Military Review

Sinai campaign. Part of 1. Prologue

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Sinai campaign. Part of 1. Prologue



This has already happened more than once: those who won the war, lost the world, drowned in imposed treaties, who took, treaties, tied up in endless negotiations with those who called themselves allies, but in fact preferred to drag chestnuts out of the fire with other people's hands ...

(Vera Kamsha)

On the day of independence, May 15, 1948, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Yemen declared war and attacked the newly created Israel with the aim of destroying the newborn Jewish state.

The war for the independence of Israel began. At the first stage of the invasion, the Israelis fought hard defensive battles. Since July, the Israel Defense Forces launched a counter-offensive and rejected the Arab armies. In the fall of 1949, the moment came when the Israelis could completely destroy the encircled Egyptian army, but the intervention of the British forced Israel to cancel the prepared operation. America also did not support the Israelis. Negotiations held at the initiative of the United Nations and the United States did not allow the matter to be completed. Israel’s victory led only to a temporary truce with the Arab countries that participated in the 1949 war.

Already in August 1951, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mahmoud Fawzi declared: "The general agreements on a cease-fire between Egypt and Israel do not include provisions interpreting the legal and technical termination of the state of war between Egypt and Israel."
Mahmoud Fawzi

1 September 1951 The UN Security Council ordered Egypt to open the Suez Canal for Israeli shipping. Egypt refused to comply with this instruction. Ahmad Abdel Nasser, who overthrew King Farouk in 1952, said: "Technically, Egypt is still in the war against Israel."
Ahmad Abdel Nasser

In April, 1954, the former Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohammed Salah al-Din Bey told the Al-Misri newspaper that "the Arab people, without any embarrassment, declare: we will not be satisfied with anything other than the complete elimination of Israel from the Middle East map" .

In fact, the biggest trouble for Nasser did not come from Israel, but from Britain, France and the Islamic countries of the Middle East. For all these countries, the Nasser regime was too revolutionary, and the revolution, as we know, has a tendency to spread. Although officially with England, Egypt had a friendship, and England even sold Nasser weaponbut in the future both countries understood that the “anti-colonial” development of the new Egyptian policy gradually weakened the influence of England in the region. In addition, Nasser claimed to be the leader of the entire Arab world, and many other Arab leaders disagreed. 24 February 1955, the United Kingdom, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran signed an agreement on military cooperation, the “Baghdad Pact”, something like the Middle East NATO. Egypt was not invited to this treaty, and Nasser had serious concerns that he might be left without allies. In addition, the countries of the Baghdad Pact have now begun to arm themselves with Western weapons, claiming that they are a shield against the penetration of the USSR to the south. Naser West was not going to sell weapons, except perhaps for England, which sold Egypt 41 the Centurion tank, 200 self-propelled Archer installations, 70 jets, 2 warships and 150 guns. Egypt also asked America for two frigates and 600 jeeps. This was not enough for his army.




Nasser found a weapon in Czechoslovakia, beyond which loomed the imposing shadow of the Soviet Union. The mediator was the Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai.

Everything looked quite understandable. Appeals from the USSR are constantly being made to fight against colonialism and neo-colonialism. In response, a new military bloc was created in the south against the USSR. Now the Soviet Union must oppose this in the region. Nasser widely talked about the "Egyptian revolution cultivated in the fields of Palestine," and the Soviet leadership decided that he was "his own man." The treaty between Egypt and Czechoslovakia was signed in the second half of 1955, and in the fall, Soviet arms poured into Egypt in the fall.

The reaction to this was different in the USA and in Israel. The Americans did not divide the Middle Eastern countries into their own and others. Their answer was 30 August through the mouth of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and was balanced:

"On the one hand, the Arab countries are independent states and can enter into any kind of agreement, but on the other hand, this transaction is unlikely to ease tensions between the US and the USSR."


And everything ...

In Israel, there was real mourning. It was impossible to fight with obsolete Anglo-German-improvised weapons against the latest Soviet. It was a serious problem ...

In fact, the whole life of a small republic, starting from the day of its victory in the War of Independence, was one continuous chain of problems, one the other more difficult and confusing. Its population has almost tripled in 7 over the years — from 600 thousand people to 1 700 000. The economy had yet to grow, but new citizens had to be fed and somehow settled - right now. They had to be treated - among them there were quite a few patients who came to Israel almost straight from concentration camps. They had to be taught - among the 700, thousands of Jews expelled from Arab countries and accepted by Israel were illiterate. From the situation out through improvised measures. People were distributed to already existing agricultural settlements. New plants were urgently launched - this required a lot of work and a lot of water, which was still to be produced. The new arrivals were settled in “tents”, which were made from 4's poles and 5 sheets of tin — 4 on the walls and one on the roof. Of these materials, which are not very suitable for construction in the local heat, Israeli were only poles. Tin was British, with warehouses left by the English army. And it was not about philanthropy. Simply practical British, evacuating before the division of the mandate, considered that this tin is cheaper to quit than to take out.

The problems were not only material, but also social. Those who came from the "eastern" communities were not just products of the Arab civilization, but quite often reflected its bottom. Crime, prostitution and drug addiction, previously not too familiar to Israel, soared to the skies. A Moroccan Jew, having quarreled in line for flour distributed with a Bulgarian Jew, cut off his nose with a knife - this история hit the newspapers and had a national resonance.

