Military Review

The state of the air defense system of the countries participating in the CSTO (part 1)

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The state of the air defense system of the countries participating in the CSTO (part 1)



After the formal end of the Cold War, the liquidation of the Warsaw Pact and the collapse of the Soviet Union, many thought that the world would never again be in danger of a global war. However, the threat of the spread of extremist ideology, the advance of NATO to the East and other challenges led to the fact that a number of republics of the former USSR decided to combine their efforts in terms of ensuring defense capability.

15 May 1992 in Tashkent, the heads of Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a collective security agreement. In 1993, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia and Georgia joined the treaty. However, subsequently Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan left the ranks of the organization. 14 May 2002, at the session of the States Parties in Moscow, it was decided to create a full-fledged international structure with the formation of the legal status - the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). Currently, the organization includes: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.

At the moment, the closest cooperation in the field of air defense Russia carries out with Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia. Interaction with Belarus is conducted in the direction of creating a Unified Air Defense System of the Union State, to which other countries can later be connected. At the moment, the Unified Regional Air Defense System of the Russian Federation and Belarus is functioning in the Eastern European collective security region. 29 January 2013 was signed the Agreement on the creation of a unified regional air defense system between Russia and Kazakhstan. In the future, it is planned to create such systems in the Caucasus and Central Asian regions, which is the direction for the development of a unified air defense system of the CIS countries.

The greatest priority for ensuring the inviolability of our air borders from the western direction is currently in cooperation with Belarus. In 1991, the airspace of the USSR from the western direction, strategic and military facilities on the territory of Belarus were defended by two air defense corps: the 11 and 28 from the 2 of the separate air defense army. The main task of the air defense units and subunits deployed in Belarus was to prevent a breakthrough of air attack weapons into the interior of the country and toward the capital of the USSR. With this in mind, part of the USSR Air Defense Forces, stationed in Belarus, received the most modern equipment and weapons. Thus, in the 2-th Air Defense OA, military and government tests of the Vektor, Boundary and Senezh ACSs took place. In 1985, the anti-aircraft missile regiments of the 2-th OA air defenses, previously armed with the C-75М2 / М3 air defense missile systems, began to shift to C-300PS air defense systems. In 1990, the pilots of the 61 th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 2-th separate air defense army, who had previously flown on the MiG-23P and MiG-25PD, began to develop the Su-27P. At the beginning of the 1992 of the year, the 61 Su-23П and four combat training "Sparky" Su-27UBs existed in the 27 iap.


Su-XNUMHUB Air Force of Belarus


By the time of gaining independence, two air defense fighter regiments were deployed on the territory of the republic, where, in addition to the Su-27P, the MiG-23P and MiG-25PD were operated. Three anti-aircraft missile brigades and three regiments were armed with the S-75M3, S-125M / M1, S-200VM and S-300PS air defense systems. In total, there were more than 40 anti-aircraft battalions in stationary positions. The control of the air situation and the issuance of target designation were carried out by radar posts of the 8th radio technical brigade and the 49th radio technical regiment. In addition, the 2nd Air Defense Army had the 10th separate electronic warfare battalion. Electronic warfare equipment could suppress work aviation radio engineering systems, communications and navigation, thus making it difficult to carry out a combat mission for enemy air attack means.

In August 1992, the 2-I separate army of air defense and air defense control of the SV of the Belarusian military district were united in the command of the Air Defense Forces of the Republic of Belarus. However, the Soviet military legacy turned out to be redundant for a poor republic. Simultaneously with the first generation C-75 air defense systems, by the middle of the 90's, all MiG-23 and MiG-25 were written off. In 2001, the Air Force and the Air Defense Forces of Belarus were united into one type of armed forces, which should improve interaction and increase combat effectiveness. In the 21 century, the 61 airbase in Baranavichy became the main location of fighter aviation. In the year 2012 and a half dozen Belarusian Su-27P were withdrawn from service and sent "for storage". The officially announced reason for this decision was the too high cost of operating the Su-27P and an unnecessarily large flight range for a small country. In fact, specialized heavy fighter-interceptors needed repair and modernization, there was no money in the treasury for this, and it was not possible to agree on a free repair with the Russian side. In 2015, information appeared about plans to return the Su-27P to service, but this was not done.


Satellite image of Google Earth: Belarusian MiG-29 at the airbase in Baranovichi


In addition to Su-27P interceptors, the Soviet military property of the republic in 1991 got more than 80 MiG-29 fighters of various modifications. Subsequently, part of the "extra" MiG-29 was sold abroad. In total, Algeria and Peru got 49 fighters from the Air Force of Belarus. As of the 2017 year, the United Air Force and Air Defense of the Republic of Belarus had about two dozen MiG-29 units. In 2015, the fighter fleet of the Belarusian air force was replenished with ten overhauled and modernized MiG-29BM (Belarusian modernization). In the course of the repair, the service life of the fighters was extended and the avionics was updated. Of the ten incoming fighters, eight are single-seaters, and two are combat training “Sparky”. The overhaul and partial modernization of Soviet-made fighter aircraft were chosen as a cheap alternative to the purchase of new aircraft. During the modernization of the MiG-29BM received a means of refueling in the air, a satellite navigation station and a modified radar for the use of weapons "air-to-ground".


MiG-29BM fighter


The repair and modernization of Belarusian MiG-29 fighters was carried out at the 558 aircraft repair plant in Baranavichy. It is known that specialists of the Russian company Russian Avionics took part in these works. Currently, MiG-29, stationed at the 61 th fighter airbase in Baranavichy, are the only fighters of the Air Force of the Republic of Belarus capable of performing the tasks of intercepting air targets.

