliable military security both for the track and structures, and for service and technical personnel. Legally, the contract for the construction of the road excluded the possibility of sending Russian regular troops to Manchuria, so on May 10, 1897 At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the CER Railway, a decision was made: "To establish a special guard for the CER, to equip it with civilian army reserve forces." The formation of these units was entrusted to the commander of the 4th Trans-Caspian Rifle Brigade, Colonel A.A. Gerngross with the appointment of his chief chief of the Guard. The main principles of the Security Guard device were developed by agreement of the Minister of Finance with the Minister of War. Security of the CER was built on the principle of the troops of the Separate Corps of the Border Guard (OKPS). Hundreds of Guardians in the service and in everyday life should have been guided by the relevant military regulations. The head of the guard was equal in rights to the commander of the OKPS brigade, hundreds of commanders to division commanders, their assistants to detachment commanders, and military commanders to wahmisters. The guard was equipped with volunteer officers from the army, Cossack and border units, who "temporarily resigned, as it were." Officers transferred to the Guard kept the rights of active civil service, and they continued to be on the lists of their units, despite being credited to the reserve, and had the right to return to their units, even in excess of vacancies. Initially, five horse-drawn hundreds were formed with a total number of 711 people: one from the Terek Cossack army, two from the Kuban, one from the Orenburg and one hundred mixed personnel from Orenburg and reserve ranks of the Trans-Caspian rifle battalions. 12th of January 1898 the first hundreds of guards arrived in Ningutu. Since it turned out that the available Guard was not enough, its composition was decided to be increased to 2 thousand. people. In October 1897 the formation of new 10 hundreds of 1390 people began. They included: one - Terek, two - Kuban, three - Don, three - Orenburg and one - Ural. The quantitative strengthening of the Guard continued as construction work progressed. According to the decree of the emperor of October 22, 1898 Security guard increased to 5 thousand. people. The distribution of guards by posts along the CER line was determined by the progress of work. Hundreds usually occupied plots extending up to 120 versts. Companies were stretched to a section of up to 360 miles. Hundreds and companies formed mixed posts and carried security, reconnaissance and postal services, accompanied by road employees and convoys. In addition, they occupied a site on the river. Sungari from Harbin to Khabarovsk for the protection of ship traffic. In 1898 was one and a half hundred served sailors on the ships of the CER Railway Company. Two hundred were guarded by logging in the vicinity of Jirin. The Guard Service consisted of continuous patrolling along the line from post to post and guarding of sentry work performed. At the posts, observation towers and "milestones" were constructed, which were a tall pillar wrapped in straw. During an alarm or attack, the straw was set on fire, which served as a signal for neighboring posts. The intelligence service was carried out by hundreds of horses. Near reconnaissance was carried out at 25 versts on both sides of the railway (the sphere of direct protection), and long-range reconnaissance (sphere of influence) another 75 versts. In the process of equipping the Russians in Manchuria, road guard officers were assigned the investigating unit in the CER railroad exclusion zone, followed by referral of cases to judicial institutions of the Amur and Primorsky Regions, and at the locations of the Guard posts, her ranks were charged with the duties of the gendarme service and the Zemstvo police. June 2, 1900 Security guards consisted of 69 officers, 9 class officials, 3 clergy and 4658 guards; the size of the annual expense for its maintenance was 2,35 million. rub. The guard headquarters was located in Harbin. The entire guard was divided into “lines” according to sections of the road: Sungariyskaya (line chief Colonel P.N. Denisov with headquarters at st. Imianpo), Argun (line commander Colonel A.F. Zubkovsky with headquarters at st. Fulaherdi), Port Arthur (line chief Colonel P.I. Mishchenko with headquarters at st. Telin.) The first years of service for the Guard were marked by the fight against the Hunhus, whose attacks on the railroad began in the summer of 1898. The following year, the activity of the Hunhuz increased: during 1899 there were seven attacks on railway employees, there were raids on villages occupied by Russian garrisons: while one part of the Hunkhuz distracted the garrison, the other seized the intended victims as hostages in order to get a ransom for them.
    With the development of work, conflicts between Russians and Chinese began to become more frequent. The first serious clashes occurred at the end of 1898 near Chantufu. In August 1899, in the Telin region, the population of the surrounding villages prevented the start of construction work. It came to a battle involving Chinese soldiers and the use of artillery. During demarcation works near the Bizzyvo Bay, riots arose among local residents: an armed crowd of 400 people, protesting against the collection of taxes, attacked the Cossack post.