There was a completely separate security issue. The Arab countries that were defeated in the 1948-1949 war of the year have so far not risked starting the “second round”, which all their press has written about all the time. But everything possible that could be done to the detriment of Israel, without reaching the threshold of full-fledged war, was done, and indeed, fully.

All normal trade ties have been torn. Israel was declared a full economic boycott. Not only the Suez Canal was closed for Israeli ships and even for cargo going to Israel, which, generally speaking, violated the international convention governing the work of the channel - but even access to the Gulf of Aqaba to the Israeli port of Eilat was blocked by the Egyptian army. (This action in itself is a casus belli - the reason for the war. Ten years later, Nasser will repeat this trick - will block Israel’s access to the Gulf of Aqaba and will be terribly surprised when it receives the Six-Day War.)

Borders were not recognized and as such were not defensively guarded. That is, they were not guarded selectively - armed groups of “fidains”, such freedom fighters, were allowed to pass to the Israeli side without hindrance. At first they were refugees from the most desperate, who settled in the border areas. They began to cross the border at night with the aim of stealing. They, committed acts of vandalism. These people penetrated into Israel from Gaza (it was Egyptian) and across the Jordanian border. To their surprise, they received resistance from a weakened army not strong. Then the cases of robbery and murder began. Seeing such Palestinian zeal, the Egyptian services set about organizing and training subversive groups. In place of the individual hot heads, overwhelmed with thirst for revenge, came well-trained and equipped saboteurs. The Fidains were subordinate to the Egyptian military intelligence service and stationed in three camps (No. 9, 10 and 16) in the Gaza Strip, on the coast west of Gaza City. At the time of creation, the number of such units was 700 people, while the Arabs intended to increase it, as well as organize similar parts that would operate under the control of the special services of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. In addition to the regular payment in the amount of ninety Egyptian pounds, fidain received an additional reward for each raid across the border of Israel and separate bonuses for successfully completed tasks - murder and sabotage. In total, for the 1951 — 1955 period, Israeli 503 died at the hands of saboteurs coming from Jordan, Israeli 358 died at the hands of Egyptian fidains, and 61 a Jew was killed by people who had infiltrated from Lebanon and Syria. Differences between military and civilian, or between men and women, or, say, between adults and children, didn’t make feedins. Border incidents happened almost daily, and the army could not cope with the defense of the country from attacks. Protection measures also had to improvise. One of the events consisted of reciprocal night raids into the territory of Jordan. This was done by a special unit whose very existence was denied. People were taken there the best, literally one by one - and the results were very positive. This unit was commanded by a very energetic and efficient young officer, 25-year-old major named Ariel Sharon.

After 45 years after the events described, he will become the Prime Minister of Israel.
The number of incidents on the Jordanian border between 1953 and until the fall of 1955 fell sharply. But, however, the border with Gaza, which was controlled by the Egyptians ...

In short, there were plenty of problems, and a wide variety of problems.

Nevertheless, the news that Egypt had signed a "commercial agreement with Czechoslovakia on the supply of weapons to Egypt," caused an immediate crisis, pushing everything else into the background. Israel faced the problem, the problem with a capital letter.

The supply of weapons to the Middle East was regulated by the 1950 Tripartite Agreement between England, France and the United States. The idea was to limit the arms race in the region, and the agreement was more or less implemented. By 1955, Israel had about 50 first-generation fighter jets — French and English — and about 100 old tanks "Sherman" since the Second World War.



Egypt had about 80 the same aircraft and about 170 tanks "Sherman".

The difference in the number did not worry the Israeli command too much - they firmly believed in the qualitative superiority of their soldiers. The main concern at the beginning of the 50-s was to get at least some standard weapon for the infantry - instead of two dozen different types of rifles left over from the War of Independence. But even these rifles were not enough. At least, I wanted to provide at least one standard cartridge.

At the beginning of the 50-x began to enter the arsenal of local production, "Uzi", but still in very small quantities.



Shells of tanks got, literally, on the scrap metal dumps in Europe, and then with great work and expenses reworked them into something that could move.

"Czechoslovak commercial transaction" changed all the rules of the game.

Although the parameters of the transaction remained unknown for a long time, everyone understood that such a big diplomatic step would not be taken for the sake of trifles.

As it turned out, Egypt received 200 airplanes of the “second generation” - i.e. much better than Israeli Meteors and Hurricanes, around 400 tanks and self-propelled guns — much better than Shermans, 200 armored personnel carriers, and even warships — for example, 6 submarines.





“Egypt received from military trucks and tanks to submarines. 120 jet fighters of the MiG-15bis type, 50 IL-28 bombers, 230 T-34 tanks, 200 armored personnel carriers, 100 self-propelled artillery guns, around 150 cannons (according to other estimates, up to 500, 90% of 90 ) and several warships. Egypt also received the 6 conventional five-ton truck ZIS-2. A little later, the latest MiG-100F fighters with Soviet and Czechoslovak instructors began to arrive in Egypt.


MiG-15
MiG-17F
ZIS-150
IL-28


No one wondered where the submarines came from in Czechoslovakia. Because it was quite clear that the Soviet Union was behind the deal, and indeed this great power and submarines have, and will not be limited to any tripartite agreements ...

Since the preponderance of 4 or 5 to 1 is hard to reflect with one valor, immediate decisions had to be made. The choice was simple: either an immediate “preemptive” preventive war, or an attempt - urgently and immediately - to find somewhere a source of weapons that would allow at least to somehow equalize forces.

Already October 10 Knesset gathered for an extraordinary meeting.

