Military Review

How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part three

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The previous materials on this topic were interesting to VO readers. Today we continue it, especially since the next issue of the Japanese magazine “Armor Modeling” has been released, and there is a continuation of the story about sishimono and its fastening, as well as other varieties of Japanese identity, in which there is something to take.


It must be admitted that the Western European coats of arms are much more familiar to us and sometimes look much more spectacular than the Japanese ones. We used to see on the emblems images of gold or silver crowns and towers, dragons and vultures, reared lions and double-headed eagles, hands clutching swords and axes, and below is a motto, something like “To execute or die”. Naturally, all this gives the eye a lot more food than the Japanese black and white "diamonds, circles and flowers of different styles." But one should not forget that neither their design, nor their historical value, their Ka-monas, or just the monks (in Japan that is the name of the family emblems), are in no way inferior to the most famous knightly arms, characteristic of Western Europe. True, they are much simpler, but aesthetically more elegant and more refined.


Today, as an illustrative material, you use pictures from the packages of figures of the Zvezda company, which, as it turned out, produces an entire army of Japanese samurai and ashigaru. In this picture from the packaging, we see the ashigaru behind wooden portable shields, which depicts Mon Tokugawa. But they are shot because of them samurai (wearing a helmet with jewelry) and ashigaru in a simple jingasa helmet belonging to the clan Yi, as indicated by the red sashimono with the “golden mouth” pattern. The red sashimono with four white squares belonged to the soldiers of Kögoku Tadatsugu, a subject of Tokugawa, and the green in black dots was Hoshino Masamitsu. Blue Sashimono - with the image of the stock-rose could belong to someone of the kind Honda Tadakatsu. This is one of the variants of Mona Tokugawa, to whom Tadakatsu always faithfully served.

It is believed that Japanese emperor Suiko (554 – 628), whose military flags, as reported by Nihon Shoki (720), decided to acquire his first symbolism, were decorated with his emblem. However, only two hundred years later, in the Heian period (794 – 1185), when national Japanese culture entered the era of recovery, Japanese feudal lords again turned to the idea of ​​family identity. The rivalry among the noble births at this time was expressed in the full romance of love affairs, gallant poetic and artistic tournaments, in the ability to have a delicate feel and to be able to sing the beautiful. So it is not surprising that the noble courtiers at the imperial palace preferred to use for the depiction of family symbols not bows and swords, but exquisite drawings of flowers, insects and birds. That was their main difference from the emblems of feudal Europe, where it was customary to depict predatory animals, armor details, castle towers and weapon. Only lions were invented several types: "just a lion", "leopard lion", "lion rising," "walking lion", "sleeping lion" and even ... "sneaky lion". In this regard, the Japanese monks were much more peaceful, although it was much simpler and, so to speak, more uniform. Simply, the Japanese, by virtue of tradition and their own understanding of art and culture, avoided screaming snobbery, a bright palette of colors, limiting their monks to a simple monochrome pattern.

How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part three

The motif of the black five-petaled flower was very popular and met on white, yellow, red, and also in a mirror image on white. It is possible that these horsemen are related to the Oda clan.

Connoisseurs of Japanese heraldry calculated that there were only six main subjects of images for monks: these are images of various plants, animals, natural phenomena, objects made by people, as well as abstract drawings and inscriptions with hieroglyphs or individual hieroglyphs. The most popular were the monks, depicting flowers, trees, leaves, berries, fruits, vegetables and herbs. The second group was the objects made by man - there were about 120 in total. These were, most often, instruments of rural labor. The third group included animals and insects, starting with wild geese and cranes and ending with turtles and scorpions. Caught in the drawings of monks and natural objects. For example, images of mountains, waves, sand dunes, the sun and the moon. Often the subject of a mona could be an object like an unusual tree, a mountain stream, or even a mossy stone encountered on the samurai’s way. An animal could usually get into a coat of arms if a family event or tradition was associated with it. Mon could be a reminder of some glorious ancestor. But it also happened that the decorative side of Mona dominated.


