In the first post-war decade, the armed forces of the anti-tank divisions of the ground forces consisted of 57-mm guns ZIS-2, 85-mm D-44 and 100-mm BS-3. In 1955, due to an increase in the thickness of the armor tanks probable enemy in the army began to receive 85-mm guns D-48. In the design of the new gun, some elements of the 85-mm D-44 gun were used, as well as a 100 mm gun mod. 1944 BS-3. At a distance of 1000 m, the 85 mm Br-372 armor-piercing shell fired from the D-48 barrel could normally penetrate 185 mm armor. But in the mid-60s, this was not enough to confidently defeat the frontal armor of the hull and turret of American M60 tanks. In 1961, the T-100 Rapira 12-mm smoothbore gun was adopted for service. The problem of stabilization of the projectile after departure from the barrel was solved by using the opening plumage. In the early 70s, a modernized version of the MT-12 was launched into production, featuring a new carriage. At a distance of 1000 meters, the Rapiers projectile was capable of penetrating 215 mm thick armor. However, the flip side of high armor penetration was a significant mass of guns. For transportation of MT-12, weighing 3100 kg, MT-LB crawler tractors or Ural-375 and Ural-4320 vehicles were used.
Already in 60-ies, it became clear that increasing the caliber and barrel length of anti-tank guns, even when using highly efficient sub-caliber and cumulative projectiles, is a dead-end way of creating monstrous, inactive, costly artillery systems, the effectiveness of which in modern combat is questionable. An alternative anti-tank was anti-tank guided missiles. The first prototype, designed in Germany during the Second World War, is known as the X-7 Rotkappchen (“Little Red Riding Hood”). This rocket was controlled by wire and had a range of about 1200 meters. The anti-tank missile system was ready at the very end of the war, but there is no evidence of its actual combat use.
The first Soviet complex, which used guided anti-tank missiles, was the 2K15 "Bumblebee", created in 1960, on the basis of the Franco-German ATGM SS.10. At the rear of the 2P26 combat vehicle, four rail-type guides with an 69М3 ATGM were deployed on the basis of a GAZ-6 off-road vehicle. In 1964, the production of the Bumblebee 2K16 “Bumblebee” on the BDRM-1 chassis began. This car was floating, and the crew of the ATGM protected the anti-bullet armor. With a launch range from 600 to 2000, a missile with a cumulative warhead could penetrate 300 mm armor. Guidance ATGM carried out in manual mode by wire. The task of the operator was to combine the rocket tracer, flying at a speed of about 110 m / s, with a target. The launch weight of the rocket was 24 kg, the weight of the warhead was 5,4 kg.
"Bumblebee" was a typical first-generation anti-tank complex, but for arming infantry because of the large mass of guidance equipment and the ATGM it was not suitable and could only be placed on a self-propelled chassis. In terms of their organizational structure, combat vehicles with an ATGM were combined into anti-tank batteries attached to motorized rifle regiments. Each battery had three platoons with three launchers. However, the Soviet infantry badly needed a wearable anti-tank complex, which was highly likely to hit enemy armored vehicles at a range longer than 1000. For the end of 50-x and the beginning of 60-x, the creation of wearable ATGM was very difficult.
6 July 1961, the government issued a decree, according to which a competition was announced for a new ATGM. The competition was attended by ATGM "Ovod", designed in Tula TsKB-14 and ATGM "Malyutka" Kolomna SKB. According to the technical requirements, the maximum launch range was to reach 3000 m, armor penetration - not less than 200 mm at the meeting angle 60 °. Rocket weight - no more than 10 kg.
On the tests of ATGM "Baby", created under the direction of B.I. Shavyrina, ahead of the competitor in range start-up and armor penetration. After being put into service in 1963, the complex received the index 9K11. For its time, the Malyutka ATGM contained a lot of innovative solutions. In order to meet the mass limit of the anti-tank missile, the developers went on to simplify the guidance system. ATGM 9М14 became the first rocket in our country with a single-channel control system brought to mass production. In the course of development, plastics were widely used in order to reduce the cost and laboriousness of manufacturing a rocket; a suitcase-knapsack intended for carrying the rocket was made of fiberglass.