After the withdrawal of the Su-27P heavy fighters from combat, the capabilities of the Belarusian air defense system to intercept air targets significantly decreased. Even with the modernization, it is not possible to operate the lightweight MiG-29, whose age has already passed for 25 years, to infinity. In the coming 5-8 years, most of the Belarusian MiG-29 will be decommissioned. As a possible replacement for the MiG-29, Su-30K, stored at the 558 aircraft repair plant, were considered. Eighteen fighters of this type in India returned 2008 after the start of large-scale deliveries of more advanced Su-30MKI. The Indian side in return acquired 18 new Su-30МКИ, while paying the price difference.


Satellite image of Google Earth: the territory of the 558 aircraft repair plant in Baranavichy


Initially, it was assumed that the used Indian Su-30K after repair and modernization will be part of the Belarusian Air Force, but later it was stated that the planes went to Baranavichy, in order not to pay VAT when importing to Russia while another buyer is searching. Not so long ago it became known that Su-30K from Belarus will go to Angola. In the future, the Air Force of the Republic of Belarus will be replenished with Su-30CM multi-purpose fighters, but this will not happen before the 2020 of the year.

As already mentioned, shortly after the republic gained its independence, C-75М3 complexes with liquid-propellant rockets were decommissioned. By the middle of the 90-x, the maintenance of single-channel SAM systems with a lamp element base against the background of a lack of budgetary funds seemed too burdensome. Following the "seventy-fives" low-altitude air defense systems С-125М / М1 began to be removed from combat duty. However, this process was not as rapid as in the case of C-75. The latest C-125М1 complexes, built at the beginning-middle of the 80-s, had a large operational resource and the potential for modernization. However, the Belarusians are very diligently disposed of a large part of the Soviet air defense system. If C-75, which had no particular prospects after being transferred to storage bases, was not there for long and was soon “disposed of,” then “one hundred and twenty” were later upgraded and sold abroad. The Belarusian company Tetrahedr was engaged in the modernization and major overhaul of the С-125М / М1 SAMs. According to open sources, starting from 2008, 9 complexes were supplied to Azerbaijan, which received the designation C-125-TM Pechora-2T after modernization. Also, 18 modernized “one hundred and twenty-fives” was exported to Africa and Vietnam.


Google Earth satellite image: C-125 air defense system position in 6 km north of Brest, taken in July 2005


In Belarus, the C-125 air defense missile system was on alert around 2006 for the year. Apparently, the last C-125 complexes were operated at a position north of Brest, between the settlements of Malaya and Bolshaya Kurnitsa and in 5 km north of Grodno. Currently, these positions are deployed C-300PS.


LAW "Pechora-2MB" with models of missiles at the exhibition MILEX-2014


In addition to Pechera-2T, created under the program of "small modernization", the Belarusian company Alevkurp developed a more advanced C-125-2BM complex Pechora-2BM. At the same time, it is possible to use new anti-aircraft missiles that were not previously part of the C-125 air defense system. The most modern element base is used in the control system of the air defense missile system, which significantly accelerates the speed of the equipment. Especially for the C-125-2BM, a high-performance combined optical system has been created that is capable of operating in the condition of organized interferences day and night.

Although the C-200 SAMs were always quite complex and expensive to operate, in Belarus, to the last, as far as possible, they held on to the long-range C-200ВМ. This was due to the fact that with the launch range on targets flying at medium and high altitudes 240 km, four C-200BM battalions deployed under Lida and Polotsk could control most of the territory of Belarus and hit targets over Poland, Latvia and Lithuania. Under the conditions of mass elimination of less long-range anti-aircraft complexes, a “long arm” was needed, capable of at least partially covering the gaps in the air defense system. Two C-200ВМ divisions under Lida were in positions somewhere up to 2007 of the year, and the complexes whose positions were deployed in 12 km north of Polotsk were on duty until 2015 of the year. Due to the lack of funds for repairs and modernization, in Belarus there was a write-off not only of the first-generation anti-aircraft missile systems, but also relatively fresh C-300PT and part of C-300PS inherited from the USSR. Therefore, the air defense system of the Republic of Belarus in the 21 century was in dire need of replenishment and updating.

Despite some differences, there is close military-technical cooperation between our countries. The air defense system of the republic was updated in 2005, when an agreement was reached on the supply of four anti-aircraft missile divisions C-300PS. Before this, the hardware of the ZRS and ZUR 5B55PM underwent a refurbishment and an extension of the service life. These anti-aircraft missile systems with a range of destruction of air targets to 90 km, in the first place, were intended to replace the C-200ВМ long-range air defense missile systems. As payment for barter, Belarus led counter deliveries of the MZKT-79221 heavy-duty chassis for the Topol-M mobile strategic missile systems RS-12М1. In addition to obtaining anti-aircraft systems from Russia, the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus made an effort to maintain existing equipment and weapons in the ranks. For example, in 2011, the state enterprise Ukroboronservice repaired separate components of the Belarusian ZRS X-NUMXPS. After the Russian leadership in 300, under pressure from the United States and Israel, decided to abandon the contract for the supply of C-2010PMU300 airplanes to Iran, information was circulated in the Belarusian media that the anti-aircraft systems destined to Iran would be transferred to Belarus. However, this did not happen, as a result, in order not to let down the manufacturer of the C-2P systems - the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, - it was decided to sell the already built air defense systems to Azerbaijan.


