Military Review

How Mongolia helped beat Hitler

32
When 22 June 1941, Hitler's Germany attacked the Soviet Union, the USSR practically had no allied states that would unequivocally support the country in its confrontation with German Nazism. In addition to the USSR, by the year 1941 there were only two countries in the world that adhered to the socialist path of development and were closely connected with the Soviet Union. These were the Mongolian People’s Republic and the Tuva People’s Republic.


Mongolia, and Tuva to the beginning of the 1940-ies. They were economically underdeveloped and sparsely populated countries that received great help from the Soviet Union and were themselves far from in a better situation. But they were the first to side with the USSR. 22 June 1941 of the year X The Great Khural of the Tuva People’s Republic unanimously adopted the Declaration of the full support of the Soviet Union. Tuva was the first foreign state to enter the war on the side of the Soviet Union. 25 June 1941, the Tuvan People's Republic declared war on Hitler Germany.

22 June 1941 held a meeting of the Presidium of the People’s Khural and the Central Committee of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, at which the leadership of the MPR made the unequivocal decision to assist the Soviet Union in the fight against German Nazism. In September, the Central Committee for Assistance to the Red Army was established by the Mongolian People’s Government 1941, and its local units appeared in each city, aimag and somone of Mongolia. The work of the commissions involved government officials, party and youth activists. But the main role in collecting aid, of course, was played by the most ordinary citizens of Mongolia - simple working people.

Throughout the war, Mongolia sent horses to the front, food, paid for the construction tanks and airplanes. Her help was tremendous, despite the limited capabilities of the country. First of all, Mongolia helped the Soviet Union with the products of its agriculture, the main branch of the country's economy. Mongolia transferred to the Soviet Union 500 thousand Mongolian horses, distinguished by strength, endurance and unpretentiousness. Another 32 thousand horses were donated by the Mongolian arats - pastoralists as donations. Mongolian horses were actively used as draft power, especially for the needs of artillery units. The excellent qualities of the Mongolian horses were noted, in particular, by General Issa Pliev, who emphasized that the unpretentious Mongolian horse, along with Soviet tanks, reached Berlin in the spring of 1945. In fact, every fifth horse that participated in the war as part of the Red Army was transferred to the Soviet Union by Mongolia.

How Mongolia helped beat Hitler


As early as October 1941, the first echelon of food and clothing — soldier belts, woolen sweaters, sheepskin coats, fur vests, gloves and mittens, and blankets — went to the Soviet Union. A delegation of Mongolian workers arrived in the USSR along with a train headed by Deputy Prime Minister of the MPR Lubsan and Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Republic Sukhbataryn Yanzhmaa (widow of the Mongolian revolution leader Suhe Bator). The Mongolian delegation was accepted by the command of the Western Front, visited the location of units and divisions.

In just four years of the Great Patriotic War, Mongolia transferred to the Soviet Union, in addition to horses, 700 thousand cattle heads, 4,9 million heads of small cattle. Mongolian aid made a great contribution to the food and clothing support of the Red Army - almost 500 thousand tons of meat, 64 thousand tons of wool, 6 million pieces of small leather raw materials were supplied to the USSR. Of course, the Soviet Union paid for Mongolia with the supply of other goods, but in general, the help of the steppe neighbors was very significant. For example, it was Mongolia that was the main supplier of sheepskin, from which officers made fur coats for the needs of the commanders of the Red Army. Overcoats for soldiers and sergeants of the Red Army were made of Mongol wool.

After the calculations, it turned out that small Mongolia supplied wool and meat to the Soviet Union during the war years more than the United States of America. If we talk, for example, about the supply of wool, then from the United States during the war years 54 were delivered thousand tons of wool, and from Mongolia - 64 thousand tons of wool. This is a very impressive difference, given the huge gap between the United States and Mongolia, both in the territory, in the population, and in the resource possibilities. When they now say that without the American assistance the USSR would be much more difficult to win the war, they forget about the disparity between the scale of American Lend-Lease and the Mongolian supplies. If Mongolia had the scale and capabilities of the United States, it is possible that Hitler would have been defeated in the first months of the war.

Dozens of trains from Mongolia went to the Soviet Union. 30 115 30 500 FUR COATS Jam, 31 tons of sausage, 257 tons of oil - this is a list of the contents of only one of the trains coming from Mongolia to the Soviet Union. Ordinary Mongols - herders, workers, employees - collected money for arming the Soviet units, sent food, hand-made sweaters or mittens. The collection of aid to the Red Army was centralized and was organized by the Mongolian government.