Samurai with big field swords no-dati and with red sashimono with monom in the form of four rhombus belonged to Takeda Shingen, and symbolized his motto: “Fast as the wind; as silent as a forest; furious as a flame; reliable as a rock. "

It is not surprising that sometimes Japanese samurai simply borrowed the theme of drawings from the fabrics they liked, including their kimonos, from the fan ornament, or from the jewelry of the old jewelry boxes. Often this happened with various floral designs and ornaments. And especially popular in Japan were such flowers as chrysanthemum, peony, pavlonia and wisteria. In this case, they were depicted on the family’s flags, plates, lacquered bowls, chests, palanquins, roof tiles, paper lanterns, which were hung out near the gate at home in the dark, and, of course, on weapons, horse harnesses and clothing. The first Japanese who decided to decorate his kimono with the family monom was the shogun Yoshimitsu Ashikaga (1358 – 1408). Then it became a fashion, and eventually turned into a rule. Ka-monom Japanese are sure to decorate their black silk kimono for such festive events as weddings, funerals and official meetings. Stamp characters have a diameter from 2 to 4 cm and are applied in five specific places - on the chest (left and right), on the back, between the shoulder blades, and on each of the sleeves.


Archers Takeda Shingen.

The most famous monom in Japan was the chrysanthemum flower with 16-th petals. It is reserved for the imperial house, and no one else dares to use it. He is also the state emblem. Figure 16-petal chrysanthemum can be seen on the cover of a Japanese passport and banknotes. Only rarely did the imperial kamon be allowed as a special favor to be used by persons who did not belong to his family. So it was (and even posthumously) in the XIV century allowed Masasige Kusunoki (? –1336) for his truly selfless loyalty to the emperor Go-Daigo, and Saigo Takamori (1827 – 1877), an active participant in the Meiji Restoration and famous rebel. Chrysanthemum mon used and some monasteries, and temples - as a sign of protection from the imperial family.


This picture from the magazine “Armor Modeling” finally shows what a ho-ro in the form of a raincoat is. Waving behind the rider, the ho-ro gave his figure a monumentality, and he was different from the others, which was very important for the messengers. As always, there were dandies who had a ho-ro too long and dragged them along the ground. But then he was turned up and tied to his belt. It is believed that in such a position, the kho-ro could put out the arrows that were thrown to the rider in the back. A gust of wind could turn the ho-ro over and cover the rider’s face with it. That was bad!

Although there seems to be a lot of Japanese monos, there are only 350 basic patterns. But you can add as many details as you like and change their design. It is enough, for example, to add several veins to the drawing of a leaf of a plant, an extra petal to an inflorescence, to place an already existing mon into a circle or square, and even simply duplicate it twice and three times, as a completely new mon turns out. This could be done in the presence of the second or third sons, since the firstborn, usually, inherited the father's mon. Two repetitions in this case meant exactly - “the second son”, and three - the third! In modern Japanese heraldry, there are about 7500 family monbarian emblems.


Very interesting set of figures. The warlord behind the curtains Maca takes the messengers with the horror behind him, while the ashigaru brings him severed heads. Nearby is a signal drum, with the help of which commands were given, and the commander's emblems — an umbrella. Judging by the drawings and emblems on jingasa it could be Uesugu Kenshin. True, the field of the fan should then be blue. But the umbrella was the emblem of many ...

Not every Japanese clan was allowed to have its own mon in the past. At first, they were received only by the family members of the emperor, the shoguns, their closest relatives and the most influential of their close ones. But over time, as is always the case, the favorites of those who came to the ranks of the favorite owners of ka-monov began to fall. The samurai who showed prowess in battle, the shogun also began to reward him personally with a compiled monom (and such an award was considered very honorable, and the shogun was worthless!) Or even allowed to take his own - as a sign of special closeness to his home. But the truly massive use of Ka- monov was made in the Epoch of Warring Provinces (1467 – 1568). Then all participated in the armed confrontation: daimyo, monasteries and even simple peasants. Warriors did not wear uniforms, so they could identify their own and others on the battlefield only by the flags behind them with the monks painted on them. Although the right to Ka-mon was still only among the court and the samurai estate. Neither peasants, nor artisans, nor merchants were allowed to have it. Only the famous actors of the Kabuki Theater and the equally famous ... courtesans could break the ban. Only in the 19th century, towards the end of the shogun's rule, did rich merchants gradually put their own monks on their shops, warehouses and goods. Of course, they did not have permission for this, but the Japanese authorities turned a blind eye because many of them were seriously indebted to the officials of this time. But then after the Meiji Restoration (1868), which completed the feudal period in the development of Japan, all estate restrictions were canceled and anyone who wanted received the right to have a ka-mon.


The most famous Japanese clans of the middle of the XVI century.

Centuries passed, and the interfamily bonds all multiplied and branched, which naturally reflected on the Japanese monk. There was, for example, the tradition of transferring mona through the female line. The woman, getting married, often kept her mother mon. Although the female coat of arms in the new family in size should have been smaller than that of her husband. However, usually the woman took the mon men. But original combinations of monks were also possible - that is, the heraldic symbols of both the husband and his wife were combined in the figure of Ka-mona. As a result, in some well-born families there are up to ten ka-monovs, which have become clear evidence of the antiquity of the genus.