Position of the Belarusian ZRS-300PS bird's-eye view


By the 2015, due to the wear and tear of equipment and the lack of air-conditioned missiles, many Belarusian anti-aircraft divisions were in combat duty with a truncated train. Instead of the number of launchers 5P85C and 5P85D laid out by the state, 4-5 SPU could be seen on satellite images of the Belarusian srn positions. In 2016, there was information about the transfer of four more C-300PS divisions to the Belarusian side. According to information published in the Russian media, these anti-aircraft systems in the past served in the Moscow region and the Far East and were donated to Belarus after the ZRV RFA received new long-range C-400.



Before being sent to the Republic of Belarus, the C-300PS underwent a refurbishment and modernization, which will extend the service life by another 10 years. According to the information sounded by the Belarusian television, the received C-300PS SAM systems were planned to be located on the western border of the republic, where before that four battalions of a truncated staff were on alert in the vicinity of Grodno and Brest. Apparently, the two divisions, received from Russia in 2016, were deployed on the former position of the S-200ВM air defense system near Polotsk, thus eliminating the resulting gap from the north.


Satellite image of Google Earth: ZRS C-300PS on the former positions of the C-200ВМ SAM system near Polotsk

In the past, the Belarusian military has repeatedly expressed interest in obtaining modern C-400 systems. Moreover, at the parade in honor of Independence Day and the 70 anniversary of the liberation of Belarus from the Nazis, held in Minsk on July 3 2014, certain elements of the Russian C-400 air defense system were shown to the republic as part of joint exercises of the air defense forces. The deployment in Belarus of modern long-range anti-aircraft systems would increase the cover zone and would make it possible to deal with air attack weapons at long-distance approaches. The Russian side has repeatedly proposed the creation of a military base in the Republic of Belarus, on which Russian fighters and anti-aircraft systems could be deployed. Combat duty on the protection of air lines of the Russian and Belarusian military personnel could carry together.

In 1991, the armed forces of Belarus got about 400 military air defense complexes. There is information that the Belarusian units, armed with military air defense missile systems, are now reassigned to the command of the Air Force and Air Defense. According to expert estimates published abroad, as of 2017 year, more than 200 military vehicles of military air defense were in the ranks. These are mainly short-range Soviet complexes: Strela-10 of various modifications, Osa-AKM and ZSU-23-4 Shilka. In addition, in the Belarusian air defense units of the Ground Forces there are Tunguska air defense missile systems and modern short-range Tor-M2 Russian-made air defense systems. The assembly of self-propelled chassis for the Belarusian “Thors” is carried out at the Minsk plant of wheel tractors. The contract for the supply of hardware and air defense systems ZRK concluded with the Russian JSC "Concern EKR" Almaz-Antey. "


Belarusian "Tor-М2" at the parade in Minsk


The first battery of the Tor-M2 air defense system, the 120-I anti-aircraft missile brigade of the Air Force and Air Defense of Belarus, deployed in Baranavichy, Brest region, received in 2011 year. At the beginning of the 2014 of the year, an anti-aircraft missile division Tor-M120 consisting of three batteries was formed in the 2-th zrbr. At the end of 2016, this anti-aircraft missile system entered service with the 740 and anti-aircraft missile brigade deployed in Borisov. In 2017, the armed forces of the Republic of Belarus had five Tor-M2 batteries.

Of the air defense weapons inherited by the Belarusian armed forces from the Soviet Army, long-range anti-aircraft missiles C-300B and medium-range air defense systems Buk-M1 were of the greatest value. The 147-I anti-aircraft brigade with a permanent deployment in Bobruisk was the third military unit in the USSR to master this anti-aircraft system, and the first to receive the 9А82 launchers with two 9МXNNXX antimissiles.


SPU 9А83 ZRS C-300В during the rehearsal of the parade in June 2014 year in Minsk


In the 2014 year, individual elements of the C-300В were shown at a military parade in Minsk. The technical condition of the 147-zrbr equipment and weapons is unknown. However, satellite images of the location show that the 9А82 and 9А83 mobile launchers, as well as the 9А83 and 9А84 launchers, are regularly deployed in a permanent position in the technical park. Will Belarusian C-300B systems remain in service, or will they share the fate of similar Ukrainian systems that are now completely incapacitated depends on whether the Belarusian authorities are able to negotiate with Russia for repair and restoration. As it is known, in our country a program is currently being implemented to upgrade the existing C-300В to the level of C-300В4 with a multiple increase in the combat potential.

Approximately 15 years ago in Belarus, work began on extending the resource and enhancing the combat performance of the existing Buk-М1 mobile air defense systems to the level of Buk-BM (Belarusian modernized). “Buk-MB” is a profound modernization of the basic system “Buk-М1” with high-quality repair and complete replacement of obsolete nodes and subsystems.



At the same time, the main radio-electronic units and anti-aircraft missiles 9М317Е for the Belarusian air defense missile system were supplied from Russia. The complex includes the 80K6М circular radar on the Volat MZKT wheel chassis. Radar station 80K6 of Ukrainian production is designed to control the airspace and issue target designation to anti-aircraft missile systems and can be used as part of automated command and control systems or autonomously. Detection range of high-altitude aerial targets - 400 km. Deployment time is 30 minutes. Each anti-aircraft division includes six 9А310МБ self-propelled sowing systems, three 9А310МБ ROMs, 80КХNUMXМ radar and a command and control station 6С9МБ, as well as technical support vehicles.


Self-propelled fire installation 9А310МБ from the composition of the complex "Buk-MB"


It is known that two divisions of the Buk-MB air defense system were exported to Azerbaijan. In Belarus itself, the Buk-M1 and Buk-MB complexes are in service with the 56 zrbr deployed near Slutsk and the 120 of the Yaroslavl zrbr in Baranovichi. The anti-aircraft divisions of the brigade deployed in Baranavichy are constantly on combat duty in the south-western part of the 61 air base.