Mongolia helped the USSR not only with food and clothing. A fundraising campaign was organized for the Red Army. As early as January 1942, the session of the Small Khural of the Mongolian People's Republic decided to purchase the Revolutionary Mongolia tank column through donations from Mongol arats, workers and employees. Fundraising was very active. By February, 1942, a large amount of funds were collected - 2,5 million Mongolian mire, 100 thousand US dollars and 300 kg of gold, which in total corresponded to 3,8 million Soviet rubles. The MPR donated this money to Vneshtorgbank of the USSR for the construction of a tank column. 12 On January 1943, a Mongolian government delegation led by Marshal Khorlogiy Choibalsan, who arrived in the Moscow Region, handed over the T-112 tank to the 32-th Red Banner Tank Brigade 34 command. The commander of the 21 Tank Brigade, Andrei Getman, also received a fur doha, donated by a teacher from Ulan Bator named Tserenglan. The 70-I tank brigade was renamed 112-th Guards Red Banner Tank Brigade "Revolutionary Mongolia". It is noteworthy that the Mongolian side took upon itself the full food and clothing provision for the tank brigade “Revolutionary Mongolia”.

The help of Mongolia to the Soviet Union did not stop on the tank column. A new fundraiser was organized - this time for the construction of the Mongolian Arat aircraft squadron. On July 22, 1943, the Prime Minister of the MPR Choibalsan informed Joseph Stalin that the MPR was transferring 2 million tugriks for the construction of 12 La-5 combat aircraft for aviation Squadron "Mongolian arat". On August 18, Stalin thanked the Mongolian leadership for their help, and on September 25, 1943, in the Smolensk region, at the field airfield of the Vyazovaya station, a solemn transfer of aircraft to the 2nd Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 322nd Fighter Aviation Division took place. In addition to the transferred planes, Mongolia, according to the established tradition, took upon itself the task of providing food and clothing supplies to the Mongolian Arat squadron until the end of the war.



Of course, we should not forget that the control system in the MPR at that time was rigid, taking the example of the Soviet, and such a huge scale of assistance was the result of not only the fraternal outburst of the Mongols, but also the general mobilization nature of the Mongolian economy. It is known that domestic consumption of food and other goods has decreased in some regions of the MPR. And, nevertheless, many Mongols not only sent the products of their labor to the USSR, but also volunteered for the Red Army. During the Great Patriotic War, thousands of Mongolian volunteers fought as part of the Red Army. The Mongols served as snipers and scouts, fought as part of the cavalry units of the Red Army.

In the front row of Mongolians who left for the front were Russians - Soviet citizens living in the country. In the north of the country were 9 Russian villages, besides a significant number of Russian lived in Ulan Bator. 22 people left the 5000-thousandth Russian population of Mongolia, including women, old people and children, almost all men from 17 to 50 years. The military commissariat, through which the call-up for military service in the Red Army was carried out, was located in Ulan Bator. Approximately half of the Mongolian Russians did not return from the front, and there is no information about cases of desertion. Assistance to the families of Russians who went to the front from Mongolia was provided by the Mongolian People's Republic Government, which adopted for this purpose a special decree on the payment of benefits to the families of servicemen.

Attention should be paid to another side of the Mongolian aid to the Soviet Union. It is known that due to the constant threat of attack by Japan on the Far East, the Soviet leadership was forced to hold huge armed forces in the Far Eastern region of about a million military personnel. In this situation, Mongolia was the main ally of the USSR in the region, which, if anything, could assist in repelling the aggression of imperialist Japan. This was well understood by the Mongolian leadership, which increased the number of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Army four times and intensified the combat training of personnel, including the training of the Mongolian commanders in the Soviet military schools.

8 August 1945 g. The Soviet Union officially declared war on Japan. Two days later, on August 10 of 1945, the Mongolian People's Republic declared war on Japan. Parts of the INRA were to work together with the Red Army on the fronts of the Far East. In Mongolia, a general mobilization began, which, given the small population of the country, affected almost all men of Mongolia. Parts and formations of the INRA were incorporated into the Horse-mechanized group of the Trans-Baikal Front, commanded by Colonel-General Issa Alexandrovich Pliev.