    The penetration of Europeans into China caused a movement against foreigners, which swept the masses and the ruling circles. The organizer of this movement was the religious society "Ihetuan". The programmatic requirements of these Etuans were: the liberation of the country from a foreign presence, the fight against the Christian church, support for the Qing imperial dynasty. An uprising broke out in Shandong. The buildup of forces and the Guard began. June 2, 1900 S.Yu. Witte came out with a proposal to increase the composition of the guard to 6 thousand, and already on June 16 to 7 thousand people, but this was not enough, since in addition to garrisons, special routes were needed to protect the route, which could be used in case of complications in the exclusion zone. Therefore, on June 22, Nicholas II allowed to increase the number of guards to 11 thousand people.
    On June 22, the railway was attacked by the Chinese in many sections. Railway employees and guards retreated, pursued by detachments of Chinese troops. Considering that up to 75 thousand Chinese government troops were in Manchuria and more than 100 thousand rebels were operating, the chief engineer ordered by order of June 28, 1900, to remove all road employees and guards from work. On the Western branch, the retreat was from Tsitsikar through the Khingan Pass to Transbaikalia, on the Eastern branch - from Shitouhezi to Amur, on the South branch - from Liaoyang to Port Arthur and Dalniy. While the message on the river. The Sungari was not interrupted; they managed to evacuate women and children and those railway employees who accompanied the financial statements from Harbin. By the end of June 1900, the Chinese took possession of the entire line with the exception of Harbin, the eastern branch of the road from the river. Mudanjiang to Art. Border and in the south - from Yingkou to Port Arthur. On June 27, 1900, Harbin was cut off from the outside world, as the Chinese disabled the telegraph. The Russians arrived in the city, retreating from the line. Head of the Guardian General A.A. Gerngross took over the general defense of the city. Russian forces in Harbin amounted to 2 thousand guards and 1 thousand armed reserve lower ranks. In addition, a volunteer force was formed from among the volunteers, which took an active part in the defense of the city. More than 8 thousand Chinese who concentrated on artillery were armed against Harbin. But the defenders of the city withstood the blows of superior enemy forces.
    The siege of Harbin ended on July 21 with the arrival on the ships from Khabarovsk of a detachment of General V.V. Sakharov. By August 20, the CER railway for 1380 miles was liberated from the rebels; September 23 completed the liberation of the southern branch of the road. All the main areas of Manchuria were taken under control by Russian troops. The builders and the Guard have returned to their direct responsibilities. Locals who were in the ranks of the troops went home. The alien population and the remnants of the defeated Chinese troops replenished the gang of hunhus. The task of destroying these detachments near the railway was assigned to the Guard units both independently and in cooperation with regular Russian troops.
    An analysis of the actions of the Security Guard in the summer of 1900 showed the need to improve its organizational and staff structure in accordance with its tasks. Based on the role that she played in guarding the road during the Ichtuan revolt, at the suggestion of S.Yu. Witte was transferred to the commander of the Separate Border Guard Corps (OKPS) commander on December 4, 1900, and on December 9, 1900, the "highest order" followed to increase the security guard to 16 thousand people. On January 41, 9 " the highest order "on the formation on the basis of the Security Guard of a special district of the OKPS, while maintaining the district was the responsibility of the CER. On February 1901, 16, the emperor ordered "the newly formed OKPS District for the protection of the CER to be called Zaamursky."
  10. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 16 2018 23: 31
    The article is good, but there is nothing about the military conflict of 1929 of the year. But the first Soviet-made MS-1 tanks were used there for the first time.
  11. kan123
    kan123 April 22 2018 07: 02
    They wrote nonsense, about Witte - even by year, you can guess who made the decision - 1894 - Alexander died, but the new king is healthy - Nikolai Sanych. There was a meeting on the CER, Witte alone was opposed, as noted in the meeting journal. And then they scribbled that it was he, Witte, who invented this monstrous stupidity. Nikolai Sanych, I wanted to get even with the Japanese, because they broke his highness there on the head with a saber. It didn’t occur to Alexander to “cut off a little” the Siberian road - he had not lost his mind yet. Witte fenced off Nikolai, the walked around, wrote about the whole lobby, which wanted to capture China and Korea, Germany and Turkey, etc. - but what was there to fence off - the same cretins' lobby was under Alexander, but he didn’t execute such kookies. Nicholas alone, personally, decided to seize China. This decision of his simply does not fit into the brain, what kind of cockroaches settled in the head of the emperor.
    The railway was occupying, aggressive, the Communists immediately sold it - along this road, there was simply no other fate.
    It is unclear why this is written - is it supposed that we are a national humiliation or something, that our king was a forefather? We have nothing to do with it - we demolished it, on the contrary, this is our national pride when it completely flew off the coils.