From the means of air attack in the Republic of Belarus, the capital, the city of Minsk, is best covered. With the exception of Moscow and St. Petersburg, in the territory of the CIS countries there is no longer a city with a similar density of anti-aircraft cover. As of 2017 year, five C-300PS positions were deployed around Minsk. According to data published in open sources, the sky over the Belarusian capital is protected by anti-aircraft divisions of the 15-th zrbr. The main garrison and brigade technical park are located in the military town of Kolodishchi, in the northeastern outskirts of Minsk. In the 200 km north of Minsk on the former positions of the C-200BM air defense system a couple of years ago two C-300PS divisions of the 377 Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment with headquarters in Polotsk were deployed. The southern direction is covered by anti-aircraft brigades armed with Z-300V and Buk-MB air defense systems.


Google Earth Satellite Image: Z-300PS ZRS Position near Brest


The western borders of the republic are defended by the 115 th anti-aircraft missile regiment, which includes two C-300PS divisions deployed a few kilometers south and north of Brest. In the "triangle" at the junction of the borders of Poland, Lithuania and the Republic of Belarus near Grodno there are two air defense missile regiments of the 1.


Google Earth satellite image: C-300PS position near Grodno, taken in May 2016


In connection with the development of a resource and non-compliance with modern requirements, equipment and weapons, inherited from the division of the inheritance of the armed forces of the USSR, are subject to reconditioning and modernization. Belarusian specialists of the Tetrahedr Multidisciplinary Research and Production Private Unitary Enterprise have achieved considerable success in the modernization of Strela-10М2 and Osa-AKM short-range military air defense systems. After modernization, the Strela-10М2 complex, located on the MT-LB tracked chassis, was designated the Strela-10T. The main difference of the modernized air defense system is the possibility of effective combat work in the dark and in conditions of poor visibility. The Strela-10Т complex includes: an ECO-1ТM optoelectronic station capable of detecting a fighter at a distance of up to 15 km, a new computing system, and a GPS connection and navigation system. To increase the stealth, a laser rangefinder is used, which determines the moment when the target enters the affected area and does not unmask the air defense missile system with radar radiation. Although the range and probability of hitting the target due to the use of previous anti-aircraft missiles remained the same as in the Soviet-made complex, efficiency increased due to the possibility of daily use and earlier detection by passive optoelectronic means. Introduction to the complex of data transmission equipment allows remote control of the process of combat work and the exchange of information between combat vehicles.

Modernized at the Tetrahedr enterprise, the Osa-AKM air defense missile system received the designation Osa-1T (Osa-BM). Modernization of military complexes on the floating wheel chassis is carried out simultaneously with the refurbishment. During the upgrade, 40% hardware is transferred to a new element base with increased time between failures. It also reduces labor costs for routine maintenance and the nomenclature of spare parts. The use of an optical-electronic tracking system for an air target increases survivability in the conditions of use of anti-radar missiles and electronic suppression by the enemy. In connection with the transition to solid-state electronics, the reaction time and power consumption were reduced. The maximum target detection range is up to 40 km. Thanks to a new, more effective guidance system, it is possible to deal with air attack weapons at ranges up to 12 km and altitudes up to 7 km, flying at speeds up to 700 m / s. Compared to the original Osa-AKM air defense missile system, the height of the lesion using the same 9МЗЗМЗ SAMs increased by 2000 m. After upgrading the optical-electronic system, the Osa-1T air defense system can simultaneously fire two targets.



The hardware part of the OSA “Osa-1T” can be placed on the wheeled chassis of the Belarusian production MZKT-69222T. It is reported that Osa-1T complexes were put into service in the Republic of Belarus, and in 2009 were supplied to Azerbaijan.

In addition to upgrading the existing technology, the republic is creating its own anti-aircraft complexes. A further development of the Osa-1T program was the T-38 Stilette short-range air defense missile system, which was first publicly presented at the MILEX-2014 armament and military equipment exhibition.


ZRK T-38 "Stilet", presented at the exhibition "MILEX-2014"


When creating the control systems of the air defense missile system, modern imported element base was used. In addition to the radar, an optoelectronic detection station with a thermal imaging channel, combined with a laser rangefinder, is installed on the combat vehicle. As part of the Stilt air defense missile system, a new T382 biklibernaya anti-aircraft missile with a range of damage to 20 km, developed by the Luch Kiev design bureau, was used. Due to the use of a two-channel guidance system, it is possible to aim two targets at the same time at the same target, which significantly increases the probability of hitting. To accommodate the hardware of the air defense missile system, the wheel conveyor of the all-terrain MZKT-69222Т was selected. It is not known whether the Stilette air defense missile system is available in the Belarusian air defense units, but in 2014, two batteries were delivered to Azerbaijan.

Control of the air situation over the territory of the republic is assigned to the radar posts of the 8 radio engineering brigade with headquarters in Baranavichy and the 49 radio brigade with headquarters in Machulishchi. The radar units and radio altimeters, which were built in the Soviet Union, are mainly in service with radio engineering units. During the last decade, several 36-6 and 80-6 radars were acquired in Ukraine. The construction of these radars was carried out at the State Enterprise "Scientific and Production Complex" Iskra "in Zaporozhye. 36D6 radars today are quite modern and are used in automated air defense systems, anti-aircraft missile systems for detecting low-flying air targets covered with active and passive interference, and for air traffic control of military and civil aviation. If necessary, the radar operates in the autonomous control center. The detection range of 36D6 is more than 300 km.