Lieutenant-General Jamian Lhagvasuren became deputy commander for Mongolian troops, and the head of the political department of Mongolian forces was Lieutenant-General Yumzhagin Tsedenbal. The Pliyev group's Mongolian formations included the 5-I, 6-I, 7-I and 8-I Cavalry divisions of the MPRA, the 7-I motorized armored brigade of the MPRA, the 3-th separate tank regiment and the 29-th artillery regiment of the MNRA. In total, in the horse-mechanized formations of the INRA, there were 16 thousands of personnel, consolidated cavalry and 4 aviation divisions, a motor-armored brigade, a tank and artillery regiment, a communications regiment. Another 1 of thousands of Mongolian servicemen served in other units and formations on the front, while the rest of the forces were on the territory of the Mongolian People's Republic proper — in reserve and in rear work.

The Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Army took an active part in the Manchurian operation, losing about 10,000 dead people. 200 September 2 Japan signed an act of surrender. For Mongolia, Japan’s capitulation and the end of World War II were accompanied by a landmark event - the world officially recognized the independence of the Mongolian state, which was preceded by the consent of China, which had previously claimed to Outer Mongolia, to hold a referendum. 1945 October 20 d. 1945% Mongols voted for the political independence of Mongolia. True, China recognized the political sovereignty of the Mongolian People's Republic only four years later, after the Chinese Communists won the final victory in the civil war.



The memory of how the Soviet Union and Mongolia fought shoulder to shoulder, both countries still keep. For a long time, while veterans of the Great Patriotic War were alive and relatively young, solemn meetings were held for the veterans of the Revolutionary Mongolia tank column and the Mongolian Arat aviation squadron and the war veterans in Manchuria. Mongolian delegations take part in the celebration of the next anniversary of the Great Victory in Moscow. Speaking about the scale of foreign aid to the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War, in no case should we forget about the contribution that small Mongolia made to the victory over Nazi Germany.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech April 12 2018 05: 33
    +15
    Thanks to the Mongolian people who provided real assistance to our country in difficult times ... sane people. hi
    1. Ruudi 34
      Ruudi 34 April 21 2018 08: 35
      0
      It’s just that the USSR never humiliated the dignity of a foreign people. Maybe he punished, but did not humiliate him.
  2. Hole puncher
    Hole puncher April 12 2018 06: 33
    +6
    On June 22, 1941, a meeting of the Presidium of the People’s Hural and the Central Committee of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party took place, at which the leadership of the MPR made an unambiguous decision to help the Soviet Union in the fight against German Nazism.

    They would have tried differently if at that time the previous government of Mongolia, who had been arrested and taken to Moscow, was awaiting execution. you could easily join ...
    But the main role in the collection of assistance, of course, was played by the most ordinary citizens of the MPR - ordinary working people.

    Yeah, the illiterate nomads who had no idea about the existence of Germany, not to mention the national socialist ideology, were imbued with a sense of solidarity and voluntarily gave away cattle. Does the author himself believe in this nonsense?
    If we talk, for example, about the supply of wool, then 54 thousand tons of wool were delivered from the USA during the war years, and 64 thousand tons of wool from Mongolia. This is a very impressive difference, given the enormous gulf between the United States and Mongolia both in the territory, in population, and in resource opportunities.

    And how many tanks and planes did Mongolia supply? Or machine tools and alloy metals?
    Mongolia helped the USSR only because before the war, Frinovsky and Co. carried out a total sweep, and the puppet government could not fart without a decree from Moscow because it knew the fate of its predecessors.
    1. APIS
      APIS April 12 2018 11: 12
      +15
      About airplanes and tanks, the article says. What was and was helped, not for gold, mind you!
      Didn’t keep the de..mecko in itself, tossed it up?
      1. neri73-r
        neri73-r April 12 2018 21: 13
        +2
        And that he (hole punch) farted, only his little thoughts, zero facts! Try to force people to bayonet massively help a foreign army, if there is no desire, did the Germans force us a lot? Huh? hi
        1. Hole puncher
          Hole puncher April 13 2018 04: 36
          +2
          Farts your twisted consciousness with whom you are trying to be proud.
    2. Ruudi 34
      Ruudi 34 April 21 2018 08: 54
      0
      Khalkhin-Gol ... Do you recall how the Japanese treated the Mongols in Manchuria, Inner Mongolia and Khingan? The Mongols were eager to get under Japanese rule ..
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 12 2018 06: 41
    +12
    It was known about the material and financial assistance to Mongolia, but I learned about the participation of volunteers from Mongolia only from this article. It was not for nothing that Goebbels scared the Germans with “Mongol hordes hired for British gold.” Many thanks to the author!
  4. Curious
    Curious April 12 2018 08: 05
    +2
    The Mongols, no doubt, deserve the kindest words.
    But why does the author launch a Mongolian horse in a circle, repeating in an aggravated version his article two years ago - https://topwar.ru/74604-pomosch-stepey-mongoly-ve
    rnye-soyuzniki-velikoy-otechestvennoy.html
    1. Huumi
      Huumi April 12 2018 09: 54
      +1
      They didn’t like Mongolian horses at all, they practically didn’t give in to training! -Gemmoroya and we caught a lot of them — the best were German or French "captured" or ours.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 April 12 2018 15: 05
        +2
        Do you have any documents on this subject?
        It was not in vain that General Issa Pliev, who fought in horse-mechanized groups from 1941 to 1945, from Smolensk, through Stalingrad to Budapest and Manchuria, wrote later: "... an unpretentious Mongolian horse reached the Berlin next to the Soviet tank."
      2. alatanas
        alatanas April 12 2018 16: 18
        0
        Quote: Huumi
        Teeth do not look at a gifted horse!


