Military Review

Knights in the kitchen. Milk with bacon and beaver tails! Part of 3

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Articles about medieval cuisine aroused genuine interest in VO and ... a lot of the most diverse offers. One is more interesting than the other. To tell about the cuisine of ALL ancient civilizations ... To tell about the cuisine of ancient Rus ... the Vikings ... To tell about feast etiquette and customs, to tell about ... In a word, in order to fulfill all this, I will have to abandon topics tanks, rifles, armor, bronze, samurai and the "poisoned feather" and only do what to read and write about who, what and how to eat and cook. The theme for years and a solid monograph with pictures. And, by the way, there are few “pictures”. There are dishes in museums, but there are very few images of how they used them. So it will be very difficult to fulfill all these wishes. I can say in advance what you can. Since among my colleagues there is O.V. Milaeva, a specialist in Ancient Egypt, the "food of the Egyptians" will be provided to us. The same is true with Japan - no problem. China is in doubt. Vikings ... here I, at least, know where to get the information. Some peoples of Russia ... There is information! But regarding everything else, alas and ah. However, parsing the archive, I found a printout received at one time from David Nicolas from England. I read, translated and that’s what I got as a result based on the writings of English researchers on this interesting topic.


Knights in the kitchen. Milk with bacon and beaver tails! Part of 3

Collect pepper. Fragment of a medieval miniature.

To begin with, the era of the Middle Ages, as they believe, lasted from the V to the XV century. And it was during this period that the foundations of modern European cuisine were laid. As for the characteristic features of the food of that time, it was the cereals that remained the most important source of energy in the early Middle Ages, since rice appeared late, and potatoes got to the food system in Europe only in the 1536 year, with a much later date for its widespread use. Therefore, they ate a lot of bread, about one kilogram per day! Barley, oats and rye were the "grain of the poor." Wheat was "the grain of those who fight and those who pray." Cereals were used as bread, porridge and pasta (the last in the form of noodles!) By all members of society. Beans and vegetables were important additions to the diet based on lower grains.

Meat was more expensive and therefore more prestigious. At the same time, the meat produced during the hunt was found everywhere only on the tables of the nobility. Violation of the rules of hunting in the same England was punished very cruelly. For example, if a villein was hunting in the land of a seigneur with a falcon, then as much meat was cut from his breast as this falcon weighed, and then fed to this falcon in front of Villan! No wonder it was in England that ballads about Robin Hood were in such honor. Shooting the royal game was at that time a terrible crime and the height of free-thinking!

The most common types of meat were pork, chicken and other poultry; Beef, which required large investments in land, was much less common. Cod and herring were the basis of the nutrition of the northern peoples; in dried, smoked, or salted form, they were brought far inland, but other marine and freshwater fish were also consumed. However, it was only in 1385 that the Dutchman Willem Jacob Beykelzon invented a method for salting herring with spices, which improved its taste and increased its shelf life. Before that, the fish was just sprinkled with salt and that's it. Now the herring has fallen on the tables of the nobility, and its consumption has increased dramatically.

Interestingly, during the years of the Hundred Years War 12 in February 1429, even the so-called “Herring Battle” (Battle of Ruvray) took place, just north of the city of Orleans. Then the French tried to seize the British wagon train from about 300 carts, loaded mainly with barrels of herring. The British built fortifications out of carts and barrels, and such “herring” defense brought them success.

In addition to fish, they ate mollusks - oysters and snails, as well as crayfish. In 1485, in Germany, for example, a cookbook was published, which gave five ways to cook delicious dishes from them.

Slow transportation and primitive methods of food preservation (based on drying, salting, drying and smoking) made the trade in many products very expensive. Because of this, the cuisine of the nobility was more prone to foreign influence than the poor; because it depended on exotic spices and expensive imports. As each successive level of the social pyramid imitated all of the above in different volumes, innovations from international trade and wars from the 12th century continued to spread gradually in society through the upper middle class of medieval cities. In addition to the economic inaccessibility of luxury goods, such as spices, there were also decrees prohibiting the use of certain foods among certain social classes and luxury laws that restricted consumption among the nouveau riche. Social norms also dictated that the food of the working class should have been less subtle, since it was believed that there was a natural similarity between labor and food; manual labor requires coarser and cheaper food than, say, a prayer to the Lord or an exercise with a sword! Nevertheless, the tables in the knightly castles did not disdain to serve hedgehogs, squirrels and dormice.