The right-wing opposition smashed the government for inaction. Other deputies were not much more restrained. "If the Americans do not sell us weapons, they cannot expect that we will wait until we are slaughtered as if in a slaughterhouse ..." - it looked like a typical quote. The Prime Minister, Moshe Sharet, however, expressed the hope that "... the world will not remain indifferent and will not leave Israel unarmed in the face of such an obvious threat to the very life of our country ...".

Moshe Sharet


On Sunday, October 23, 1955, Sharett flew to Europe. Over the next 9 days, he met with many influential people in Paris and Geneva - French Prime Minister Faure, Foreign Minister Eden of Great Britain, and even US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.





They met him rather unkindly. Many Western diplomats expressed bewilderment why, in fact, Sharett appeared at all in Geneva, where the leading countries of the world discussed “... really important global issues ...”

He was denied arms shipments.

True, Macmillan told the Israeli ambassador to the UK, who was also present at the meeting: “You can’t imagine how painful it is for me to talk to you in this way,” but, as a true Englishman, he courageously dealt with his pain and refused to supply arms .

Dulles expressed himself more gently, but this did not change the essence of the matter.

He believed that "all controversial issues should be resolved by the world", that "Israel should think about territorial concessions" and that "the fate of a small country cannot depend on its arms, but only on compliance with international agreements and on the UN."

Privately, Dulles expressed the hope that vague talk about the possible sale of certain types of defensive weapons to Israel would allow time and keep Israel from "... rash actions ..."

However, a fundamental decision has already been taken - Israel should be denied arms, and the problem of the “Czechoslovak deal” should be resolved in negotiations with the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Dulles was not a villain at all.

He was in the position of a chess player, whose opponent made an unexpected and strong move. The chessboard was peace, and the enemy was the USSR.

Soviet weapons for Egypt gave the Soviet Union a political presence in the region, where it had no "clients" before. If the United States or Britain supplied Israel with arms, they would lose a large share of influence and authority in Arab countries. But if they had not done this, then the victory of Egypt in the future inevitable war — or, at least, confrontation — would have been achieved with Soviet weapons, which led to the same result, a gain for the USSR.

It remained to seek countermeasures and they were found by the Americans.

In agreement with England, the so-called “Alpha Plan” was adopted in the United States.

The essence of it was as follows: Nasser receives "Czechoslovak" weapons. He will also be offered extensive US economic assistance in the form of loan consents to finance the construction of the Aswan Dam.

The conflict between Egypt and Israel will be settled. Israel will give up something to the south — the entire Negev, as suggested by English Premier Eden, or part of it, as suggested by American diplomats. Thus, the indispensable condition of Nasser about the “bridge” between the Arabs of Asia and the Arabs of Africa will be satisfied - Egypt will have a common border with Jordan.

Israel will have to be "persuaded" to make territorial concessions "in the interests of a common peace," and it will be necessary to keep it from long-term negotiations with vague promises to "favorably consider" its requests for arms supplies.

But since the Arab-Israeli war would still be undesirable, Egypt will make peace with Israel - or, at least, enter into serious peace talks with the US, with the American “benevolent mediation ...”

In addition, it was understood that Egypt and its president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, will join the so-called. The Baghdad Pact, which will unite the countries of the Middle and Near East into a single unit under Western patronage, in order to eliminate Soviet influence in the region.

Turning to chess terms, this was an elegant plan - it was only necessary to “move the pawn”, i.e. Israel.

"Pawn" move categorically refused.

The reasons were quite understandable - Israel had to give the Arabs more than 1 / 3 of its territory, its only port on the Red Sea, to agree to the deterioration of the already very unsatisfactory borders - all this in exchange for the word of honor of the leader of Egypt, given to him in that, that he considers the conflict over.



But the most interesting thing was that Nasser also did not accept this seemingly advantageous American-English proposal. Nasser’s position was strong, he had already received Soviet weapons, and the Israelis were still patching up old tanks.

As Fuad Ajumi wrote in his famous book "Dream Palace of the Arabs":
“... it’s not the first time that a straightforward American leaves the eastern bazaar with his pockets clean and wounded pride ..."


Nasser, in fact, did not refuse the proposals, he listened to them affectionately. He even said that these sentences are quite sensible, especially English. He just did not want to do anything that was required of him.

Of course, it is very difficult to understand a person so far from our culture.

In the 2004 year, a new biography of Nasser, written by a Palestinian Arab, clearly an intelligent man, half-life spent in Europe, worked for Reuters and BBC, it is written that Nasser was a gentle and kind person who participated in only one political attempt once - and he did not like it.

In the memoirs of Nasser’s friend, Mohammed Haykal, it is ingeniously written that when the new rulers of Iraq sent Naser as a souvenir, the cut off finger of his enemy, the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Said, who was killed by him, Nasser “sadly smiled and ordered to bury the finger in the garden of the presidential palace ...”

Try to imagine Charles de Gaulle, who received Guy Mollet's finger as a gift from Eden, and the difference in “time of civilizations” will become clearer for you.

But, in addition to cultural differences, Nasser had quite rational reasons for his intractability. He was not satisfied with any, even the most generous gift, if he forced him to take a certain position in the dispute between the USSR and the USA. Keeping in the middle, maneuvering and selling his unreliable loyalty again and again was incomparably more profitable. In addition, Nasser no longer considered himself as the leader of only Egypt - he insisted that he represented all Arabs. Consequently, the agreement is not just about peace, but even about peace talks with Israel; this was unacceptable to him.