And here you can clearly see the truly huge sashimono of the messenger, as well as the arrangement of various types of sashimono flags. Finally, the top shows the easiest way to fasten it with a rope.

Often, family monks turned into trademarks of commercial enterprises. Thus, the image of the "three diamonds" was first a monomial of the family, and now it is a trademark of the Mitsubishi company. Even the gangster yakuza groups have brought their own monks.


As always, there were people who knew nothing about the measures. These figures show identification marks whose owners just did not know it. Look at the size and quantity. Ashigaru has five markings on the bottom left, and this is only from the back. And mon overlord was supposed to be on his cuirass in front and on his helmet! And one thing is a small icon on the helmet and on the shoulder pads. But when a sign with a monom closes the entire shoulder pad, or a whole sheet is attached to the back of the helmet, this is an obvious search. Surprisingly, the Japanese suffered all this. This is how they developed their famous tolerance.

Today, for a large part of the Japanese, the ancestral monks have largely lost all heraldic meaning and, as it was in the era of ancient Heian, are more likely elements of aesthetics, which, in turn, are very often addressed by artists and industrial designers.
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Articles from this series:
How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part two
How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part one
26 comments
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  1. Streletskos
    Streletskos April 18 2018 05: 19
    +18
    I read the cycle with pleasure
    detail interesting
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 18 2018 06: 23
    +4
    An original, distinctive military culture with well-preserved traditions. I hope that it will never be fully reborn after Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kvantun!
    1. kalibr
      April 18 2018 08: 32
      +2
      She cannot be reborn after the shock of 45 year. Coca-Cola, Hollywood are the modern symbols of Japan. Want to be dishonored in front of the Japanese? Start talking with them to scold Hollywood and American cinema ...
      1. Curious
        Curious April 18 2018 20: 07
        +3
        Symbols of Japan, as before, Fuji and sakura. A classic Coca - Japanese practically do not use cola. For Japan, Coca Cola has developed drinks that meet the cultural traditions of the Japanese.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 18 2018 21: 23
          +2
          Viktor Nikolaevich, can you read more in this place?
          1. Curious
            Curious April 18 2018 21: 57
            +4
            If in more detail - the book will turn out. In short, the soda, as we used to imagine it, the Japanese almost do not consume.
            In Japan, the situational binding of drinks is very strong, let’s say. They even have a Beverage Research Institute.
            At the same time, tea is very popular. Tea is almost a third of Japan's beverage market. And if you eat sushi, then it is customary to drink them with green tea. And if something is fatter - they drink oolong. That is, in different cases, either green or black teas, oolongs and mixtures are used, as well as FOSHU drinks (Food for Specified Health Use). This division is approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Social Security of Japan. So for all these cases, Coca-Cola has developed for the Japanese market the corresponding brands such as Ayataka green tea.
            Similarly, with coffee, health drinks. There are even drinks that improve sleep, to control fat, regulate blood sugar, improve bowel function. But the brown wed ... no, which is sold here, the Japanese do not drink.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 18 2018 22: 20
              +2
              The question arises. Is it drinks or sublimated products for making drinks? By the way, “drink” is quite an Ukrainian word, very cultural. Unlike the great-power "swill" laughing Well, I love Ukrainian request smile
              1. Curious
                Curious April 18 2018 22: 35
                +1
                These are full drinks. To create the same Ayataka tea, Coca Cola turned to Kanbayashi Shunsho Honten, one of the oldest Japanese tea companies, which is almost 500 years old. Therefore, tea is made in accordance with Japanese traditions and from powdered green tea from one of the most famous tea regions of Japan - Uji.
                But the drink is still in Russian. In Ukrainian - Napіy - not very harmonious, if not used.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 18 2018 22: 42
                  +2
                  That is, Coca-Cola is chopping a chip. I wonder why not Pepsi?
                  1. Curious
                    Curious April 18 2018 23: 00
                    +2
                    And Pepsi chopping. Faced with local culture, almost all major global brands use a product localization strategy taking into account not only regional linguistic, but also social as well as gastronomic features. Pepsi is no exception. Pepsi Baobab - with a baobab flavor or Pepsi Shiso - with an extract of perennial herb railing - purely Japanese products.
        2. kalibr
          April 19 2018 07: 39
          +2
          Well, I write about what my students saw, who went there for several years in a row to practice. One already has its own center for learning Japanese and she goes there regularly.
          1. Curious
            Curious April 19 2018 09: 21
            +2
            Based on the fleeting impressions of students, I would not draw global conclusions, especially about Japan. You can meet with a Japanese at work regularly for several years, receive a polite smile, and resolve issues, but you won’t know how he really treats you. To deserve from the Japanese to spread their cultural traditions on you is a very difficult task for a foreigner.
            1. kalibr
              April 19 2018 11: 22
              +2
              This is not entirely fleeting, it is from May to October. A very interesting program is for Japanese youth to get acquainted with the culture of foreigners, and those with Japanese. You had to have a national costume with you, to be able to cook your own food. A Japanese student tutor was attached to each foreign student. And they traveled through the "outback", met with schoolchildren, college students, students - they sang, danced, went to the bathhouse ... Then one of them started its own center for learning the Japanese language and she began to go there as to her home. And her Japanese friends go to her in Russia and she carries them around Russia. So I would not say that these are fleeting impressions. Once fleeting, two, three, and then turn into a long-term acquaintance. Not so I ... to draw general conclusions on the opinion of "snotty" girls. But then, when they become young professionals, why not do it?
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 18 2018 22: 32
        +1
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, one of the modern world trends - Japanese anime. Moreover, authentic, Japanese. Fakes are by no means welcome! Isn't this propaganda ?!
        1. kalibr
          April 19 2018 07: 36
          +2
          Of course, this is a cultural trend. My students did a study on Sailormoon. Oh and interesting ...
        2. Mikado
          Mikado April 19 2018 11: 31
          +1
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, one of the modern world trends - Japanese anime. Moreover, authentic, Japanese. Fakes are by no means welcome! Isn't this propaganda ?!