What distinguishes the food of the nobility and the poor in the first place is the use of spices! Cloves, cinnamon, pepper, saffron, cumin, thyme - all this was added to any dish and the more, the better. Spices were added to wine and vinegar, especially black pepper, saffron and ginger. They, along with the widespread use of sugar or honey, gave a lot of dishes that had a sweet and sour taste. Almonds were very popular as a thickener in soups, stews and sauces, especially in the form of almond milk. A very popular dish in the Middle Ages was ... milk with bacon! The milk was boiled together with slices of lard, saffron, and beaten eggs until the mixture was curried. The liquids were allowed to drain overnight, after which the “milk” was cut into thick slices and fried in a pan, adding cloves or pine seeds!

Red wine made jelly. They took strong meat broth from the head and legs, defended it to transparency, and then mixed it with red wine or brandy, poured it all into forms and carried it out in the cold. Forms were multi-separable, so in other parts they made “white fill” with milk and “yellow” with saffron. Then the separate parts of this kind of “jelly” put everything together and served on the table a dish of segments or even in the form of a chessboard!


The same miniature from the book "The Adventures of Marco Polo." (National Library of France)

Since ancient times, the cuisines of the cultures of the Mediterranean basin have also been based on cereals, especially different types of wheat. Porridge, and then bread, became the staple food of most of the population. From VIII to XI century, the proportion of different cereals in the diet of the Mediterranean increased from 1 / 3 to 3 / 4. Dependence on wheat remained significant throughout the medieval era and spread to the north with the growth of Christianity. However, in colder climates, it was usually not available for the majority of the population with the exception of the upper classes. Bread played an important role in religious rituals, such as the Eucharist, and it is not surprising that he enjoyed high prestige among other foods. Only (olive) oil and wine were of comparable value with it, but both of these products remained completely exclusive outside the warmer grape and olive regions. The symbolic role of bread as a source of food and as a divine substance is well illustrated in the sermon of St. Augustine: "In the oven of the Holy Spirit you were baked in the true bread of God."


Slaughtering sheep and meat trade. "The story of health." Upper Italy near 1390 (Vienna National Library)

Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox churches and their calendars had a great influence on eating habits; meat consumption was banned for a full third of the year for most Christians. All animal products, including eggs and dairy products (but not fish), were usually banned during Lent. In addition, it was decided to fast until the adoption of the Eucharist. These posts sometimes lasted a whole day and demanded complete abstinence.

Both the eastern and western churches prescribed that meat and animal products, such as milk, cheese, butter and eggs, should not be allowed on the fast table, but only fish. The goal was not to portray certain products as unclean, but rather to give people a lesson in self-restraint through abstinence. On particularly harsh days, the number of daily meals was also reduced to one. Even if most people complied with these restrictions and usually repented when they violated them, there were also many ways to get around them, that is, there was a constant conflict of ideals and practices.

Such is the nature of man: to build the most complex cell of the rules in which you can catch yourself, and then, with the same ingenuity, direct your brain to bypass all these rules. Fasting was such a trap; mind game was to find loopholes from it.

Interestingly, in the Middle Ages it was believed that beaver tails were of such a nature as fish, so they could be eaten on fasting days. That is, the definition of "fish" often extended to both marine and semi-aquatic animals. The choice of ingredients could be limited, but this did not mean that there was less food on the tables. There were also no restrictions on (moderate) sweets. Feasts held on fast days were a great reason for making illusionary products that imitate meat, cheese and eggs in the most varied and sometimes ingenious ways; the fish could be molded so that it looked like venison, and fake eggs could be made by stuffing an empty eggshell with fish and almond milk, and cooking them on charcoal. However, the Byzantine church did not encourage any culinary refinement of food for the clergy and advocated "nature." But their Western colleagues were much more lenient towards human frailties. A touching unanimity was also observed in the opinion regarding the severity of fasting for the laity - “for this leads to humility.” In any case, during Lent, both kings and schoolchildren, commoners and noblemen, all complained that they had been deprived of meat for long and hard weeks of solemn contemplation of their sins. At this time, even dogs were hungry, disappointed with "hard bread crusts and fish alone."


