Adjustable artillery shells
The events described below occurred in the second half of the 80s. beyond the borders of our country. The fortified enemy site in the highlands could not be destroyed by conventional fire weapons. To solve the problem, a fire platoon of two 240-mm self-propelled mortars 2С4 "Tulip" was deployed to the area. They turned in a closed position, the targets were from them at a distance of 2,5-8,4 km. The results of the shooting exceeded all expectations of the gunners. Seven fortresses were destroyed by ten mines (the scale of destruction was 70-90%). Fifteen shots managed to destroy the six entrances to the caves. The same number of mines was spent on the destruction of five long-term earthen fire installations. A 100% result (three shots - three hits) was achieved with the destruction of the DShK machine guns and the rocket launcher installed behind the stone walls.
This success was achieved because on that day, for the first time in a combat situation, a complex of corrected artillery weapons with laser guidance “Daredevil” was used for 240-mm mortars with a corrective mine in normal equipment. It consists of: a shot with an adjustable artillery mine (KAM), synchronization tools 1А35 and laser designator-rangefinder (LCD). These devices complement the standard means of artillery units with conventional mortars and are controlled by standard artillery calculations.
The scout from the advanced command and observation post (KNP) detected targets (in the described case they were at a distance of 1,2-5 km from the scout), determined their coordinates using the LCD and transmitted information to the mortar calculations. After entering the necessary amendments, a shot was fired, the signal of which was received by means of communication through the synchronization means on the LCD. At the final stage of the flight, the MCD mines automatically switched to the radiation mode and highlighted the target. At the same time, the laser radiation invisible to the eye, reflected from the target, was adopted by the homing system of the mine, which, if there was a miss, included an onboard missile correction system that caused the projectile to turn to the target.
The Smelk complex has a unique combat effectiveness at a relatively low cost: the ammunition consumption is reduced by 80-100 times, the time is significantly reduced and the amount of attracted funds is reduced to accomplish the task of defeating small, durable targets from a closed firing position.
Due to the simplicity of the design, the adjustable mine has high operational reliability and safety. Thus, the serial mine "Brave" during the year in the process of acceptance and periodic testing was subjected to tests by shooting in the amount of 92 shots. In this case there was no failure, and the average value of the probability of hitting was 0,78 when the deviation of 0,8-1,8 m.
At present, the "Brave" is the most powerful, unparalleled in the world complex of high-precision barrel artillery.
It is based on the Russian concept of pulse correction (international designation - RCIC-technology), according to which the projectile is controlled on a limited flight segment (homing on the final 0,02-0,6 km - ballistic trajectory section). In addition to the "Brave" on the basis of this technology created 152-mm complex with adjustable artillery shells (CAS) "Centimeter". Both of them are in service with the Ground Forces of the Russian Armed Forces and were successfully used by artillery in the conduct of hostilities in local conflicts.
Work on the creation of high-precision long-range cannon artillery based on the homing carried out with the 60-s. in Russia and a number of foreign countries (USA, France, Germany, UK, Sweden, etc.). However, by now only two states — Russia and the United States — have first-generation high-precision artillery with semi-active laser homing.
From a technical point of view, the high-precision artillery of the first generation is based either on the Russian concept of pulse correction, or on the American concept of aerodynamic control (ACAG). In accordance with the latter, the projectile is controlled on the entire trajectory (program planning and homing on the final - 2-3 km - flight segment). On the basis of ACAG, the 155-mm Kopperhead (USA) and the Krasnopol-based 152-mm (Russia) complexes adopted by the Ground Forces were created with guided artillery shells (UAS).
It is important to note that the RCIC technology creates the basis for the creation of high-precision second-generation artillery, in which it is planned to implement the "shot-and-forget" principle. A number of countries are developing in this area, but there is no reliable information about the adoption of second-generation complexes by foreign armies. Apparently, it is not possible in the framework of ACAG to create an autonomous homing head in acceptable dimensions that implements a capture range of more than 300-500 m.
At the same time, in an artillery adjustable projectile based on RCIC technology with low technical dispersion on the ballistic part of the flight, equipped with a high-energy rocket impulse trajectory correction system, this solution can be implemented.