          Please note that they turn out fantastic films more than mediocre ones. hi I will venture to suggest that the anime partly “replaced” their cinema. The anime presents all genres, from dismembered horrors to "adult films." request
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 18 2018 06: 54
    +2
    Your traditions - whatever layer you raise. The same holiday of chrysanthemums - from the IX century.
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 18 2018 06: 56
    +4
    "... there are up to ten ka-monons, which have become a clear evidence of the antiquity of the clan." In European heraldry, an inverse relationship is traced: the older the genus, the simpler the coat of arms.
  5. Curious
    Curious April 18 2018 08: 59
    +4
    "The most famous monom in Japan was a 16-petal chrysanthemum flower. It is reserved for the imperial house, and no one else dares to use it. It is also the state emblem. A 16-petal chrysanthemum pattern can be seen on the cover of a Japanese passport and banknotes . "
    The official national emblem of Japan simply does not exist. In its quality is used a chrysanthemum flower - mon of the imperial house.
  6. Curious
    Curious April 18 2018 14: 46
    +4
    "The most famous monom in Japan was a 16-petal chrysanthemum flower. It is reserved for the imperial house, and no one else dares to use it."
    The ban on the use of chrysanthemums - the symbol of Japan was canceled after the Second World War. Now he is placed on storefronts, passports, in diplomatic missions and in parliament.
    Now this official symbol is used to approve documents issued by the Emperor. A seal is made of gold, has the shape of a cube with a side of 9,09 cm. Traditionally, other seals cannot have a size exceeding the imperial one. The print is usually put in red, it goes to the signature. Earlier, the Minister of Press, now replaced by the Office of the Imperial Court of Japan, was responsible for this symbol.
    Such a seal is called a shubun - printing with red symbols on a white background.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 18 2018 17: 26
      +4
      Such a seal is called a shubun - printing with red symbols on a white background.

      need to remember the word. I’ll go to some document to get the personal imperial hieroglyph and I’ll slap the shubun fellow
      1. Cat
        Cat April 18 2018 21: 26
        +3
        God forbid to drop such a shubun on the leg, it will not seem enough! what
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 18 2018 22: 20
          +3
          I'm lighter, standard. You’re more likely to break a shubun than to beat off your leg if you drop it laughing
        2. kalibr
          April 18 2018 22: 43
          +2
          Kotische (Vladislav Kotische) [b] [/ b] Dear Vladislav! Material about Russian expensive helmets is ready! But he revealed a number of such problems that the topic will have to be expanded, and most importantly - to contact the copyright holders ... you will have to wait another week!
          1. Cat
            Cat April 19 2018 05: 16
            +3
            Yes, at least - two!
            Thanks in advance from the "consumer"! hi
            By the way, "drooling" is already starting to flow ...... recourse
            1. kalibr
              April 19 2018 07: 40
              +2
              I did not even expect that one topic would drag another along ... God forbid that I could give as I want!