Radar "Opponent-GE"


In 2015, an agreement was reached on the supply to Belarus of Russian mobile three-coordinate decimeter radars 59H6-E (“Opponent-GE”) with a target detection range flying at an altitude of 5-7 km to 250 km. Modernization of old Soviet radars P-18 and P-19 to P-18T (TRS-2D) and P-19T (TRS-2DL) has been mastered at the Belarusian enterprises of the radio-electronic industry. Also, the 5H84А, П-37, 22ЖXNNXX radar and the PRV-6 and PRV-16 radio altimeters underwent revision and refurbishment.



To replace the Soviet P-18 and 5Н84А (“Defense-14”) meter-level radars by the Belarusian Design Bureau Radar, the radar Vostok-D was developed. According to the press service of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus, the first station in the 2014 year took over combat duty as part of one of the units of the 49 radio brigade.


Radar standby mode "Vostok-D"


Station "on duty" provides detection and route tracking of air targets of all types, has a large time between failures, low power consumption. The station detection range is up to 360 kilometers, depending on the altitude of the target.

Belarusian enterprises developed and delivered to the troops automated control systems Bor, Polyana-RB, Rif-RB. On the basis of the Il-76 military transport aircraft, an air command center equipped with multi-channel communications equipment with automatic radar data acquisition lines was recognized. On board the IL-76 multimedia monitors in real-time displays the air situation. According to the information voiced by the representative of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus, a flying air defense command post can, while in the air, receive data from all radar systems, including the A-50 Russian long-range aircraft. This system allows you to monitor the actual situation on the ground, the sea and in the air, to control both the actions of fighter aircraft and ground anti-aircraft complexes.

In the event of the outbreak of hostilities, the task of suppressing enemy aircraft’s radio systems was assigned to the 16 th separate regiment of radio electronic warfare with headquarters in the city of Berez, Brest Region. For this purpose, the mobile interference station SPN-30 of the Soviet production. The use of modernized SPN-30 stations can significantly reduce the combat effectiveness of manned combat aircraft and cruise missiles, and also facilitates the combat work of anti-aircraft missile units.


Interference station SPN-30


On arms also there is a new station REB Р934UM2, which in the future should replace SPN-30. GPS signals are jammed by the Canopy mobile system. For passive electronic reconnaissance with the definition of the coordinates of the operating aviation radar, navigation and communication means intended complex "Peleng". The complexes Р934UM2, "Canopy" and "Peleng" are created in the Belarusian CB "Radar".

As of 2017 of the year, 15 permanently operated radar stations operated in the Republic of Belarus, which ensured the creation of a multiply duplicated radar field. In addition, the radar stations located in the border areas are able to control the airspace over a large part of Ukraine, Poland and the Baltic republics. Also in the air defense forces of Belarus there are roughly 15-17 combat-ready anti-aircraft missile battalions of medium and long range.


Layout of medium and long-range anti-aircraft systems and radar stations in Belarus as of 2017 year

The density and geography of the positions of anti-aircraft missile systems and medium-range and long-range systems make it possible to cover most of the territory of the republic and protect the most important objects from air attack weapons. The combat readiness of the Belarusian air defense systems and the calculation training are at a high enough level, which was repeatedly confirmed during joint exercises and trainings at the Russian Ashuluk training ground. So, during the exercises “Combat Commonwealth-2015”, the calculations of the 15 and 120 of the anti-aircraft missile brigades were shot at “excellent”. In 2017, the Belarusian units took part in the active phase of the joint exercises of the air defense forces of the armed forces of the States participating in the Combined Commonwealth of Independent States “Combat Commonwealth-2017” in the Astrakhan region.



At the same time, it is clear that in the next few years, Belarusian anti-aircraft missile forces and fighter aircraft will require a radical update. The operational resource of Soviet-made equipment and weapons is close to completion, and the state of the economy does not allow replacing most of the equipment and weapons at the same time. The solution to this problem is seen in the deepening of military cooperation and in the further political rapprochement of our countries.

To be continued ...

Based on:
https://vpk-news.ru/news/20208
https://vsr.mil.by/tag/vypusk-64/
https://vsr.mil.by/2012/04/06/zadachi-raznye-cel-odna/
http://bastion-opk.ru/armed-forces-belarus-news/
http://military-informant.com/airforca/belorusskaya-armiya-vernula-v-stroy-istrebiteli-mig-29bm.html
https://42.tut.by/456528
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/af.htm
https://news.tut.by/economics/409208.html
World Air Forces 2017
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  1. Serhiodjan
    Serhiodjan April 16 2018 15: 31
    +12
    Something I strongly doubt that all these guys will enter the war on our side, if that suddenly ...
    1. Bongo
      April 16 2018 15: 37
      +8
      Quote: Serhiodjan
      Something I strongly doubt that all these guys will enter the war on our side, if that suddenly ...

      If you first attack them, they will not go anywhere.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 16 2018 16: 10
        +6
        Sergey, as always, is an interesting and informative review. Thanks, interesting. Now, if you think about the comment below, I don’t know. It seems to me that the author of the comment above is right. How Belarus behaves depends on Lukashenko, I would not really hope for the rest. Remember how the epic of the Daryal radar station in Gabala ended.
        Quote: Serhiodjan
        Something I strongly doubt that all these guys will enter the war on our side, if that suddenly ...
        1. kipod
          kipod April 16 2018 16: 14
          +7
          Sergei . Many thanks for the informative sub-articles.
          I would like to hear the opinion of a professional about the attack in Syria.
          You are one of the few here. if not the only one. who knows the topic thoroughly that could make an expert assessment.
          With which, I am sure, if they would not agree, then at least readers of VO accepted it.
          Sincerely.
          hi
          1. KKND
            KKND April 16 2018 16: 23
            0
            Quote: kipod
            I would like to hear the opinion of a professional about the attack in Syria.