In Israel, meanwhile, an informal committee, which was headed not by Prime Minister Sharet, but a much more authoritative person — the Minister of Defense in the government of Shareta, was looking for a solution. The point was not what kind of post this person held, but who he was.

David Ben Gurion in Israel was the equivalent of Lenin or Washington — the founding father of the nation, a living legend.



He really was a very remarkable man. A typical representative of his generation, "cosmopolitan without a root," who spoke half a dozen languages, he was born in Poland, joined the Zionist movement, moved to Palestine to "build a country", received a law degree in Turkey, and gained influence as a Palestinian trade union leader.

By the beginning of the War of Independence, he became the undisputed leader, pushing even such bright people as Zeev Zhabotinsky and Chaim Weizman to the side. Under his leadership, the war was won, disarmed and disbanded “private” armies like the strongly right Irgun or the strongly left Palmach, created apolitical — not the parties, but nations as a whole — the army and the court. To top it all, after the victory, he gave up power - went to his kibbutz in the Negev, and took up there, in particular, learning Spanish - he had a fantasy to learn to read Don Quixote in the original. Interested in ancient Greek philosophy, he learned Greek in order to read Plato in the original, and fascinated by the works of Spinoza, learned Latin.



By the time of the "Czechoslovak" crisis, he returned to the government as Minister of Defense and the search for a solution naturally fell within his sphere of responsibility.

The functions were divided - the Foreign Ministry and Premier Charette tried to convince the Americans (there was no hope for the British) to change their position, and the Ministry of Defense tried to get the weapons they had already ordered from French arsenals.

Not much was ordered - 12 airplanes and 30 tanks, but Ben Gurion’s protégé, a young but very capable director of the Ministry of Defense, named Shimon Peres (he would become President of Israel in 50 years after the events described), believed that achieve something. Not immediately, but he really succeeded. At first, it looked quite hopeless. The French Foreign Ministry even made an attempt to stop the already agreed deliveries - there was a “bright idea” to exchange the embargo for Israeli weapons for Nasser’s agreement to stop helping the Algerian rebels. This attempt was scornfully rejected. And then the point of view of the French Ministry of Defense won, which proposed to create problems for Nasser on its eastern flank.



The considerations in favor of cooperation looked convincing - Israel was ready to buy French weapons on a long-term basis, was ready to pay in cash. After news of the "Czechoslovak" weapons for Egypt in Israel began collecting funds from the population for service through a special defense fund. People sacrificed valuables right up to wrist watches and wedding rings. In addition, a regular tax was imposed on the people - on defense. 50 million lire was additionally allocated to the defense budget (27 million dollars - at that time, there was a lot of money, in the 50s of the last century, the average monthly salary in the USA was about 275 dollars) collected literally by bits. Israel readily provided France with intelligence data related to Egyptian activities in Algeria (which proved very valuable to the French army).

The last straw was India’s unexpected rejection of the already agreed supply of 200 to French Mystere airplanes - the Russians offered MiGs to India on incomparably more favorable conditions, similar not to a commercial deal, but to a gift.

With all their desire, Israel could not compensate France for this damage - there were simply no funds for 200 jet fighters - but Israel was ready to buy 50-100 aircraft, and it was much better than nothing.

The transaction took place. Its exotic feature was the need to respect the secret, not only from Americans, for example, but also from their own foreign ministries.

The aircraft flew to Israel in small groups, under the guise of old cars sent to the manufacturer for repair, and returning back. Just come back a lot more than flew away. The tanks were delivered not from France, but from army warehouses in Algeria, and not to the port, but directly to the coast, disembarking from tank landing ships.

The military did not sit idly in anticipation that the politicians would achieve some kind of result.

The army was feverish preparation. Soldiers were taught day and night - in the most literal sense of the expression. The old decommissioned reserve tanks were quickly rushed in the hope of having time to form a second full-fledged tank battalion - as long as there was only one.

Even in the winter of 1955, less than two months after receiving news of the “Czechoslovak deal,” the secret part of the commando — already deployed in the 202 parachute battalion — received reinforcement and became a parachute brigade, all with the same number — 202. It was headed by the same intelligent young officer, Ariel Sharon, now a colonel.

В aviation - then she was commanded by General Dan Tolkovsky, the pilots were taught tactics that gave the unstable Israeli Meteors at least some chance against the fast MiG-15s.



The idea, invented by one of the best pilots of the Israeli Air Force, was to deliberately give the MiG to go on the attack from the tail, and at the last moment to slow down, falling down and letting the enemy plane through. This gave 2-3 seconds of advantage, during which it was possible to have time to shoot down an enemy aircraft. The ace did it - the problem was to teach the same puzzle technique to everyone else.

The introduction of the method involved the Deputy General Tolkovsky, 30-year-old Colonel Ezer Weizman - generally known for his great originality of approach to the problems he encountered. Ezer Weizman, then still a young pilot-dolt, and in the future - the commander of the Air Force and the President of Israel.



Getting 36 modern "Mystere-IV" has finally taken off from his shoulders such exotic tasks as organizing a successful air combat obsolete aircraft against a much more modern enemy.



Israel also received 140 light tanks AMX-13 and 40 upgraded "Shermans", another 100 "Shermans" were expected in the fall.



The AMX-13 was armed with an 75-mm cannon with a high muzzle velocity, made up to 60 km / h., Had weak armor, but was well suited for reconnaissance and acting from cover, was good enough for anti-tank defense tasks.