The calculation of ATGM "Baby" with backpacks, suitcases, designed to carry the complex
Although the mass of the 9М14 ATGM exceeded the specified value and was 10,9 kg, the complex was able to be made portable. All elements of the ATGM 9K11 were placed in three suitcases-knapsacks. The commander of the calculation carried a pack of number 1 weighing 12,4 kg. There was a control panel with an optical sight and guidance equipment.
9C415 control panel and monocular eightfold optical viewfinder 9Ш16
The 9Sh16 monocular reticle with eightfold magnification and 22,5 ° field of view was designed to monitor the target and target the missile. Two anti-tank crews transported suitcases with rockets and launchers. The mass of the container launcher with ATGM - 18,1 kg. Launchers with ATGM were connected by cable to the control panel and could be placed at a distance of up to 15 m.
The anti-tank guided missile was capable of hitting targets at a range of 500-3000 meters. The warhead with a mass of 2,6 kg pierced 400 mm normal armor at a normal angle, at an 60 ° meeting angle the armor penetration was 200 mm. The solid fuel engine accelerates the rocket to a maximum speed of 140 m / s. The average speed on the trajectory - 115 m / s. Flight time to the maximum range was 26 with. The rocket fuse is raised through 1,5-2 from after launch. To explode the warhead was used piezoelectric fuse.
9M14 rocket on the launcher
In preparation for combat use, elements of a rocket that were in a disassembled state were removed from a fiberglass case and docked using special quick-release locks. In the transport position, the wings of the rocket were folded towards each other, so that with the span of the decomposed wing 393 mm, the transverse dimensions did not exceed 185x185mm. When assembled, the rocket has dimensions: length - 860 mm, diameter - 125 mm, wingspan - 393 mm.
Satchel suitcase with disassembled 9М14 ATGM in the hike position
The warhead was attached to the wing compartment, in which are located: the main engine, steering gear and gyroscope. In the annular space around the main engine there is a combustion chamber of the starting engine with a multiscale charge, and behind it - a coil of a wire communication line.
ATGM 9М14 incision: 1 - ballistic tip; 2 - piezoelectric element; 3 - cumulative insert; 4 - explosive; 5 - lock of a fighting part; 6 - the diaphragm; 7 - explosive; 8 - the start engine; 9 - the forward engine; 10 - wire spool; 11 - stabilizer; 12 - onboard equipment; 13 - control system; 14 - gyroscopes
On the outer surface of the rocket body mounted tracer. On the rocket 9М14 there is only one steering machine that moves the nozzles on two opposite oblique nozzles of the main engine. At the same time, due to rotation with a speed of 8,5 rev / s, pitch and course control are alternately carried out.
Initial rotation is given when starting a starting engine with oblique nozzles. In flight, the rotation is maintained by setting the plane of the wings at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the rocket. To link the angular position of the rocket with the ground-based coordinate system, a gyroscope with mechanical spin up during the launch was used. The rocket does not have its own on-board sources of electricity, the only steering machine is powered from ground equipment via one of the three-wire moisture-proof circuits.
Since after the launch, the rocket was manually controlled using a special joystick, the probability of hitting directly depended on the operator's training. In ideal polygon conditions, a well-trained operator averaged 7 targets from 10.
The battle debut of "Baby" was held in 1972 year, at the final stage of the Vietnam War. The Viet Cong units with the help of the ATGM fought against the counterattacking South Vietnamese tanks, destroyed long-term gun emplacements, attacked command posts and communications centers. In total, the Vietnamese calculations of the ATGM 9K11 recorded at their own expense up to a half dozen tanks МNNUMX, М48 and БТР М41.
Israeli tankers suffered very sensitive losses from Soviet-made ATGM in 1973. During the “Doomsday” war, the saturation of the battle formations of the Arab infantry with anti-tank weapons was very large. According to American estimates, more than 1000 guided anti-tank missiles were launched against Israeli tanks. The Israeli tank crews for the characteristic appearance of the suitcase backpacks called the ATGM calculations "tourists". However, the “tourists” turned out to be a very formidable force, managing to burn and immobilize approximately 300 tanks М48 and М60. Even with active armor in about 50% of hits, tanks received severe damage or burned. The Arabs managed to achieve high effectiveness in the use of the Malyutka anti-tank missile system thanks to the fact that guidance operators, at the request of Soviet advisers, continued to train on simulators even in the front-line.