        Proverb.
      3. fiberboard
        fiberboard April 12 2018 18: 18
        +5
        Why is it suddenly? I had the opportunity to ride them. Well amenable to learning, taught himself. And if anyone doesn’t succeed, this is about a good dancer .... By the way, the Mongolians go well to Europe, there is a game where they drive the ball with horses with sticks, small frisky Mongolians are well suited.
      4. Ruudi 34
        Ruudi 34 April 21 2018 08: 40
        0
        Is not a fact. And horses are not trained, but circled. Only those who are immediately ready to give in to her for a reward are trained. "Mongol" is a glorious horse and really clever .. and the Mongols themselves subjugated somehow half the world on it.)
  5. seti
    seti April 12 2018 08: 52
    +2
    Thank you so much for the article.
  6. antivirus
    antivirus April 12 2018 09: 16
    +1
    not friends for food
    and now the allies are asking in response?
    1. Leo Thin
      Leo Thin April 4 2021 01: 48
      0
      just for the food. For food!
      I can EASILY prove!
      Want to?
  7. Huumi
    Huumi April 12 2018 09: 56
    +2
    They didn’t really like Mongolian horses — they were practically or difficultly trained and were afraid of explosions, etc. Our people didn’t like them. They hit the bowler much faster than other types of horses
    1. Felix99
      Felix99 April 12 2018 12: 51
      +2
      So what? What's bad in the bowler hat? Help, she always help, they gave the last piece of bread.
    2. kiriak88
      kiriak88 5 May 2018 10: 13
      0
      Who told you that? Have you ever ridden a horse?
  8. bubalik
    bubalik April 12 2018 11: 23
    +11
    How not to remember today about the first Mongolian astronaut Zhugderdemidiyn Gurragchi.
    1. Felix99
      Felix99 April 12 2018 13: 12
      +4
      Happy Cosmonautics Day!
    2. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher April 12 2018 14: 03
      +3
      Used to joke, name the first Mongolian astronaut? Another measure of intoxication they measured ...
  9. bubalik
    bubalik April 12 2018 13: 07
    +16
    They didn’t really like Mongolian horses — they were practically or difficultly trained and were afraid of explosions, etc. Our people didn’t like them.


    ULZY-JARGAL DONDUKOV - regiment commissar, guard foreman of the 35 cavalry regiment, commander of the anti-tank gun crew, walked from Moscow to Berlin, ended the war on the Elbe and watered his Mongolian hoolags from this river., Doctor philologist. sciences, professor.


    He wrote - On the Mongol war horses:
    During the Second World War, 7 cavalry corps were created, which were constantly replenished with Mongolian horses and received more than 500 000 horses as gifts from the MPR. I went with battles from the Moscow region on the frosty December of 1941 to Berlin and further to the Elba River under the command of the Hero of the USSR Dovator as part of the 2 Guard. cavalier. corps.
    For all time, the soldiers served the 5 Mongol. horses, 4 of which the heroines died, and the fifth watered water from the German river Elba.
    2 Guard. kaval.korpus during the Second World War made 4 heroic raids on the deep rear of the enemy 1941 near Moscow, 1942 - Smolensk forests, 1943 through the river. Desna, that in the Bryansk forests of 1943- on the Pripyat River and Polesskie swamps in Belarus and in such reids they counted only on pasture. And the Mongolian horses did not require special care, they themselves raked the snow for food, and the snow quenched their thirst, demonstrating a great advantage over the European breed of horses, showed exceptional endurance in long crossings. They easily crossed marshy places and swam across the wide and deep rivers.
    If you saw a war horse that was to attack immediately, you would be paralyzed by his sensual perception of impending danger or his irreplaceable death.