And now let's look at these miniatures, specially prepared for our cat lovers. Although the Middle Ages was not the coziest time for a feline tribe, as noted in the very first material, cats were appreciated for catching mice and thus protecting barns. Therefore, they are often portrayed even in cookbooks, indicating that no kitchen can do without a cat. “Hours of Charlotte of Sawai, approx. 1420-1425. (Library and Museum of P. Morgan, New York)

From the 13th century, a freer, so to speak, interpretation of the concept of “fasting” began to be observed in Europe. The main thing is not to eat meat on fast days. But he was immediately replaced by a fish. Almond milk has replaced animal milk; artificial eggs made from almond milk, flavored and colored with spices, were replaced by natural ones. Exceptions to the post are often made for very broad populations. Thomas Aquinas (approximately 1225-1274) believed that for children, old people, pilgrims, workers and beggars, permission should be given from the burden of fasting, but not for the poor if they have some kind of shelter and have the opportunity not to work. There are many stories about monastic orders that violated the limitations of fasting through intelligent interpretations of the Bible. Since the patients were relieved of fasting, often many monks declared themselves sick and received nourishing chicken broth. Moreover, for the sick and pregnant, wheat flour or potato flour was added to it. The soup with the roots of fatty chicken was considered an excellent dish for colds. So sometimes the monk should have just coughed loudly to get it!

Medieval society was highly stratified. Moreover, political power was manifested not only in the force of law, but also through the demonstration of wealth. Noble people had to dine on fresh tablecloths, by all means give the “plates” of bread to the poor, and be sure to eat food seasoned with exotic spices. Accordingly, the manners at such a table should have been appropriate. Workers could get along with coarse barley bread, salted pork and beans and should not have any kind of etiquette. Even the dietary recommendations were different: the diet of the upper classes was based on their sophisticated physical constitution, whereas for rude men it was completely different. The digestive system of the Lord was considered more refined than that of his village subordinates and demanded, accordingly, more refined food.


But this is especially touching picture, apparently drawn by the artist from life or a good connoisseur of cats. “Hours of Charlotte of Sawai, approx. 1420-1425. (Library and Museum of P. Morgan, New York)

One of the problems of medieval cuisine was the lack of many well-known types of food raw materials there. For example, in Europe for a long time there was no rice or “Saracen millet”. Rice began to sow the fields in Sicily and in Valencia only after the plague epidemic, when the cost of labor increased. At the same time, rice grown in Italy and Spain was round, medium-grained and did not require a lot of water, although it yielded good yields. It is clear that at first it was a rare and valuable product used to prepare desserts and sweets.

Having many vineyards, Europeans nevertheless did not know how to make raisins from grapes, which they received from the East and called them “grapes from Damascus”. Plums were known, but prunes could not be made from them either and called this export and expensive product “plums from Damascus”, that is, its name contained a direct indication of the place from which it came.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
Knights in the kitchen. Part of 2
Knights in the kitchen. Part of 1
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  1. Vard
    Vard April 21 2018 06: 22
    +5
    There is some experience in reproducing the culinary dishes of those times as part of the reconstruction, sometimes it can be difficult to eat ...
    1. Grim Reaper
      Grim Reaper April 21 2018 10: 49
      +4
      Quote: Vard
      There is some experience in reproducing the culinary dishes of those times as part of the reconstruction, sometimes it can be difficult to eat ...

      I have never tried reconstruction of dishes of the times of her.
      But! From childhood, my father’s phrase crashed, which helped me in my upbringing.
      Do you want to eat? So not hungry.
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 April 21 2018 11: 40
        +7
        To the author - Respect! hi Drop everything - look forward to continuing! yes As the saying goes ... War is war, and lunch is scheduled! good
        If you open the topic of Asian "exotic" cuisine, you will also be respected! hi
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 21 2018 22: 00
      +1
      All this is a matter of degree of hunger. I don’t eat barley, in general, I didn’t even eat in the army, (well, it doesn’t fit my mouth!) But, (thank God!), I was not in a concentration camp ...
      1. ICT
        ICT April 22 2018 08: 05
        +1
        rejoice that you did not serve in ancient Rome
      2. Mikado
        Mikado April 23 2018 22: 01
        +2
        I don’t eat pearl barley, in general, I didn’t even eat in the army, (well, it doesn’t fit into the jaws!)