From the analysis of the nature of the targets of the probable enemy hit by the division artillery fire from closed firing positions, it follows that a significant part of them - more than 70% - are objects of armored vehicles located at a distance from 0,2-0,3 to 10-15 km from the line of combat contact. To defeat them you need almost a direct hit of one to three medium-caliber projectiles. Therefore, the task of upgrading long-range artillery in order to effectively defeat armored vehicles from closed firing positions without the use of laser targeting is a priority.
However, taking into account promising methods of masking and a wide variety of targets (besides armored vehicles) - points of contact, fortresses, caves, watercrafts, bridges, ferries, etc. - it remains an urgent task to improve and expand the use of modern field artillery modernization equipment homing with laser target designation.
For a more complete assessment of ACAG and RCIC technologies, we will consider comparing some of the characteristics and features of KAM "Smilak", CAS "Centimeter" and UAS "Copperhead".
Before loading the UAN into an instrument, two switchings are made: setting on-board mechanical hours the time of the start of homing (1-3 seconds before the meeting with the target) and switching the mode of action of the fuse - “Instant” or “Slow”. Errors in installations do not lead to emergency situations.
Before the UAS is loaded into the gun, four switchings are made: the same settings as on the CAS (but the homing time is 15 seconds), and two additional switches: the homing head code and the autopilot program. Errors in the installation of the last two can lead to deviations of several kilometers.
The CAS has a smaller weight and length than the AAS, its body is made one-piece, and the loading is done, as is the loading of conventional ammunition.
The UAS body is structurally made of two parts, which are docked during loading on the tool tray, which reduces the rate of fire, and breaking the docking rules can lead to the formation of an unregulated gap between the two sections of the projectile and an accident when fired into the barrel.
The corrected artillery projectile moves along a ballistic trajectory, therefore, in the event of a failure of the on-board correction system turned on in the final flight segment, it works like a normal artillery projectile. UAS is mainly used in planning mode, so failure of the autopilot, the homing head, or jamming leads to significant variations in range and direction.
The CAS is relatively simple in design, reliable, does not incorporate gyro instruments, autopilot and does not require routine maintenance and maintenance during operation.
The guided artillery projectile is equipped with a tracking homing head with a gyroscope, planning autopilot, steering gears, which makes it less reliable than the CAS and requires periodic technical control.
The superiority of the CAS in terms of performance and reliability is confirmed by the results of acceptance and periodic testing of serial batches of projectiles. So, during the control tests of serial CAS "Centimeter" during the year 78 shots were made, only two failures were received, which corresponds to the average probability of 0,97 failure-free operation (according to technical conditions - 0,93), and the average value of the hit probability at 0,5-0,9 m was 0,94 (for specifications - at least 0,8).
The cost of the defeat of most small-sized targets is about the same and is 1-3 KAS or UAS.
Shooting a UAS with a salvo of a platoon (battery) at a single target is virtually eliminated due to mutual interference from gaps caused by a significant variation in flight time in the projectile planning mode, which makes it necessary to perform up to three shots in succession with an 15 second laser backlight, as a rule of the same PNC. In this case, the target is illuminated with a laser for up to 45 seconds, which creates a high probability of detecting and damaging the PNC or jamming.
When firing a UAN for reliable and fast destruction of a target, they fire a platoon with a volley (or even a battery) at a single target with its illumination for 1-3 seconds, which virtually excludes the possibility of the laser source being detected.
When clouds are 150-250 m high, as well as with a reduced visibility range, firing with guided artillery shells is impossible, since for effective use of UAS, the cloudiness should not be lower than 700-900 m, and the homing range of the homing system to 3 k CAS time practically does not lose efficiency.
Adjustable artillery shells provide effective shooting in mountain conditions, including when processing targets on reverse slopes, due to the steep ballistic trajectories of the projectile, in this case, shooting UAS is almost impossible.
A guided artillery projectile provides effective firing in the entire range of ranges based on full training (without zeroing in), but in real combat conditions it is not always possible to fully train, and zeroing in using UAS in planning mode is impossible.
KAS provides shooting on the basis of complete training (without zeroing) at medium distances, and with an increase in the consumption of projectiles by about a third - and at extreme ranges. When sighting the target area with a single projectile, the probability of a CAS hit the target approaches one.