    The task was set to force the deep-water Dnieper to swim, whether the steppe Mongolian horses would be able to overcome the rapid course of the Dnieper. Everything took place under continuous artillery, mortar and machine-gun fire, from the explosions powerful fountains of water flow around. Poor horses laugh, snort, people scream and drown ...
    After another explosion .. a two-meter wave threw me off the saddle. Pretty swallowing water, I still emerged from the water and saw in front of me the saving tail of my horse, which I grabbed with both hands. At one time, I disobeyed the order of the battery commander: I did not cut the tail to my horse, citing a bad omen. This time it was great for me to use the uncut long tail of my horse, which pulled me out of the water onto the right bank of the Dnieper. And on the move we went on the attack on the enemy, but here my horse died from the enemy machine-gun line.
    …………… .. I didn’t see any bolder and braver Mongolian horses, it always seemed to me that they took all the bullets and shell fragments flying at me, thereby saving me and under my saddle 4 Mongolian horses died.
    The loss in battle of a horse was tantamount to the death of a military friend - a soldier. Dying, the horse sadly, guilty looks at his master for the last time, which forever leaves him. In his eyes, one could notice enormous sadness and longing for the native Mongolian spacious steppes that he would not return there again ........ I have often seen our horse guards, courageous people who passed fires and water in battles, crying at the head of their dying war horse .
    And I would know now where you are, those Mongols who gave me five horses, four of which rest forever in the Smolensk forests, Polessky swamps in Belarus, in the steppes of Ukraine, on the Sandomirskrm bridgehead in Poland. Not only mine, but in general hundreds of thousands of Mongolian horses were killed on the battlefields from Moscow to Berlin.
    And now the long-awaited victory, when a long “Hurray !!!!” guards sank over the water surface of the German river Elbe. Lieutenant Colonel Gladkov, said: "Well now, lads, according to the old Cossack custom, to give water to the horses in the Elbe !! .... Get out!"
    The Horse Guards dismounted, let go of the girths, brought the war horses, which came from the sultry steppes of Mongolia, to the German river Elbe, in the center of Europe.

    "From Moscow to Berlin on a war horse"
    1. Felix99
      Felix99 April 12 2018 14: 23
      +4
      Sincerely ...
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 April 12 2018 16: 45
        +6
        Quote: Felix99
        Sincerely ...

        Join.
    2. bubalik
      bubalik April 12 2018 14: 53
      +8
      5 May 2017 on Poklonnaya Gora a monument “On the Roads of War” was unveiled, which depicts Mongolian horses pulling an artillery gun in front of off-road conditions. The monument is a gift of the Mongolian citizens of Russia.

  10. SEER
    SEER April 14 2018 01: 24
    +2
    Thank you, brothers of the Mongols!
    My grandfather walked in your short fur coats for three years. I ate your stew.
  11. kiriak88
    kiriak88 5 May 2018 10: 14
    0
    Here you have a small country !!!! Thanks to the Mongol Brothers. And thanks to your Loshalami !!!
  12. vindigo
    vindigo 8 August 2018 13: 35
    +1
    And now how does Mongolia feel about us? Turned her back and forgot how fraternal East Slavic peoples or good remembers how the people of the DPRK alien to the Russians? What always amazed me: peoples who had almost the same mentality as us quarreled with us, and the Korean people who were completely alien in culture remembered that we tried to protect them from the Japanese and Americans and did not destroy monuments even in these difficult times for Russia.
    1. Altanod
      Altanod 10 July 2019 10: 46
      +1
      When part of the Irkutsk region went under water, the Mongols quietly, without any fuss, took and sent two consignments of humanitarian supplies: flour, meat products, warm blankets and things. In Ulan Bator, a headquarters has been set up to raise funds for the injured, and children's camps are ready to accept up to one hundred children for the purpose of relaxation and acquaintance with the culture of this ancient country. Without a pump. Without high-profile statements on international platforms. Just done. Just by old friendship.

      Therefore, when we talk about friends and allies of Russia - yes, we can recall the French Resistance; the Italian Messina keeps the memory of Russian sailors who were the first to come to the aid of a city dying from an earthquake, a bust of Admiral F. F. Ushakov was installed on Greek Corfu ... But for some reason, Russia sees real help, brotherly help, neighborly only from Mongolia . For which simple human thanks to them.


      https://news-front.info/2019/07/07/o-rossijskih-soyuznikah-i-rossijskih-soyuznikah/?fbclid=IwAR3B2v8PVSXLqHyPi1RK15glfDXPKg3kviEdPKmwsqhf0ElK16_9i5hyP2s