        "bolts" - a traditional army dish wink drinks
    3. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri April 22 2018 23: 11
      +1
      In Ireland, near Limerick there is Bunratti Castle. There are "medieval meals". I had a chance to participate in due time - the dishes are very funny. Nan current taste is greasy and over-salted :)
      https://www.shannonheritage.com/BunrattyCastleAnd
      FolkPark /
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 21 2018 06: 24
    +6
    Good. The picture from Marco Polo is successful. I wanted to see all the illustrations from the book. And the passage about the cell from the rules is also quite remarkable.
  3. Amurets
    Amurets April 21 2018 07: 08
    +6
    Vyacheslav Olegovich! All this is interesting, but you forgot to mention vegetables and fruits. Especially root crops; turnip, radish and other root vegetables, as well as cabbage.
    1. kalibr
      April 21 2018 07: 34
      +10
      You know, "I have not forgotten anything." Just the material as it is. Transfer. What was in it got into the text. And this is only part. Then there will be something else. But then I did not translate. Just looked through. And it seems to be there. But translating literary from English is still a job. And the volume of the article also does not allow to give everything at once. So please wait for the next part.
      1. avt
        avt April 21 2018 08: 24
        +5
        Both the eastern and western churches prescribed that meat and animal products, such as milk, cheese, butter and eggs, were not allowed on the fasting table, but only fish. The goal was not to portray certain foods as unclean, but rather to give people a lesson in self-restraint through abstinence.
        No. No. This is an even older restriction than Christianity. Especially clearly preserved in our country in Orthodoxy, according to the western orthodoxy. He himself once took a calendar and painted over fasting days and made sure that all posts with a restriction fall on changing the time of year and, as a result, on natural then changing food products in accordance with the time of year. That is - the body was prepared by fasting, cleansed, if you like, to receive a qualitatively different, seasonal food product. Pure physiology embedded in the mass consciousness through religious taboo.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 21 2018 08: 56
          +3
          And the same vitamins preserved in Spring in sauerkraut - to the place. Any actions are good if they are systemic.
        2. kalibr
          April 21 2018 11: 04
          +6
          Yes, that's right, that's why the most strict post falls in the spring ... ate all the stocks!
          1. avt
            avt April 21 2018 11: 25
            +3
            Quote: kalibr
            Yes, that's right, that's why the most strict post falls in the spring ... ate all the stocks!

            No. Sorry, by-by. It is not a matter of the quantity of stocks, but of the quality, more precisely the composition of the product. Well, if you simplify, then after canned and stored food cooled and frozen (in our latitudes and a little lower) the first greens appear. here’s the post itself, there’s preparation — unloading the digestive system so that after the stress of an easy restriction — fasting, food is assimilated easily and quickly, without consequences. And so, when switching from season to season, with the appearance of qualitatively different foods — from greens and early vegetables, fruits and grain. Well, the population wasn’t so mobile then, even the nomads had their own habitat quite limited, and the “logistics” - the supply of exotic products cannot be compared with the current times. By the way! Ban Muslims on pork is not from Magomed. He learned this where he actually knew the basics of religion - in Surya-Antioch. This prohibition, BUT SEASONAL was still under the Baal cult and, by the way, tabooing was also legalized by the cult. Yes, and Muslim fasting, when you can eat only at night, when you cannot distinguish a gray thread from a black one, it’s also connected, but in a short one, with climate - you won’t eat a lot in the heat and even less drink it - everything will come out with sweat and salt, chilled and refueled until they bought air conditioners. bully
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 21 2018 14: 22
            +1
            There was such a bike that the women asked the Petrovsky post to leave milk to drain the butter.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 21 2018 07: 36
      +3
      As far as I understand, the set of fruits was very different from modern ones. The same medlar in some regions was more. Man has greatly changed the face of the earth.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 21 2018 12: 11
        +4
        In England, at that time, apples and pears were the main fruits. And they kept it like this: "Then they put a large bowl with apples and pears on the master's table. The fruit looked amazingly fresh and tasted the same. Hugh could not help but notice it aloud." We harvested in October, "said Aletta," and I dipped the fruits in wax to preserve them better, and then kept them in a cool dry pantry. And here's the result: it's February, and the fruits look exactly as if they had just been plucked from the tree.
      2. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 April 21 2018 12: 24
        +9
        And I have questions about spices (spicy)! In my opinion, their high cost was dictated by two factors: 1. difficulties in logistics
        2. Excellent "disinfecting" properties. Look, for example, at Indian or Mexican cuisine, a normal person - they won’t be able to eat, Indians and Mexicans - do not imagine other food. Acuity - kills almost all “pathogenic” bacteria and viruses! What in a hot climate is very important! I think that is why spices were present mainly in the diet of the nobility. Everything is the Best, only for the elite ..... Time passes - and some things do not change! hi
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 21 2018 13: 26
          +4
          Quote: Hunter 2
          And I have questions about spices (spicy)!