            What a cunning trololo provocateur supposedly from Israel. Sergei works and not Lurka reads and megatrol wriggles out of himself.
            However, I do not blame you.
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                  1. Bongo
                    April 16 2018 16: 55
                    +5
                    Quote: KKND
                    Sergey, can you start a blog?

                    And I need it? By and large, this is not very interesting to anyone. You understand that I will not write about “that we are as strong as ever”. No. Better more time with my children and I will help my fighting friend with business. Ole was also advised to shut up and hit three warnings in half an hour. lol
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                3. mgero
                  mgero April 16 2018 18: 46
                  0
                  Nepravda, analitiki esli nebilo, ja vapshe sjuda ne zagljanulbi. Sps sergej
            3. Amurets
              Amurets April 19 2018 00: 52
              0
              Quote: Bongo
              Thank you for your kind words, but there is a high degree of probability that after I finish this cycle, I will become only a "reader".

              Well then read this: “Military experts, in particular, were interested in the options for the rocket-cannon“ Shell-C1. ”In addition to the first version of the combat vehicle, the most modern version with a new S-band target detection station was illuminated .....
              Military journalists did not deprive attention of yet another “hero” on April 14 - the Buk-M2E anti-aircraft missile system. This system significantly exceeds the old Syrian air defense system “Square” shown in this story ..... The first demonstration of the Sagittarius launch module, which is used for the use of Igla missiles, was a real sensation of this report. https://rg.ru/2018/04/18/v-sirii-vpervye-zamechen
              -raketnyj-strelec.html
              I do not think this is a fake.
        2. avt
          avt April 16 2018 18: 46
          +3
          Quote: Amurets
          Sergey, as always, is an interesting and informative review. Thanks, interesting.

          good I agree, but .....
          Before being sent to the Republic of Belarus, the S-300PS underwent restoration repair and modernization, which will extend the service life by another 10 years.
          Yes, But father personally said to the camera that he knew these complexes somewhere under a fence near the Moscow Region inoperative and sailed around the fights! bully
          Quote: Bongo
          A representative of the site’s administration recently advised me “not to build the smartest of myself”,

          Oh yeah !? wassat Well, we’ll read about .... shortcuts ... no comment. wassat By the way! AND
          Quote: Bongo
          Site Administration Representative

          Didn’t say anything about the survey conducted on the site about the return of minuses? Campaign data is classified wassatWell m
        3. sq
          sq April 18 2018 14: 20
          +1
          In the event of an attack on Russia by Europe in any case, the first blow will fall on Belarus
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 18 2018 14: 43
            0
            Quote: kvm
            In the event of an attack on Russia by Europe in any case, the first blow will fall on Belarus

            Alas and unfortunately. Belarus very often fell under the rink of enemy armies.
          2. Bongo
            April 19 2018 10: 06
            +3
            Quote: kvm
            In the event of an attack on Russia by Europe in any case, the first blow will fall on Belarus

            It depends solely on the position taken by the leadership of your republic.
  2. antivirus
    antivirus April 16 2018 15: 52
    +1
    prohibit the supply of milk from RB.
    still do not pull the strap-- they want to sunbathe.
    Luka needs to be changed to Yanukovych or Kozak (?)
    and dr. allies only agree on the stuffing
    1. kipod
      kipod April 16 2018 17: 08
      +6
      Quote: Bongo
      I do not want to criticize anyone, but the policy of the site’s management is in many ways vicious. "Gone "vaf he is ancient, opus (Anton), professor stopped writing... you can list for a long time

      but they returned Mikhan.
      Everything is correct. for one broken, three not broken. laughing
      1. Bongo
        April 16 2018 17: 21
        +13
        Quote: kipod
        but they returned Mihan

        Did Mihan spend his whole life in the cockpit of a front-line bomber, or he is well versed in rocket technology, and maybe he wrote interesting articles for 500? No. That and that ... soon some "Mikhans" will remain.
        1. kipod
          kipod April 16 2018 17: 25
          +8
          Quote: Bongo
          Did Mihan spend his whole life in the cockpit of a front-line bomber, or he is well versed in rocket technology, and maybe he wrote interesting articles for 500?

          he sold 4 combat sofas, which, from the point of view of some comrades, is at least equivalent.
          Quote: Bongo
          That and that ... soon some "Mikhans" will remain.

          request
    2. Lex.
      Lex. April 16 2018 18: 20
      +1
      Go to Minsk, say this to Old Man in the face
  3. grau
    grau April 16 2018 15: 59
    +1
    Why do they need air defense slingshot and Bulba cheap and cheerful
  4. KKND
    KKND April 16 2018 16: 20
    +2
    The Ukrainian-made 80K6 radar is designed to control airspace and provide target designation to anti-aircraft missile systems and can be used as part of automated combat control systems or autonomously. The detection range of high-altitude air targets is 400 km.

    Uh ... typo? Maybe 40 km.?
    To increase stealth, a laser rangefinder is used, which determines the moment the target enters the affected area and does not unmask the air defense system with radar radiation.

    There was no radio range finder on the Strela-10, please explain.
    The Belarusian leadership would like Russia to bear the costs of modernizing the air defense of the republic. This, of course, is perhaps another question, how rationally to spend the money of the Russian taxpayer, investing them in the security of the state, whose president behaves extremely inconsistently.