Thanks to its simple design and low cost, the anti-tank missile system 9K11 was widely used and participated in most major armed conflicts of the 20-th century. The Vietnamese army, which had about 500 complexes, used them against Chinese tanks Type 59 in 1979 year. It turned out that the combat part of the ATGM easily strikes the Chinese version of the T-54 into a frontal projection. During the Iran-Iraq war, both sides actively used “Baby”. But if Iraq got them legally from the USSR, then the Iranians fought with Chinese unlicensed copies. After the entry of Soviet troops into Afghanistan, it became clear that with the help of the ATGM it was possible to effectively deal with the firing points of the rebels, since the manual-guided anti-tank guided missiles were considered obsolete by that time and were used without restrictions. On the African continent, the “Tiny” Cuban and Angolan calculations destroyed several armored vehicles of the South African armed forces. The ATGMs, which were rather outdated by the beginning of the 90-s, were used by Armenian armed forces in Nagorno-Karabakh. In addition to armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and old T-55, several Azerbaijani T-72s were succeeded in countering anti-tank crews. During the armed confrontation in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Malyutka anti-tank systems destroyed several T-34-85 and T-55, as well as the ATGM fired at enemy positions.
Old Soviet anti-tank missiles were noted during the civil war in Libya. Yemen Hussits used the Malyutka ATGM against the troops of the Arab coalition. Military observers agree that in most cases the combat effectiveness of first-generation anti-tank missiles in 21-century conflicts is low. Although the warhead of the 9М14 rocket is still capable of confidently striking modern infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers, and when it gets into the board and the main battle tanks, it is necessary to have certain skills to accurately target the missile at the target. In Soviet times, ATGM operators to maintain the necessary training weekly engaged in special simulators.
ATMS "Baby" was produced during the 25 years and is in service in more than 40 countries around the world. In the middle of 90-x, foreign customers were offered an upgraded Malyutka-2 complex. The operator's work was facilitated by the introduction of anti-jam semi-automatic control, and armor penetration increased after the installation of a new warhead. But at the moment, stocks of old Soviet anti-tank guided missiles abroad have been greatly reduced. Now in the third world countries there are much more Chinese HJ-73 ATGMs copied from the “Baby”.
In the middle of the 80-x armament in China adopted a complex with a semi-automatic guidance system. At the moment, upgraded modifications of the HJ-73В and HJ-73C are still used in the PLA. According to the brochures of the ATGM HJ-73C can penetrate 500 mm armor after overcoming the dynamic protection. However, despite the modernization, in general, the Chinese complex retained the flaws characteristic of its prototype: a fairly large preparation time for combat use and a low missile flight speed.
Although ATGM 9K11 "Baby" because of the successful balance of cost, combat and performance qualities is widespread, it had a number of significant drawbacks. The speed of the rocket 9М14 was very low, the distance 2000 and the rocket covered almost in 18 seconds. At the same time, the flying rocket and the launch site were clearly visible visually. Over the period of time that has passed since the launch, the goal could change its location or hide behind cover. And the deployment of the complex in the combat position took too much time. In addition, missile launchers had to be placed at a safe distance from the control panel. During the entire flight of the rocket, the operator had to carefully direct it at the target, guided by the tracer in the tail section. By virtue of this, the results of firing at the range were very different from those used in combat conditions. Efficiency weapons directly depended on the skill and psychophysical condition of the shooter. Operator’s hand shake or delayed response to target maneuvers resulted in a miss. The Israelis very quickly understood this deficiency of the complex and immediately after detecting the launch of the rocket, they opened heavy fire at the operator, as a result of which the accuracy of the “Baby” dropped significantly. In addition, for the effective use of ATGM, operators had to regularly maintain guidance skills, which made the complex ineffective in the event of a failure of the command commander. In combat conditions, a situation often arose when there were available serviceable anti-tank systems, and there was no one to correctly use them.
The military and the designers were well aware of the shortcomings of the first-generation anti-tank complexes. Already in 1970, the ATGM 9K111 "Fagot" entered service. The complex was created by specialists from the Tula Instrument Engineering Bureau. It was intended to destroy visually observable moving targets moving at speeds up to 60 km / h targets at a distance of up to 2 km. In addition, the complex could be used for the destruction of fixed engineering structures and enemy firing points.