          And not only. You are right in that spices are good preservatives. In the book "All About Spices" V.V. Pokhlebkin writes: “In addition, spices have the ability to suppress bacteria (bactericidal activity), mainly rotting bacteria, and thereby contribute to longer preservation of food (canning). However, the vast majority of spices has the ability to activate the removal of various kinds of toxins from the body, to cleanse due to mechanical and biological blockages, as well as serving as catalysts in a number of enzymatic processes, therefore, most spices are used and especially in the past were used in medicine as medicinal substances, in these cases their concentration increases and the duration of use increases compared to use in cooking. " This is another value of spices.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado April 23 2018 22: 25
            +2
            This is another value of spices.

            Pokhlebkin was a cooking genius .. An article about him was already in VO, but he is a vivid example of a keen creative person. soldier
            Nikolay, but I want to give an example of a somewhat “non-standard” use of spices from Mikado fans (what can you do, all the Japanese, albeit in words, from a large daimyo to a retired geisha, love and value me! request ) In 1649, the service veteran samurai Matsudaira Nobuoki wrote the book "Joho monogatari" (literally, "The Tale of a Soldier"). In fact, this is a textbook on the training, organization and conduct of combat for units of low-ranking samurai - asigaru foot soldiers. Some guidance based on experience and personal perceptions. So, there are tips for dealing with the cold, if a warmed haori jacket and a straw coat are not enough:
            “As for pepper grains, you need to eat one grain each morning and winter, it will protect from the cold and warm. Instead of pepper, you can eat umeboshi (pickled plums). If you rub your legs with crushed red pepper from your hips to your fingertips, you will not freeze. Good to rub their hands too, but then you should not touch your eyes. "
            (cited by Stephen Turnbull, "Samurai. Armament, training, tactics." M .: EKSMO, 2009).
            Well, we won’t check! wink Even during the Finnish war, our warming methods were hastily introduced - warm clothes + 100 grams of people's commissars. hi
  4. Cat
    Cat April 21 2018 08: 29
    +10
    Gorgeous !!!
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you very much for a separate stumble about the "tailed"!
    I noticed that the series of articles unites people of different views, nationalities, religious studies and ..... pluralism of pure water in their comments.
    Thank you!
  5. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx April 21 2018 09: 03
    +2
    it was only in 1385 that the Dutchman Willem Jacob Beikelzon invented a method for salting herring with spices, which improved its taste and extended its shelf life. Before that, the fish was simply sprinkled with salt and that’s all. Now the herring has got on the tables of the nobility, and its consumption has increased sharply

    There, it seems, the matter was not only in spices, but also in the fact that he was the first to guess to remove gills from a herring before salting, which significantly improved its taste.
    1. Cat
      Cat April 21 2018 11: 00
      +6
      No! He is credited with giving priority to the method of laying herring in a barrel (so that she breathes) and the "idea" of a pickle (previously salted with a pickle).
      Gills began to be removed from herring twenty years before V. Jacob.
      Although in a number of sources V. Yakob was credited with gutting herring before pickling, but apparently this innovation came into use even earlier.
      In essence, V. Jacob compiled all the advanced ideas in one technical process. For which he "respect and respect"!
      By the way, I propose to try salted herring with potatoes (boiled in a "uniform"), sauerkraut under fresh milk! Eating!
      yes
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 23 2018 22: 04
        +2
        By the way, I propose to try salted herring with potatoes (boiled in a "uniform"), sauerkraut under fresh milk! Eating!