In any case, it was not necessary to choose - the Israeli tankmen took what they give.

By September, the 1956 of the year was planned to have a total, taking into account the 130 machines that were previously available, 380 tanks, more or less modern.

Israel’s only armored brigade, 7, with its notorious single tank battalion, now not only formed the second such battalion, but also began to “multiply” in shock order: two new reserve tank brigades appeared - 27 and 37, armed mainly with AMX-13 tanks.

All this time, the clashes on the Syrian and Egyptian borders almost did not stop. Observing how Czechoslovak specialists set up armaments on the banks of the Nile and how Egyptian officers fly to Czechoslovakia for an internship, Ben-Gurion and Moshe Dayan "looked at each other with eyes full of tears."

Moshe Dayan


Messages to Washington again followed. Ben-Gurion proposed the creation of an American military base in Israel. Alas, Eisenhower is still not in a hurry to get into the US directly not related to the Middle East conflict.



As long as you do not support one of the parties, you are free in politics, and as soon as you supported someone, you became bound. Unlike the United States, the USSR directly preferred Israel to a dozen Arab countries, although the Arab oil was not needed by the Soviet Union, because there were bright oil prospects in Siberia.

Our story could well end at this point.

But it has not ended.

Unarmed Israel was already on the verge of a real military catastrophe, when suddenly the world changed and presented it with a chance in the form of two unexpected strong allies ...

To be continued ...

Sources:
Boris Tenenbaum. The unknown Arab-Israeli war of the 1956 of the year. 2011.
M. Shterenshis. Israel. The history of the state. 2009.
Israel after 40 years by Aaron S. Klieman.
1990, Pergamon, New York.
Arabs in War, by Kenneth M. Pollack.
2002, Nebraska University.
Israel's Wars, by Ahron Bregman.
2003, Ruthledge, New York.
Wikipedia articles, Cyclopaedia, etc.
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  1. Herculesic
    Herculesic April 9 2018 07: 28
    +4
    Alexander, if you didn’t have military equipment from the word at all, how did you then fight? The article is interesting, thanks, but you have a little thickened colors. Moreover, your phrase “the Soviet Union was behind the deal” resembles unproductive modern reproaches to Russia, in the same use of OM! You write emotionally, and look at the events that took place somewhat narrowly and purely as a Jew who hates the whole world. And then suddenly the world took, and turned to face you, for some reason!
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 April 9 2018 07: 39
      +2
      Quote: Herkulesich
      but you are a little thickened

      Weakly said! This is just an ode to the "great" Jewish people. laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 9 2018 08: 04
        +7
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        Quote: Herkulesich
        but you are a little thickened

        Weakly said! This is just an ode to the "great" Jewish people. laughing

        In reality, everything was much worse. The country did not have a single ethnic group (a hodgepodge from a multilingual and motley audience from all over the world, conventionally united by Jewish traditions), an economy - agricultural in sand and clay, money (due to the lack of an economy) and, accordingly, modern armed forces. Alexander’s article is not exaggerated; at that time, Israel was a typical third-world hole, with no one but Jews, with an appropriate army and economy.
        1. Safevi
          Safevi April 9 2018 10: 15
          +6
          Indeed, the Israelis had a hard time in the early years of independence. And even more respectful is what they achieved in the end! Respect to the author!
      2. Varna
        Varna April 14 2018 15: 15
        0
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        Quote: Herkulesich
        but you are a little thickened

        Weakly said! This is just an ode to the "great" Jewish people. laughing

        Join laughing
        I’ll clarify, nevertheless, that the Jewish heroic saga awaits us (we will not say a word about the American north wind in the form of vacationers - exclusively Jewish militias, only heroes of the militia crying
    2. A. Privalov
      April 9 2018 10: 16
      +8
      Quote: Herkulesich
      Alexander, if you did not have military equipment from the word in general, how did you fight then?

      With great difficulty, Herculesic, with great difficulty.
      Quote: Herkulesich
      The article is interesting, thank you, but you have a little thickened paint. Moreover, your phrase “the Soviet Union was behind the deal” is reminiscent of the modern, stateless accusations against Russia, in the same way the OV is applied!

      I will not say for the OB, because I don’t know, but about the Soviet trophy technique collected after the battles with the Arabs in completely incredible quantities by Israel, only the lazy did not write. Neither the USSR nor today's Russia denied their massive aid to the Arabs. So, the expression "behind the deal was the Soviet Union" is an acceptable and justifiable figure of speech.
      Quote: Herkulesich
      You write emotionally, and look at events that have passed somewhat narrowly as a Jew who hates the whole world.

      In the description of the performance characteristics ascetic dryness is accepted, and in journalism emotionality is excusable. A look at events is broad exactly as much as the scope of an article on HE allows. I am a Jew, and naturally I write as a Jew. Would be an Eskimo, probably, would write like an Eskimo. I had to visit no less than two dozen countries. In two dozen of them - several times. On a number of wrote essays, essays and just travel notes. As for my dislike of the world, here, Herkulesych, you got excited. Like, "did not read, but condemn." I don’t like to poke a finger at my opponent, but your statements towards a rather wide range of countries, which I see in your comments, would allow me to call you a world-hater. I certainly will not do this. This is your own business.
      Quote: Herkulesich
      And then suddenly the world took, and turned to face you, for some reason!