ATGM 9K111 "Bassoon"
In the anti-tank complex of the second generation, a special infrared direction finder was used to control the flight of the anti-tank missile, which monitored the position of the missile and transmitted information to the control equipment of the complex, and it transmitted commands to the rocket through a two-core wire that unwound behind it. The main difference between the "Fagot" and "Baby" was the semi-automatic guidance system. To hit the target, the operator just needed to aim the sight at her and hold it throughout the entire rocket flight. The rocket flight control was fully implemented by the complex automatics. In the 9K111 complex, semi-automatic ATGM targeting was applied to the target - control commands are transmitted to the missile by wire. After launch, the rocket is automatically displayed on the line of sight. Stabilization of the rocket in flight is carried out by rotation, and the control of the deviation of the nose rudders on the signals transmitted from the launcher. In the tail part there is a headlight lamp with a mirror reflector and a coil with a wire. At start, the reflector and the lamp are protected by curtains, which are opened after the rocket leaves the container. At the same time, the products of combustion of the expelling charge in the process of launching warmed up the mirror of the reflector, excluding the possibility of its fogging at low temperatures. The lamp with a maximum of radiation in the IR - spectrum is covered with a special varnish. It was decided to abandon the use of the tracer, since during the test launches it sometimes burned through the control wire.
Outwardly, Fagot differs from its predecessors in a transport-launch container, in which the rocket lasts for the entire period of its “life” - from the assembly at the plant to the moment of launch. Sealed TPK provides protection against moisture, mechanical damage and sudden changes in temperature, reducing the time to prepare for launch. The container serves as a kind of "barrel" from which the rocket is fired under the action of an expelling charge, and the solid propellant propulsion engine starts later, already on the trajectory, which eliminates the impact of a jet on the launcher and the arrow. This solution made it possible to combine the sighting system and the launcher in one unit, eliminated the sectors inaccessible to defeat the sectors inherent in the same “Malyutka”, facilitated the choice of location in battle and disguise, and also simplified the position change.
The portable version of the Fagot consisted of a 22,5 kg weight pack with a launcher and control equipment, as well as two 26,85 kg packs, with two ATGMs each. The anti-tank complex in a combat position when changing positions is transferred by two fighters. The deployment time of the complex is 90 with. The 9P135 launcher includes: a tripod with folding supports, a rotating part on the swivel, a swinging part with screw turning and lifting mechanisms, a rocket control equipment and a launching mechanism. Vertical guidance angle is from -20 to + 20 °, horizontally - 360 °. The transport and launch container with the rocket is installed in the slots of the cradle of the swinging part. After the shot, the empty TPK is manually reset. Combat rate - 3 rds / min.
On the launch device, control equipment is mounted, which is used to visually detect the target and monitor it, ensure the launch, automatically determine the coordinates of the flying missile relative to the line of sight, form control commands and issue them to the ATGM communication line. The detection and tracking of the target is carried out with a monocular periscopic reticle of tenfold magnification with an optical-mechanical coordinator in its upper part. The device has two direction finding channels - with a wide field of view to accompany the ATGM at distances up to 500 m and narrow for a range longer than 500 m.
The 9М111 rocket is made according to the aerodynamic "weft" scheme - plastic aerodynamic steering wheels with an electromagnetic drive are installed in the nose, and bearing surfaces of thin sheet steel, which open after the start, are installed in the tail section. The flexibility of the consoles allows you to roll them around the rocket body before loading into the transport and launch container, and after leaving the container they are straightened by the force of their own elasticity.
ATGM 9М111 in TPK and in the post-launch position: 1 - 9М111 rocket; 2 - transport and launch container; 3 - expelling charge; 4 - warhead; 5 - engine; 6 - drive control compartment; 7 - hardware compartment
The 13 kg missile carried the 2,5 kg cumulative warhead capable of penetrating homogeneous armor along the normal 400 mm. At an angle of 60 °, armor penetration was 200 mm. This ensured a reliable defeat of all Western tanks of the time: M48, M60, Leopard-1, Chiefen, AMX-30. Overall dimensions of the rocket with the wing spread out were almost the same as those of the “Baby”: diameter - 120 mm, length - 863 mm, wing span - 369 mm.
Launch ATGM 9М111
After the start of mass deliveries, the Fagot ATGM was favorably received by the troops. Compared with the portable version of “Baby”, the new complex was more convenient to use, quickly deployed to the position and had a greater chance of hitting the target. Complex 9К111 "Fagot" was an anti-tank battalion unit.