The first generation CAS provides the maximum effective range (depending on the artillery system) to 12-15 km; UAS - to 16-17 km. However, the CAS can effectively hit targets when firing at direct range at shorter ranges — less than 2 km, against 4 km at a guided projectile.
The guided projectile is saturated with high-precision systems, its design uses high-strength materials, high precision machining of parts, and a large amount of tuning operations. Machining, assembly, adjustment, monitoring and testing require the involvement of highly qualified personnel.
Due to the simplicity of the design, the corrected projectile has approximately the least labor-intensive 3-4, does not require the use of scarce materials and highly qualified specialists; CAS production is focused on unmanned technology.
Further development of UAS and CAS in the Copperhead-2 and Sokol-2 complexes will provide an increase in the rate of fire, an increase in firing range, noise immunity, autonomy and other tactical and operational properties. At the same time, these parameters will have little effect on the comparative assessments of the UAN, UAS and conventional artillery shells on the cost of solving the fire mission.
"EFFICIENCY - VALUE"
Comparison of adjustable, controlled and conventional artillery shells by the criterion of "cost-effectiveness" was carried out on the basis of the results of solving fire missions using CAS "Centimeter" in combat conditions. 155-mm Copperhead UAS and 152-mm (SLA) Grif high-explosive fragmentation projectile are involved in the estimation.
The fire mission is to destroy manpower and fire weapons located in mountainous areas in fortresses, behind duels, etc. Total 16 targets of various sizes and strengths; firing range - 5,4-6,6 km, laser target designation range - 2-3 km.
The 1 table shows the actual consumption of projectiles for hitting 16 targets based on the results of the combat use of the CAS Centimeter CAS and the calculated data for the Copperhead and the Grif oas. In this case, the probability of hitting the Copperhead UAS was taken equal to 1, and the Grif oas — depending on the firing range and the task - 0,01-0,03.
Based on the estimation of the consumption of projectiles for solving fire problems according to the 1 table and data on the labor intensity of making projectiles, we can estimate the notional cost of solving the problem as a whole and compare CAS Centimeter, Copperhead AS and Grif OAS (Table 2) for these parameters .
The task with the use of CAS "Centimeter" (UC "Copperhead") was solved by one battery (6 guns). The time for solving the Copperhead UAS problem in 5-7 is less than the Grif OSA.
CAS "Centimeter" at the expense of firing volleys spends in 3-5 times less time to solve the firing problem than the APS "Copperhead".
According to the results of a comparative analysis of tactical and technical data, operational and combat characteristics, as well as technological properties and efficiency, related to the cost of solving fire missions, it can be concluded that it is possible to modernize conventional conventional artillery armament compared to the American concept of aerodynamic management.
This conclusion is confirmed by the successful course of mass production and military operation, as well as by the high results of the combat use of the Smelqak and Centimeter artillery complexes.
=== TABLE ===
The results of the fire missions
Task Number of shots / hits
"Centimeter" (actual) "Copperhead" (calculated) "Neck" (calculated)
Suppress three firing points
(targets) in fortresses beyond Duval 3/3 single. 3/3 single 387/3
Suppress five firing points
(goals) in the fortresses behind the Doval 7/5 single. 5/5 singles 1395/5
Suppress two firing points
(goals) in the fortresses 7/4 single. 4/4 single 468/4
Suppress manpower and fire
funds in two fortresses
(two targets) 6/6 volley plat. 4/4 single 468/4
fortresses (targets) 26/24 volley of batr. 22/22 single 2340/20
Total Shots: 49 * / 42 38 ** / 38 5526 *** / 36
* The consumption of shells in solving problems in combat conditions, including the cost of sighting - 4 shot.
** Estimated projectile consumption.
*** Estimated estimate of the consumption of shells, including the control of zeroing - 18 shots.
Comparison of CAS, UAS and OAS according to the "cost-effectiveness"
Projectile Labor input of the manufacture of the Consumption of shells on the conditional cost of the solution Comparative conditional
one shell, in norm-hours the solution of the problem, pcs. tasks, in norm-hours the cost of solving the problem
KAS "Centimeter" 240 49 11 760 1,0
UAS "Copperhead" 800 38 30 400 2,59
OAS "Grif" 6 26 33 156 2,82
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