      To find out what, you Herkulesych, will have to be patient and wait for the next part of the article. hi
      1. dSK
        dSK April 9 2018 22: 27
        0
        Quote: A. Privalov
        the next part of the article

        God's chosen people are very smart, but he had several "major" mistakes. Disobeyed Moses and Fourty years "trained" before the assault on the "promised land" in the desert (they could and on the move). Seriously breaking the "covenant" with the Lord God fell into Babylonian captivity on seventy years. The biggest mistake was the execution of the Son of God, although he proved his "powers": he cast out demons, healed the blind, lepers, paralyzed, he turned water into wine, The most striking example is the resurrection of Lazarus on fourth day after death.
        "Jerusalem, Jerusalem beating the prophets and stoning sent to you! how many times have I wanted to gather your children, like a bird gathers its chicks under its wings, and you did not want to! Xie your house is left to you empty." (Matthew 23: 37-38)
        "The ruler said: what evil did he do? But they shouted even harder: let him be crucified. Pilate, seeing that nothing helps, but the confusion increases, took water and washed his hands in front of the people, and said: I am innocent of the blood of this righteous man; you look. And answering, all the people said: His blood is on us and on our children." (Matthew 27: 23-25)
        Soon after the execution of Christ, the Romans completely destroyed Jerusalem and the people "scattered" around the world. Only in the last century, having paid millions of lives, Jews returned to their historical homeland.
  2. BAI
    BAI April 9 2018 10: 03
    +5
    1. The time frame of events is not clear - when there were fights that the author is considering.
    But if you take
    On May 15, 1948, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Yemen declared war and attacked the newly created Israel in order to destroy the newborn Jewish state.

    That should be noted:
    1.1 There was a prehistory of events:
    On April 9, 1948, the Arab village of Deir Yassin was captured by Jewish irregular armed groups Irgun and Lehi, which belonged to the radical organizations of the Zionist revisionists. According to various estimates, from 107 to 254 villagers were killed during violent clashes during the capture.
    and on the other hand -
    A few days later, on April 13, an Arab detachment attacked and cut out a medical convoy heading for the Hadassah Hospital in the Jewish enclave in Jerusalem.

    1.2. One cannot help recalling Czechoslovakia:
    Thanks to the creation of Tsakhal on May 31, procurement of supplies of weapons from outside, primarily through European countries and financial assistance from Jewish organizations in the USA, Israel was able to launch a counterattack in June 1948. The main flow of weapons to Israel was directed by air from Czechoslovakia with the support of the USSR. A significant part of this weapon was the captured weapon of the Wehrmacht army

    If the position of the USSR changed dramatically in the coming years, then of course I would like to see why. Mb Does the author have information unknown to Russian sources?
    The War of Independence 1948-1949 and the Sinai Company (1956 - 1957) are 2 different wars. But somehow casually about the first, although, of course, the article is devoted to the second war.
    2. There are small technical inaccuracies.
    The idea, invented by one of the best pilots in the Israeli Air Force, was to intentionally allow the MiG to attack from the tail, and at the last moment, sharply slow down, failing down and letting the enemy’s plane go forward. This gave 2-3 seconds of advantage, during which it was possible to manage to bring down an enemy aircraft.

    This technique is described by Pokryshkin in the book Sky of War. Moreover, Pokryshkin admits that he did not invent this technique, but saw it as an unsuccessful performance of a aerobatics (“barrel”) pilot of the regiment. Pokryshkin only brought it to combat use.
    By the way, is there any data on how many veterans of the Patriotic War were in the ranks of the Israeli armed forces?
    3. Speaking of the events accompanying the escalation of tension
    During the period 1951-1955, 503 Israelis died at the hands of saboteurs who made their way from Jordan, 358 Israelis died at the hands of Egyptian fidaines and 61 Jews were killed by people who infiltrated from Lebanon and Syria.

    agree, you can not remember
    The Israeli military intelligence operation Susanna set itself the goal of conducting a series of attacks against American and British public institutions in Cairo and Alexandria, so that suspicions pointed to the Muslim group Muslim Brotherhood. According to the organizers, the attacks would provoke an escalation of the conflict between Egypt and Great Britain, which would lead to a breakdown in the ongoing intensive peace negotiations.

    4.
    By September, the 1956 of the year was planned to have a total, taking into account the 130 machines that were previously available, 380 tanks, more or less modern.

    For some reason, France is represented as a supplier of weapons. And what about this?
    The plan looked like this: Israel begins an offensive in the Sinai, and England and France immediately present to both sides - Israel and Egypt - an ultimatum demanding to retreat from the 10-mile canal that Israel immediately accepts. If Egypt refuses to do the same, then within 72 hours the British and French will begin military operations against it.

    Wherein:
    On October 25, 1956, Israel began mobilization. French fighter interceptors began arriving in Israel on October 28 - a special airfield was allocated for them. Two French destroyers and a cruiser anchored in Haifa’s raid. Three thousand French soldiers, pilots and sailors in one or two days were placed on improvised bases created for them in Israel

    On the territory of Israel at the beginning of the war were allied foreign troops. And not a word about it!
    In general, we look forward to continuing with interest. Very interested in sources unpublished in Russia.
    1. A. Privalov
      April 9 2018 10: 53
      +4
      Dear BAI. I mentioned (naturally, "somehow in passing") that the war of independence preceded the Sinai company. Thus, the time frame was clearly defined. Describing the events of the preceding and occurred during the war for independence, I will definitely take up the relevant article. There we will analyze the assistance rendered to the USSR in the newborn Israel. There’s a story that two dozens of Messerschmitt-109 bought in Czechoslovakia in the 1948 year, against hundreds of MiGs received by the Arabs for 1956, had nothing to do, I consider it inappropriate. it's all so clear.
      Pokryshkin in Israel was not. The book "The Sky of War" was published in 1966. So, Israeli pilots had to think of everything themselves.
      On the failed sabotage operation "Susanna", apparently, should also be written separately. She has her own amusing history. The operation was stopped by the Egyptian intelligence services several years before the Suez crisis. The organizers are arrested, tried and convicted. The operation even caused a political scandal in Israel. But it has no direct relation to the Sinai company.
      With everything else, you hurry. Be patient a bit. This will be in the continuation of the article. hi
      1. BAI
        BAI April 9 2018 11: 11
        +2
        This will be in the continuation of the article.