In the 1975 year for "Fagot" received an upgraded missile 9M111M "factors" with increased up to 550 mm armor penetration, launch range increased by 500 m Although the new length of the rocket rose to 910 mm dimensions TPK remained the same -. Length 1098 mm diameter - 150 mm . ATGM 9М111М changed the design of the body and the warhead to accommodate the charge of increased mass. The growth of combat capabilities was achieved with a decrease in the average flight speed of the rocket from 186 m / s to 177 m / s, as well as an increase in TLC mass and a minimum launch range. Flight time to the maximum range increased from 11 to 13 with.
In January, the self-propelled ATGM of the regimental and divisional level 1974K9 "Competition" was put into service. It was designed to combat modern Bronzelemi at a distance of 113 km. Constructive solutions used in the anti-tank missile 4М9, basically corresponded to the previously developed in the complex "Fagot", with significantly large weight and size characteristics, due to the need to ensure a greater launch range and increased armor penetration. The mass of the missile in TPK increased to 113 kg - that is, almost doubled. Also, the size of the ATGM increased significantly, with a caliber of 25,16-mm, the length was 135 mm, the wingspan was 1165 mm. The cumulative warhead of the 468М9 rocket could penetrate the normal 113 mm homogeneous armor. The average flight speed is about 600 m / s, the flight time to the maximum range is 200 with.
Rockets "Competition" were used in the armed IFV-1P infantry fighting vehicles BMP-2, BMD-2 and BMD-3, as well as specialized self-propelled anti-tank systems 9P148 based BRDM-2 and BTR-RD "robot" for Airborne . At the same time, it was possible to install TPK with an 9М113 ATGM on the 9P135 launcher of the Fagot complex, which in turn gave a significant increase in the range of destruction by the battalion anti-tank weapons.
ATRC 9K113 "Competition" on the PU 9П135
In connection with the increase in the security of the likely enemy’s tanks in 1991, the modernized Konkurs-M ATGM was adopted. Thanks to the introduction of the 1PN86-1 thermal imaging sighting equipment, the Mulat complex can be effectively used at night. A missile in a transport launch container weighing 26,5 kg at a distance of up to 4000 m is able to penetrate 800 mm homogeneous armor. To overcome the dynamic protection of ATGM 9М113М equipped with a tandem warhead. Penetration after overcoming DZ when hit at an angle of 90 ° is 750 mm. In addition, missiles with a thermobaric warhead were created for the Konkurs-M ATGM.
ATGM "Fagot" and "Competition" have established themselves as a fairly reliable means of dealing with modern armored vehicles. "Bassoons" were first used in battle during the Iran-Iraq war and since then they have been in service in armies of more than 40 states. These complexes were actively used during the conflict in the North Caucasus. Chechen militants used them against the T-72 and T-80 tanks, and also by launching an anti-tank missile system they managed to destroy one Mi-8 helicopter. Federal forces used anti-tank guards against fortifications of the enemy, they destroyed firing points and single snipers. "Bassoons" and "Competitions" were noted in the conflict in the south-east of Ukraine, confidently punching the armor of the upgraded T-64 tanks. Currently, Soviet-made ATGMs are actively fighting in Yemen. According to official Saudi data, by the end of 2015, 14 tanks M1A2S Abrams were destroyed during the fighting.
In 1979, ATGM 9K115 "Metis" began to enter the anti-tank compartments of motorized rifle companies. The complex, developed under the guidance of chief designer A.G. Shipunova in the Instrument Design Bureau (Tula), intended to destroy visible stationary and moving at various course angles with speeds up to 60 km / h of armored targets at ranges 40 - 1000 m.
In order to reduce the mass, size and cost of the complex, the developers went on to simplify the design of the rocket, allowing the complexity of the reusable guidance equipment. When designing the rocket 9М115, it was decided to abandon the expensive on-board gyroscope. Correction of the ATGM flight 9М115 occurs on the commands of ground equipment, tracking the position of the tracer installed on one of the wings. In flight, due to the rotation of the rocket at a speed of 8-12, the tracer moves in a spiral, and the tracking equipment receives information about the angular position of the rocket, which allows for the appropriate correction of commands issued to the controls via a wired communication line. Another original solution, which allowed to significantly reduce the cost of the product, became the rudders in the nose with an open-type air-dynamic drive using free-stream air pressure. The absence of an air or powder accumulator of pressure on the rocket, the use of plastic casting for the manufacture of the main drive elements reduces the cost many times in comparison with the previously adopted technical solutions.