        somehow, under a hundred grams of fogging .. it’s perceived more traditionally, or something .. But also a jumble! good drinks
  6. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper April 21 2018 10: 14
    +9
    Vyacheslav Olegovich! The great value of your cycle is that many can add, leave a comment. And this, IMHO, is extremely good.
    80 percent of site visitors saw AK (or scimitar only in computer games). The remaining 20% ​​he was so tired that they do not want to remember or speak. A chat?
    And suddenly a great topic appears. Food.
    Where can I discuss everything over a glass of tea.
    wink
    And no one will blame incompetence.
    Thanks for the great loop.
    1. Cat
      Cat April 21 2018 11: 03
      +6
      And the loss! From a chance they will choke on their own saliva from sweets in the comments !!!
  7. Weyland
    Weyland April 21 2018 11: 06
    +5
    It is interesting that in the Middle Ages it was believed that beaver tails are of such a nature as fish, so they could be eaten on fasting days. That is, the definition of "fish" often extended to both marine and semi-aquatic animals.
    For such cunningly "fasting" one of the popes issued a special bull: "Ducks and water hens (moorhen), although they live in water, they are not fish!" laughing
    1. Cat
      Cat April 21 2018 11: 50
      +4
      Believe us, our individual priests, they did not fall behind the popes!
      According to the memoirs of a friend of mine, my grandfather, with the common name Popov, his priest being rector of the parish in the village of Atig, indulged himself in a post with a piglet, preliminarily calling him a crucian.
      So that.....
      By the way I sow a post, he took the right of succession by marrying the youngest daughter of a priest! And with the change of surname, as it was written in the metric how Chekasin got married - Popov !!!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 21 2018 14: 33
        +3
        This is a famous saying:
        "Piglet, piglet, turn into crucian carp."

        And Father Goranflot gained worldwide fame.
        1. Cat
          Cat April 21 2018 17: 08
          +5
          So the priest from the Atig parish was still well-read by the priest! At least his nose was held in the wind, since both his sons made a career already under the Soviet regime.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland April 21 2018 22: 57
        +4
        Quote: Kotischa
        in fasting, he spoiled himself with a piglet, pre-naming it - crucian carp.

        Just “naming” is not such a sin compared to what was done in the West:
        "- How will I, my son, baptize living creatures?
        “Yes, it's easy, damn it!” As sure as you baptize us, born of women. Sprinkle their heads lightly on them and say: "I call you Trout, and you Macrelia." Just say it in your gibberish. So, dear, bring a glass of water, and you - hats down, so that everything would be an honor honor. Well, God bless!
        To everyone’s amazement, the old Franciscan went to get water, sprinkled chickens on his head and read a kind of prayer with a slurred tongue twister. She ended with the words: "I call you Trout, and you Macrelia." Then he sat down in his place and, as if nothing had happened, calmly began to sort out the rosary.
        Aunt Margarita was numb with surprise. Bois-Dophen rejoiced.
        “Hey, Margo,” he said and threw the chickens to her, “prepare us trout and mackerel - it will be a delicious lean dish.” (Prosper Merimee, Chronicle of the reign of Charles IX)
        The monk there, however, turned out to be a fake (dressed as a Huguenot), but the fighters were real Catholics! laughing
        1. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 April 22 2018 16: 20
          +1
          Fasting is a spiritual exercise. Spiritual. Who is stopping you from simply closing the door and is there anything behind the door? And the attempts to “deceive God” - what kind of Christian god can be deceived? People were just joking.
  8. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper April 21 2018 11: 09
    +4
    Though not quite knights. But since the author acknowledged that the topic is worth a minimum of doctoral
    Here we all know what okroshka is. Potato, sausage, cucumber, eggs, greens. Well, plus or minus.
    And it has always been like this?
    According to the memories of my mother.
    How some greens came up, all okroshka.
    Chives with kvass, quite okroshka.
    Peas, young, with kvass and onions
    Cucumber add .... mmm
    And when the potato comes up ...
    It's funny, but I perceive okroshka exactly as a vegetarian dish.
    And the taste is in a huge amount of greens with real, home-made kvass.
    Sausage? Dismiss ....
    1. Cat
      Cat April 21 2018 11: 57
      +7
      By the nature of the work, the last three years have been wound around the Urals Federal District. You will not believe how many types of okroshka, they will offer you according to the traditional Russian recipe!
      With and without potatoes, kvass and sour milk, etc.
      So, as its ancestor of the "Tyur" okroshka is multifaceted and unique !!!
      It is possible how many housewives, so many recipes of that one and unique !!!
  9. tank66
    tank66 April 21 2018 11: 16
    +4
    Now I don’t remember where / Aksakov’s felts, Sabaneyev’s felts / I came across information about an interesting fact. During the time of Alexei Tishayshiy / maybe even earlier / there was a royal decree regarding crayfish. In particular, merchants, relatively speaking with a convoy of more than 10 carts , were obliged to carry several baskets with live crayfish in the same cart. And along the way, I don’t know by what criteria to “heal” the lakes, ponds and others that come along the way. And since the military campaigns of the Russian squads subsequently passed along the same lines as the “Crimean Hats,” the warriors, if necessary, with the help of nonsense, could supplement their menu with a very high-calorie product. Indirectly, this was confirmed in the 70s of the 20th century - when the “plague of plague” passed out in Finland and almost throughout Europe, and the entire European cancer died, the USSR rescued the bourgeois by supplying “breeding” material to restore the livestock. It turned out that in many of our reservoirs , the plague successfully survived crayfish - "mestizos" - hybrids "bred" according to old "agricultural projects".
    1. Cat
      Cat April 21 2018 11: 59
      +2
      It would not hurt us to resurrect this "project" !!!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 21 2018 17: 23
        +4
        Do Fluffy Cats Eat Crayfish? Uh, no! Give them a beaver tail! wink Cats know where it tastes better, you can’t deceive them! drinks I had a friend, they served together in St. Petersburg School of Art, and was a hunter, as he once said: "Didn’t eat anything tastier than cutlets from beaver". Probably from the tail cooked. hi
        I enjoyed reading both the article and the comments. drinks
        1. Cat
          Cat April 21 2018 19: 32
          +3
          Good evening Nikolai!
          I’ll tell you right there was a beaver stew, but to be honest the taste was interrupted by a sincere sadness “the beaver was sorry.” So the aftertaste left "bitterness with pity."
          About crayfish! Mmm ....! Yes, the Ural cats burst them for a sweet soul. Freshly caught cancer for a moment in boiling water with salt ....! Behind the ears there is only crackling.
          R.s. Nikolay, if I don’t show up on-line tomorrow, know - I drowned in saliva !!!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado April 21 2018 20: 39
            +3
            R.s. Nikolay, if I don’t show up on-line tomorrow, know - I drowned in saliva !!!