        We are waiting, sir.
        And yet, at the expense of the front-line soldiers — do you have data on how many were there? Or was the entire combat experience acquired from scratch?
        1. A. Privalov
          April 9 2018 11: 29
          +4
          Quote: BAI
          This will be in the continuation of the article.

          We are waiting, sir.
          And yet, at the expense of the front-line soldiers — do you have data on how many were there? Or was the entire combat experience acquired from scratch?

          I once wrote that the myth of "Soviet volunteers" who allegedly took part in the War for the Independence of Israel can be found on the net. The facts fully expose this myth - in the archives of the organization of volunteers "Mahal" there is no information about volunteers from the USSR. This organization has lists of names about 4 400 volunteers, including men, women, Jews and non-Jews from 58 from different countries who came to the aid of the Jewish state during the difficult days of the War of Independence. It is known that the creation of Israel caused a stream of appeals of Soviet Jews to the authorities of the USSR with a request to send them as volunteers to the fighting Jewish state. The Soviet authorities brutally suppressed this truly popular movement. A number of people who made such requests or tried to leave were illegally convicted by Soviet punitive bodies.
          I met with information that Jews from Poland who appeared after the 2MW on the territory of the USSR made attempts to leave for Israel illegally. How many succeeded, I was not known for certain. Towards the end of the 50, a wave of 35 000 repatriates from Poland arrived in Israel, mostly returning to Poland from the USSR. The Jews of Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia traveled. After the Hungarian 1956 uprising of the year, about 9 000 Jews arrived in Israel illegally. In 1961-64, about 63 000 Jews from Romania arrived in the country. It is known that Ceausescu was engaged in the "sale" of Jews: for big money he allowed them to travel to Israel. Among these repatriates there could well be quite a few people who had some kind of military experience.
          1. BAI
            BAI April 9 2018 16: 03
            +2
            I don’t know how in the following wars (there were a lot of them), but in the first war for independence it seems to be:
            1. The guide in Israel told (some but all the same source)
            2. According to official figures, Soviet Jewish volunteers were not sent to Palestine. Nevertheless, there is evidence that in the spring of 1948 many former Jewish officers who were demobilized from the Red Army were secretly allowed to travel to Palestine with their families if they so wished [93].
            93 Smirnov A. Arab-Israeli War. M., 2003.S. 199.
            3. At VO the topic has already been raised.
            https://topwar.ru/3231-sovetskaya-vojna-za-nezavi
            simost-izrailya.html
            The leader was literally furious with the message that 150 Jewish officers formally asked the government to send them as volunteers to Israel to assist in the war against the Arabs. As an example to others, all of them were severely punished, some were shot. Did not help. Hundreds of troops with the help of Israeli agents fled from groups of Soviet troops in Eastern Europe, while others used a transit point in Lviv. Moreover, they all received fake passports for fictitious names, under which they subsequently fought and lived in Israel. That is why in the archive of the “Mahal” (the Israeli Union of Warriors-Internationalists) there are very few names of Soviet volunteers, the famous Israeli researcher Michael Dorfman, who has been dealing with the problem of Soviet volunteers for 15 years, is sure. He confidently declares that there were many of them, and they almost built the “ISSR” (Israeli Soviet Socialist Republic). He still hopes to complete the Russian-Israeli TV project, which was interrupted due to default in the mid-1990s, and in it “tell a very interesting, and perhaps sensational story of the participation of Soviet people in the formation of the Israeli army and special services” in which "there were many former Soviet troops."
            1. A. Privalov
              April 9 2018 16: 53
              +3
              1. The guide and the pensioner who sits at any front door - sources of information of the same level of confidence - they are not responsible for their words.
              2. With the book Smirnova familiar. It is full of mistakes, both actual and nasty translations. It does not have a list of references. Accordingly, this is nothing but, excuse me, artistic whistle on a given topic.
              3. The article on the VO to which you refer is a reprint from the magazine "National Defense". A fake article that was concocted seven years ago by Valery Yaremenko, a leading researcher at the Institute of Military History of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
              Read more about it here:
              http://mnenia.zahav.ru/Articles/414/metastazi_sta
              linizma
              4. If possible, I will try to talk with Mikhail Borisovich personally on this topic.
              From myself just add: do not believe ordinary bikes. hi
  3. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet April 9 2018 21: 12
    +3
    Quote: A. Privalov
    Quote: BAI
    This will be in the continuation of the article.

    We are waiting, sir.
    And yet, at the expense of the front-line soldiers — do you have data on how many were there? Or was the entire combat experience acquired from scratch?