The rocket is launched from an airtight transport and launch container. In the tail part of the ATGM there are three trapezoidal wings. The wings are made of thin, steel plates. When equipped in TPK, they are rolled up around the rocket body without residual deformations. After the rocket leaves the WPC, the wings spread out under the action of elastic forces. To launch the ATGM, a starting solid-fuel engine with a multiscale charge is used. ATGM 9М115 with TPK weighs 6,3 kg. Rocket length - 733 mm, caliber - 93 mm. TPK length - 784 mm, diameter - 138 mm. The average speed of a rocket is about 190 m / s. The distance in 1 km she flies over 5,5 with. The warhead weighing 2,5 kg breaks through the normal 500 mm homogeneous armor.
ATGM 9K115 "Metis" in the firing position
The 9P151 launcher with a folding tripod includes a machine with a lifting and turning mechanism, on which the control equipment is installed - a pointing device and a hardware unit. The launcher is equipped with a precision targeting mechanism, which facilitates the combat work of the operator. A container with a missile is placed above the scope.
The launcher and four missiles are transported in two packs of two people. Pack No. 1 with a launcher and one TPC with a missile weighs 17 kg, Pack No. 2 with three ATGM - 19,4 kg. "Metis" is quite flexible in use, the launch can be done from the prone position, from the standing trench, and also from the shoulder. When shooting from buildings, approximately 6 meters of free space behind the complex are required. The rate of fire for coordinated calculation actions is up to 5 starts per minute. Time to bring the complex into a firing position - 10 with.
For all its virtues, Metis by the end of the 80's had a low probability of hitting modern Western tanks head on. In addition, the military wanted to increase the range of the launch of an anti-tank missile and to expand the capabilities of combat use in the dark. However, the reserves for the modernization of the Metis ATGM, which had a record low mass, were very limited. In this regard, the designers had to re-create a new rocket while maintaining the old guidance equipment. At the same time, the Mulat-115 thermal imaging weighing 5,5 kg was introduced into the complex. This sight allowed us to observe armored targets at a distance of 3,2 km, which ensures the launch of ATGM at night at a maximum range of destruction. MTRIS-M ATGM was developed at the Instrument Design Bureau and officially adopted for use in the 1992 year.
ATGM "Metis-M" and ATGM 9М131
The structural design of the 9М131 ATGM with the exception of the cumulative tandem warhead is similar to the 9М115 rocket, but increased in size. The caliber of the rocket increased to 130-mm, and the length was 810 mm. At the same time, the mass of the ready-to-use TPK with an ATGM has reached 13,8 kg, length - 980 mm The armor penetration of a tandem warhead weighing 5 kg is 800 mm for dynamic protection. The calculation of a two-person complex carries two packs: 1 No., 25,1kg mass with a launcher and one container with a rocket, and 2 No., with two TPKs weighing 28 kg. When replacing one container with a rocket on a thermal imager, the weight of the pack is reduced to 18,5 kg. The deployment of the complex in the combat position is 10-20 with. Combat rate - 3 rds / min. Target launch range - up to 1500 m.
To expand the combat capabilities of the Metis-M anti-tank missile system, a 9М131Ф guided missile with a thermobaric warhead weighing 4,95 kg was created. It has a high-explosive action at the level of the 152-mm artillery projectile and is particularly effective when firing at engineering and fortifications. However, the characteristics of thermobaric warheads allow you to successfully use it against manpower and lightly armored vehicles.
At the end of the 90-s completed tests of the complex "Metis-M1." Due to the use of more energy-intensive jet fuel, the firing range was increased to 2000 m. The thickness of the pierced armor after overcoming the DZ is 900 mm. In 2008, an even more sophisticated version of Metis-2 was developed, featuring the use of modern electronic components and a new thermal imager. Officially Metis-2 was adopted in 2016 year. Prior to that, with 2004, the upgraded Metis-M1 complexes were only exported.
Launch of Metis-M1 ATGM in Syria
Complexes of the Metis family are officially in service in the armies of 15 states and are used by various militias around the world. During the fighting in the Syrian Arab Republic, Métis were used by all parties to the conflict. Before the outbreak of civil war in the Syrian army there were about 200 ATGM of this type, some of them was captured by the Islamists. In addition, several complexes were at the disposal of the Kurdish armed forces. AT-TUR victims were both T-72 government Syrian forces and Turkish M60 and 155-mm ACS T-155 Firtina. Guided missiles equipped with a thermobaric warhead are a very effective means of dealing with snipers and long-term fortifications. Also ATGM "Metis-M1" observed in service with the army of the DNR during the armed confrontation with the APU in 2014 year.