            we will miss you... recourse ahhh, GlavKot choked with saliva! crying
            "the beaver was sorry." So the aftertaste left "bitterness with pity."

            For the same reasons, your humble servant cannot eat a rabbit .. Many people like it, and thank God! I can not! True, I'm generally finicky in food what
            In 2012, we went for mushrooms. My friend bunny jumped from under her feet. I ran about fifteen meters, lay in the grass. Wool in a yellow speck (natural camouflage!), Probably thought, silly, that no one sees him. Came up, took a picture of him, we say - "Run, hare!" And running! request
            Therefore, I do not see anything surprising in the rejection of the beaver, I would not have become a hare either, I guess. But I prepared buckwheat with pork and onions! good drinks
            1. Cat
              Cat April 21 2018 20: 52
              +3
              There is a simple popular sign to slaughter cattle sparing sin. The animal accepts death in torment, hard.
              Regarding buckwheat under the pig, I respect, I "untwisted" my wife for okroshka on kvass! drinks
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 21 2018 22: 22
        +3
        Bullshit your crayfish compared to shrimp! Bow to a resident of Middle-earth from a resident of the Earthsea laughing
        1. Cat
          Cat April 22 2018 05: 17
          +3
          Good morning Anton!
          As in the saying "If there is no ordinary - we will write on the stamp"! From my mount Scholm, on the slope of which stands my house the seas are not observed. The nearest salt water is the Arctic Ocean a thousand miles!
          So we have shrimp only in the store !!!
          Although I heard all sorts of live in America - lobsters! Just a thick spiny lobster for a fat cat! Tremble America - Cats declare you a gastronomic war. You will ship the tribute to St. Petersburg with shrimps, to Moscow with pigs, to the Urals with lobsters !!! laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 22 2018 07: 23
            +1
            Oh, good, good! It's time to work, "deadlines are burning" ... request
            1. Cat
              Cat April 22 2018 08: 47
              +2
              I sincerely sympathize !!!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 22 2018 12: 00
                +3
                the wolf’s legs are fed, what can it be. We wish Anton good luck. drinks On spiny lobsters - treated a couple of times in the Dominican Republic. Serve, like, with garlic sauce. In appearance - a big greasy shrimp. Yes, delicious. There, in principle, it was a sin to complain about food - everything was for tourists.drinks
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 22 2018 19: 27
                +1
                Thank! But, it's my fault. At 45, I am still a “freelancer” from construction. “Life turned into the lunar side of the coin” (K. Arbenin). Maybe, well, her, this construction site, and the family tradition? I’ll write books for children, for example ... "The blade hangs on a strap, someone pulls on the head!" No, but what? Preschool developmental education is very much in trend, young and not so mummies are ready to pay good grandmothers for any garbage, if only their child was half asleep in front of the girlfriends. Does anyone know that children are being treated with horses today? There is a whole direction - "hippotherapy"! It’s a pity that it’s not rats, what an unplowed field for people like me. Well there is no way. For that, here, a wonderful topic, bushy-up therapy.
        2. tank66
          tank66 April 22 2018 12: 00
          +5
          Dragging the captain, I dare to notice your wrong.
          Believe me - I’ve eaten shrimps and crayfish / I won’t show them to you, /
          and such "shrimp"