    Regarding Lukashenko, I can say briefly: what kind of friends are you.
    Now it’s more detailed: if you are a woman with low social responsibility, then your girlfriend will be like that.
    1. Bongo
      April 16 2018 16: 27
      +3
      Quote: KKND
      Uh ... typo? Maybe 40 km.?

      Kirill, I'm sorry for the immodest question, but you know a lot of modern radar combat mode with a range of 40 km on high goals?
      Quote: KKND
      There was no radio range finder on the Strela-10, please explain.

      I bet that was?
      1. KKND
        KKND April 16 2018 16: 33
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        Cyril, I'm sorry for the immodest question, do you know a lot of combat mode radars with a range of 40 km for high-altitude targets?

        Well, here I am not sure, but it seems like the radar is not the largest and most powerful, and the range is very impressive. repeat
        Quote: Bongo
        I bet that was?

        Come on, show it drinks
        1. Bongo
          April 16 2018 16: 47
          +5
          Quote: KKND
          Come on, show it


          The parabolic antenna between the missile defense system is used by the 9C86 launch zone assessment equipment and for fixing the work of the radio engineering systems of the enemy aircraft.
          1. KKND
            KKND April 16 2018 16: 52
            +1
            Sergey, this is just a direction finder. It seems to me that the operator estimates the range through the phenomenon of parallax. Why then put the laser?
            1. Bongo
              April 16 2018 17: 10
              +5
              Quote: KKND
              Sergey, this is just a direction finder. It seems to me that the operator estimates the range through the phenomenon of parallax. Why then put the laser?

              Laser irradiation radio systems do not fix, and therefore increases the secrecy and survival of the air defense system.
              1. KKND
                KKND April 16 2018 17: 45
                +3
                Once again, I really apologize. hi
          2. KKND
            KKND April 16 2018 16: 54
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            The parabolic antenna between the missile defense system is used by the 9C86 launch zone assessment equipment and for fixing the work of the radio engineering systems of the enemy aircraft.

            I'll try to sort it out in more detail, but it seems that Strela-10 didn't radiate anything.
          3. KKND
            KKND April 16 2018 17: 07
            0
            Sergey, I’m right about the hike here: demo.dcvisu.com/uploads/objects/250/pdf/
            ARROW-10.pdf
            1. Bongo
              April 16 2018 17: 15
              +5
              Quote: KKND
              Sergey, I’m right here

              Does the 9C86 start zone assessment equipment work on what principle?
              1. KKND
                KKND April 16 2018 17: 42
                +5
                Wildly sorry, this is a radio range finder. repeat
                So play computer games, they definitely won’t bring to good recourse
  5. maxim1987
    maxim1987 April 16 2018 16: 34
    +5
    Nevertheless, our country, within the framework of the CSTO and the CIS CIS air defense system, has been organizing joint exercises of the CIS air defense forces free of charge since 1996, and supplies spare parts, equipment and weapons. The costs of creating a single air defense system with countries that wish to enter it are mostly financed from the budget of the Russian Federation

    how is it in our opinion, to spend money on anyone but yourself
  6. KKND
    KKND April 16 2018 17: 07
    +2
    Bongo,
    Well, you need to create a new resource. Own. With blackjack and girls.
    1. Alex_59
      Alex_59 April 16 2018 17: 56
      +3
      Quote: KKND
      Well, you need to create a new resource. Own. With blackjack and girls.

      They’ll cover it. But you can try. The site, in principle, on free platforms is done once or twice, but of course it will not be as fast as VO.
  7. Bongo
    April 16 2018 17: 08
    +2
    Quote: KKND
    Only the Great War will solve this problem.

    Quote: KKND
    I'll try to sort it out in more detail, but it seems that Strela-10 didn't radiate anything.

    On the commander's car, like one of the three set.
    1. KKND
      KKND April 16 2018 17: 14
      0
      http://demo.dcvisu.com/uploads/objects/250/СТРЕЛА
      -10.pdf
  8. Pan_hrabio
    Pan_hrabio April 16 2018 18: 37
    +7
    site management policies are in many ways vicious.


    Unfortunately yes. I came to VO in due time for a kind of educational program about modern military equipment. I learned a lot from your articles, and from articles from previous years, when the level of the same discussion was completely different. Now, among the illiterate and inadequate articles, there are single glimpses like you, and outside the site giving a link to it has become bad form. But the administration is taking such a course consciously, so pretty soon VO will have to be removed from the bookmarks.

    I can only guess how much time and effort it takes you to search and analyze information, not to mention writing the articles themselves. Therefore, many human thanks for this article, and for all past and future!
  9. exo
    exo April 16 2018 18: 51
    +4
    Thank! On such articles, this site rests. This, my opinion.
  10. Lex.
    Lex. April 16 2018 18: 53
    +1
    The article recalls the article of Zuev with but, but where about http://www.kbradar.by/products/radiolokatsiya/rad
    iolokatsionnye-stantsii / 85 /
    1. Bongo
      April 19 2018 10: 09
      +3
      Quote: Lex.
      The article recalls the article Zuev

      Please skip the link, I will read.

      Quote: Lex.
      and where about http://www.kbradar.by/products/radiolokatsiya/rad
      iolokatsionnye-stantsii / 85 /
      I wrote only about the equipment adopted for service. I have no such information about Rosa-RB.
  11. exo
    exo April 16 2018 18: 54
    +6
    Quote: Bongo
    Quote: kipod
    but they returned Mihan

    Did Mihan spend his whole life in the cockpit of a front-line bomber, or he is well versed in rocket technology, and maybe he wrote interesting articles for 500? No. That and that ... soon some "Mikhans" will remain.