Until now, in the armed forces of Russia, most of the anti-tank systems are second-generation complexes with semi-automatic missile guidance and the transfer of control commands over the wire. ATGM "Fagot", "Competition" and "Metis" in the tail of the missile has a source of frequency-modulated light signal emitting in the visible and near infrared. The coordinator of the ATGM guidance system automatically determines the deviation of the radiation source, and hence the missiles from the aiming line, and sends correction commands to the missile by wire, ensuring the ATGM is flying strictly along the aiming line before it hits the target. However, such a guidance system is very vulnerable to the blinding of special optoelectronic jamming stations and even infrared illuminators used for driving at night. In addition, the wired communication line with the ATGM limited the maximum flight speed and launch range. Already in the 70-s, it became clear that the development of an ATGM with new guidance principles was necessary.
In the first half of the 80-x in the Tula Instrument Design Bureau, the development of an anti-tank complex of a regimental unit with laser-guided missiles began. In the course of creating the Cornet, a portable anti-tank vehicle, the existing reserve of the Reflex tank guided weapon system was used, while maintaining the layout decisions of the guided tank projectile. The functions of the Kornet ATGM operator consist in detecting a target through an optical or thermal imaging sight, escorting it, launching a missile, and holding the crosshair of the sight on the target until it hits. The launch of the rocket after launch to the line of sight and further retention on it is carried out automatically.
ATGM "Kornet" can be placed on any media, including with automated battle pack, thanks to the relatively small mass of the remote launcher, it can be used independently in a portable version. The airborne version of the Kornet ATGM is located on the 9P163М-1 launcher, which consists of a tripod machine with precise pick-up mechanisms, a sight-guidance device and a missile launch mechanism. For combat operations at night can be used various instruments with electron-optical amplification or thermal imagers. On the export version "Cornet-E" is installed 1PN79М "Metis-2" thermal imaging sight. For the "Kornet-P" complex, intended for the Russian army, the 1PN80 "Kornet-TP" combined thermal imaging sight is used, which makes it possible to fire not only at night, but also when the enemy uses a smoke screen. The detection range of a “tank” target reaches 5000 meters. The latest version of the Kornet-D ATGM targeting equipment, through the introduction of an automatic capture and tracking system, implements the concept of “fired and forgotten,” but the target must remain within line of sight until the missile hits.
Periscopic sight-guidance device is installed in the container under the cradle of the ATU transport and launch container, the rotary eyepiece is at the bottom left. Thus, the operator can be out of the line of fire, observing the target and pointing the missile from the shelter. The height of the line of firing can vary widely, which makes it possible to launch missiles from different positions and to adapt to local conditions. You can use remote guidance equipment for launching missiles at a distance of up to 50 meters from the launcher. In order to increase the likelihood of overcoming the means of active protection of armored vehicles, it is possible to launch two missiles in the same laser beam from different launchers at the same time, with a delay between missile launches less than the response time of the defense systems. To eliminate the detection of laser radiation and the possibility of setting up a smoke screen, during most of the rocket flight, the laser beam holds the 2-3 meter above the target. For transportation, the launcher with a mass of 25 kg is folded into a compact position, the thermal sight is transported in a pack case. The complex is transferred from marching to combat position in one minute. Combat fire rate - 2 start per minute.
The rocket 9М133 uses the principle of guidance, known as the “laser path”. The laser photodetector and other controls are located in the tail section of the ATGM. Four folding wings of thin sheets of steel, drop-down after launch under the action of their own elastic forces, are placed on the body of the tail section. In the middle compartment there is a solid propellant jet engine with air intake ducts and two oblique nozzles. Behind the solid engine is the main cumulative warhead. After the release of the missile from the TLC in the front of the case, two steering surfaces are revealed. The leading charge of the tandem warhead and elements of the air-dynamic drive with a frontal air intake are also located here.