          spiny crab - the Japs have 3 buckets - odnushka in Tokyo
          and shulum of beaver

          but, the most delicious thing seemed to be such crap


          tse noodle fish, not all Sakhalin residents even know about it ... the taste is real -
          crossed crab with porcini mushroom.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 22 2018 19: 37
            +1
            Did not catch, "odnushka" for rent or for sale?
            1. tank66
              tank66 April 22 2018 21: 10
              +2
              Good question. The answer is the price of the apartment. For Japs, 1 tuna can cost 1,5 lama of tanks .... I myself saw a catalog of fishing tackle, where pink spinning, with a pink reel and pink fishing line, for rubles costs 800 rubles / at the rate /.And about odnushka, the elderly captain of the crab fishing vessel "gave" me information, when he looked sadly at us eating spiders, at the base in Aniva Bay. It’s just that it was formally impossible to catch a crab, and he / at that time / was expired sailor's passport.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 23 2018 22: 26
                +2
                "Interesting movie" ... I watched the prices for rental housing in Tokyo, not much different from Moscow.
      3. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 April 22 2018 16: 22
        +2
        It would be nice to revive the "Russian forest duty" - planting acorns. And then from the time of the Magi the old-school oak forests are being reduced, and who is planting the oak?
        1. tank66
          tank66 April 22 2018 17: 52
          +3
          Here, in the very “little pussy.” It turns out, I brag about it, but I have two of my favorite trees — oak and cedar. Where I throw my life over — I plant. Just notice: acorns are better to germinate in the “good”, with a transplant with a root of 20-30 cm it takes root at 60-70%. / just acorns -% 5 / .And pine nuts immediately put in place. But, of course, from a resinous cone, because for sale, the cones are boiled in salt water, and they kirdyk ... I’m sorry if I say the obvious.
          So that they wouldn’t think, the photo from the archive “Krasnoyarsk nuts hide in Sakhalin.” And it’s better to click the oaks when the greens climb.
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 22 2018 20: 21
          +1
          There is someone who plants. Only planting is half the battle. It is necessary to look after an oak. And to spread the acorns - the jay turns out worse than people.
  10. Looking for
    Looking for April 21 2018 12: 15
    0
    The whole cycle is a fairy tale grandmother Arina.
    1. Curious
      Curious April 21 2018 13: 17
      +4
      Can you broaden your thought? Or are you a value so large that this is not appropriate for you?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 21 2018 22: 28
        +5
        Viktor Nikolaevich, do not be fooled! "Inappropriate" word from another language, the character will not understand.
        1. Curious
          Curious April 21 2018 23: 18
          +4
          How from another? Vinogradov Institute relates to Russian.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 22 2018 07: 27
            +2
            Guilty, already falling asleep commenting, Russian of course, but outdated.
  11. martin-159
    martin-159 April 21 2018 14: 27
    +3
    Yes, beaver tails are a jumble.
  12. ICT
    ICT April 21 2018 18: 08
    +5
    That is, the definition of "fish" often extended to both marine and semi-aquatic animals.


    I read somewhere that in a new world, just Capybara was considered pure fish