    Yes, unprofessional and cheering patriots are in fashion on the site. A general trend.
  12. Lekxnumx
    Lekxnumx April 16 2018 21: 14
    +3
    Quote: Bongo
    "Gone" vaf he is ancient, opus (Anton),

    Yes, no words Sergey.
    Rather, you are in touch with Anton, as I know in another resource. If you tell me about your publications on other resources. From my departure, the site will certainly not lose anything, but I will probably not come in as well. Only read incognito selectively. Thank you for everything. The dictum of the critic, the locomotive of progress has apparently already been forgotten.
  13. FLOOD
    FLOOD April 17 2018 09: 49
    +1
    Quote: Amurets
    Sergey, as always, is an interesting and informative review. Thanks, interesting. Now, if you think about the comment below, I don’t know. It seems to me that the author of the comment above is right. How Belarus behaves depends on Lukashenko, I would not really hope for the rest. Remember how the epic of the Daryal radar station in Gabala ended.
    Quote: Serhiodjan
    Something I strongly doubt that all these guys will enter the war on our side, if that suddenly ...

    Is Gabala included in the sphere of the CSTO?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 18 2018 06: 24
      +2
      Quote: TUFAN
      Is Gabala included in the sphere of the CSTO?

      Already not included.
      "The motives of the Azerbaijani side in the decision to put forward conditions that were unacceptable for Russia were unlikely to be just to make money," the Vedomosti interlocutor from the Russian Defense Ministry said. Thus, Baku emphasized US loyalty, in addition, the Azerbaijani authorities were planning to develop a tourism cluster in Gabala and were afraid that "the existence of a missile defense radar, given the rising tensions around Iran’s missile program, could scare tourists away." Read on: http://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/news/7032261/bez
      _radara_v_zakavkaze # ixzz2Ejajr5Zp
      https://topwar.ru/14776-rossiya-teryaet-strategic
      heskiy-voennyy-obekt-v-azerbaydzhane-no-u-nee-est
      -unikalnaya-zamena.html
  14. FLOOD
    FLOOD April 18 2018 07: 25
    +3
    Quote: Amurets
    Quote: TUFAN
    Is Gabala included in the sphere of the CSTO?

    Already not included.
    "The motives of the Azerbaijani side in the decision to put forward conditions that were unacceptable for Russia were unlikely to be just to make money," the Vedomosti interlocutor from the Russian Defense Ministry said. Thus, Baku emphasized US loyalty, in addition, the Azerbaijani authorities were planning to develop a tourism cluster in Gabala and were afraid that "the existence of a missile defense radar, given the rising tensions around Iran’s missile program, could scare tourists away." Read on: http://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/news/7032261/bez
    _radara_v_zakavkaze # ixzz2Ejajr5Zp
    https://topwar.ru/14776-rossiya-teryaet-strategic
    heskiy-voennyy-obekt-v-azerbaydzhane-no-u-nee-est
    -unikalnaya-zamena.html

    Nikolay, I am in the full course of everything. I’m just wondering if we don’t want military bases and objects of another state on our territory, is this loyalty to the USA? Are you completely crazy guys? Do Americans seem to be everywhere? Yeah, fear has big eyes ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 18 2018 10: 00
      +2
      Quote: TUFAN
      Nikolay, I am in the full course of everything. I’m just wondering if we don’t want military bases and objects of another state on our territory, is this loyalty to the USA?

      It is your right to want or not to want, to have or not to have. And I’m not used to being afraid of someone, otherwise I would not have lived my life on the border with China.
  15. FLOOD
    FLOOD April 18 2018 14: 51
    +2
    Quote: Amurets
    Quote: TUFAN
    Nikolay, I am in the full course of everything. I’m just wondering if we don’t want military bases and objects of another state on our territory, is this loyalty to the USA?

    It is your right to want or not to want, to have or not to have. And I’m not used to being afraid of someone, otherwise I would not have lived my life on the border with China.

    One word "Amur" deserves respect, I know your edges by hearsay)) And nothing personal in my comment. Just sometimes I don’t catch up with such topics, such as if not with us, then against us))
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 19 2018 03: 01
      +2
      Quote: TUFAN
      Just sometimes I don’t catch up with such topics,

      Me too, especially Urya-patriotism. This is not for you, but to how our relations with China are appealing.
      This is an example; throwing from one edge to another, and the reality is somewhere in between.
  16. tractor driver73
    tractor driver73 April 18 2018 18: 07
    +3
    CSTO is a fiction, a great self-deception! It is ridiculous to hope that the Kazakh will go to fight for Russia!
  17. Spike Javelin Touvich
    Spike Javelin Touvich April 18 2018 23: 14
    +4
    Articles you have the best on HE
    Sergey would like to know who gives such strange names to Radars such as (Bug, Caste, Defense, Niobium, Gamma) .itd
    1. Bongo
      April 19 2018 10: 13
      +5
      Quote: Spike Javelin Touvich
      Articles you have the best on HE

      Thank you But I am not inclined to rate my own merits so highly! No.
      Quote: Spike Javelin Touvich
      Radiators such as (Beetle, Caste, Defense, Niobium, Gamma).

      The name is assigned by the developer in agreement with the customer during the approval of R & D.
  18. Ice
    Ice 9 May 2018 12: 14
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    But I am not inclined to rate my own merits so highly!

    Then, write links to other authors :)