    I once wrote that the myth of "Soviet volunteers" who allegedly took part in the War for the Independence of Israel can be found on the net. The facts fully expose this myth - in the archives of the organization of volunteers "Mahal" there is no information about volunteers from the USSR. This organization has lists of names about 4 400 volunteers, including men, women, Jews and non-Jews from 58 from different countries who came to the aid of the Jewish state during the difficult days of the War of Independence. It is known that the creation of Israel caused a stream of appeals of Soviet Jews to the authorities of the USSR with a request to send them as volunteers to the fighting Jewish state. The Soviet authorities brutally suppressed this truly popular movement. A number of people who made such requests or tried to leave were illegally convicted by Soviet punitive bodies.
    I met with information that Jews from Poland who appeared after the 2MW on the territory of the USSR made attempts to leave for Israel illegally. How many succeeded, I was not known for certain. Towards the end of the 50, a wave of 35 000 repatriates from Poland arrived in Israel, mostly returning to Poland from the USSR. The Jews of Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia traveled. After the Hungarian 1956 uprising of the year, about 9 000 Jews arrived in Israel illegally. In 1961-64, about 63 000 Jews from Romania arrived in the country. It is known that Ceausescu was engaged in the "sale" of Jews: for big money he allowed them to travel to Israel. Among these repatriates there could well be quite a few people who had some kind of military experience.

    A request to Uncle Sasha, if you can have more photos and schemes. Personal request, you touched on a very beloved subject, continue it further, especially the 1967,1973 and 1982 wars.
    1. A. Privalov
      April 10 2018 08: 23
      +2
      Quote: merkava-2bet

      A request to Uncle Sasha, if you can have more photos and schemes. Personal request, you touched on a very beloved subject, continue it further, especially the 1967,1973 and 1982 wars.

      I will try to take into account your wishes. If you are interested in the wars of Israel, take a look at my profile and read already written articles:
      War of attrition. Part of 1. Nasser starts, but does not win
      War of attrition. Part of 2. "Caucasus" in Sinai
      Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 1
      Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 2
      Judgment Day. Start. Part of 1
      Judgment Day. Start. Part of 2
      Judgment Day. Fracture and Completion. Part of 1
      Judgment Day. Fracture and Completion. Part of 2
      I will be glad to hear your opinion about them. hi
  4. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet April 10 2018 13: 26
    +2
    Quote: A. Privalov
    Quote: merkava-2bet

    A request to Uncle Sasha, if you can have more photos and schemes. Personal request, you touched on a very beloved subject, continue it further, especially the 1967,1973 and 1982 wars.

    I will try to take into account your wishes. If you are interested in the wars of Israel, take a look at my profile and read already written articles:
    War of attrition. Part of 1. Nasser starts, but does not win
    War of attrition. Part of 2. "Caucasus" in Sinai
    Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 1
    Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 2
    Judgment Day. Start. Part of 1
    Judgment Day. Start. Part of 2
    Judgment Day. Fracture and Completion. Part of 1
    Judgment Day. Fracture and Completion. Part of 2
    I will be glad to hear your opinion about them. hi

    He already looked, printed and added to his collection. In my opinion, the wars of 1973 and 1982 have not been studied enough, in particular on the Navy and Air Force, there are too many stories and fictions. I myself am a tanker, but I am very interested in other types of troops, for example, very little information on to the engineering and artillery troops, and I am generally silent about infantry, and I shoveled many books, both in Hebrew and in English, since the university has a large library, and at best there is only a mention and a name for the unit. If you have the opportunity to fill this gap I will be very happy.
  5. Loki_2
    Loki_2 April 12 2018 17: 29
    +1
    I saw the photo, the lines immediately surfaced in my memory:
    At first I was not drunk,
    I objected twice -
    I say: "Moshe Dayan -
    Syka One-Eyed

    As we then experienced with the whole Union for the Arabs. Thanks to the author - for the memories. But in essence, the article is an emotional propaganda shlag. Author, no offense ...
    1. A. Privalov
      April 14 2018 19: 10
      +3
      Quote: Loki_2

      As we then experienced with the whole Union for the Arabs. Thanks to the author - for the memories. But in essence, the article is an emotional propaganda shlag. Author, no offense ...

      I'm about to be closer to 70, than to 60. "Then," I was only two years old. I remember nothing. I have doubts that you remember how “we then experienced the whole Union for the Arabs”.
      The expression "essentially an article is an emotional propaganda shlag", without making any intelligible remarks on the essence and topic of the article, nothing more than idle talk, Loki_2, no offense. hi
      1. Loki_2
        Loki_2 25 May 2018 07: 02
        0
        You are right, I was born after the events described. And his opinion prevailing in my country, the mood was based on the stories of older relatives and online materials.
        State propaganda in my country was then purely pro-Arab. I think it does not take long to explain how propaganda affects the minds of the masses. From these 2 aspects, I concluded that the mood prevailed in the union of those years. I think as a legacy the citizens of the Russian Federation still sympathize with the Arabs more than the Jews in their confrontation.
        Regarding the tonality of the article. I expressed my opinion. To argue the citation of excerpts, I consider the occupation a little thankful. Because my remark concerns the color of the whole article. As an article written by a citizen of Israel for citizens of Israel - the rules. Why such a tonality of a Russian citizen in an article written for Russian citizens is unclear.
        No offense.
  6. Korax71
    Korax71 April 19 2018 19: 35
    0
    Namesake, welcome you hi as always I read your article late recourse but the work is still more than bondage. as always good style of presentation at the height. take a huge respect and respect soldier