ATGM 9М113 with TPK
According to data published by the Tula Instrument Engineering Bureau, the 9M133 rocket has a launch mass of 26 kg. Weight TPK with a rocket - 29 kg. The rocket body diameter is 152 mm, length is 1200 mm. Wingspan after leaving TPK - mm 460. The tandem cumulative warhead with a mass of 7 kg is able to penetrate the 1200 mm armor plate after overcoming the dynamic protection or 3 meter of a concrete monolith. The maximum firing range during daylight is 5000 m. The minimum launch range is 100 m. The 9M133F modification missile is equipped with a thermobaric warhead, which has a high explosive effect, its power in TNT equivalent is estimated at 8 kg. When a rocket with a thermobaric warhead enters the embrasure of a reinforced concrete pillbox, it is completely destroyed. Also, such a rocket, in the event of a successful hit, is capable of folding the standard five-story building. A powerful thermobaric charge poses a threat to armored vehicles, the shock wave, combined with high temperature, is capable of breaking through the armor of modern infantry fighting vehicles. When hit in a modern main battle tank, he is more likely to be incapacitated, since all external equipment will be swept away from the surface of the armor, observation devices, scopes and armaments will be damaged.
In the 21 century there was a consistent build-up of the combat characteristics of the Kornet ATGM. ATGM modifications 9М133-1 have a launch range of 5500 m. On the modification 9М133М-2 it is increased to 8000 m, while the mass of the missile in the TLC increased to 31 kg. The Kornet-D complex uses the 9М133М-3 ATGM with a launch range of up to 10 000. The armor penetration capability of this missile is 1300 mm in the remote system. The 9М133ФМ-2 rocket with a thermobaric warhead equivalent to 10 kg of TNT, in addition to destroying ground targets, can be used against airborne aircraft flying at speeds up to 250 m / s (900 km / h) and altitudes up to 9000 m. Non-contact fuse provides undermining of a warhead in the event of a miss to 3 m.
Export Kornet-E ATGM delivered to Iran
The export version of the Kornet-E ATGM is in steady demand in the global arms market. According to the information published on the official website of the PCU, as of 2010, more than 35 000 anti-tank missiles of the 9X133 family were sold. According to expert estimates, more than 40 000 missiles have been produced to date. Official shipments of the latest Russian laser-guided anti-tank complex were conducted in 12 countries.
Despite the fact that the anti-tank complex "Kornet" appeared relatively recently, it already has a rich history combat use. In 2006, Cornet-E was an unpleasant surprise for the Israel Defense Forces, which conducted Operation Cast Lead in southern Lebanon. Hezbollah fighters have announced the destruction of 164 units of Israeli armored vehicles. According to Israeli data, combat damage from the ATGM and RPGs received 45 tanks, while armor was broken through the 24 tanks. All in all, 400 tanks of “Merkava” of various models were involved in the conflict. Thus, it can be argued that every tenth tank participating in the campaign received a hit. Several armored bulldozers and heavy armored personnel carriers were also hit. At the same time, experts agreed that the greatest danger to Israeli Merkava tanks was precisely the ATGM 9М133. According to Hezbollah’s Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, Cornet-E complexes were obtained from Syria. In 2014, the Israeli military said that during Operation “Unbreakable rock” in the Gaza Strip, 15 missiles launched from Israeli tanks and intercepted by Trophy’s active tank defense systems were launched from the Kornet ATGM. January 28 The 2015 of the 9М133 rocket launched from Lebanese territory hit an Israeli military jeep, with two servicemen killed.
In 2014, radical Islamists used Cornet-E against armored vehicles from Iraqi government forces. It is reported that in addition to the T-55, BMP-1, M113 BTR and Hummer armored vehicles, at least one American-made M1А1М Abrams was destroyed.
Even more actively, the Kornet-E ATGM system was used during the civil war in the Syrian Arab Republic. As of the 2013 year, in Syria there were about 150 ATGM and 2500 ATGM. Some of these stocks were seized by anti-government armed groups. At a certain stage of the war, the captured Cornets caused heavy losses to the armored units of the Syrian army. Not only the old T-55 and T-62, but also relatively modern T-72 turned out to be very vulnerable to them. At the same time, dynamic protection, multi-layered armor and shielding did not save the missiles with a tandem warhead. In turn, Syrian government forces burned Islamists tanks with the Cornet and destroyed the jihadmobili. In the course of the liberation from the militants of the settlements, rockets with a thermobaric warhead demonstrated their effectiveness, spreading to dust the structures turned by jihadists into firing points.
To be continued ...