Military Review

From the rocket of engineer Gerasimov to C-500. Day of the Air Defense Forces

50
Traditionally, on the second Sunday of April, the holiday of the air defense forces (air defense) is celebrated in the Armed Forces of Russia. In 2018, the holiday fell on April 8 and coincided with the Resurrection of Christ.


Officially, in our country, the day of the Air Defense Forces is celebrated from the Soviet times. In the calendar of army holidays, he appeared in 1975 year on the basis of a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The official reason, they say, was not to be invented. By that time, the air defense forces had repeatedly manifested themselves as a real shield of the Fatherland, protecting the country and citizens from attacks from the air.

From the official document:
"For the great services of the air defense forces of the country during the Great Patriotic War and for the fulfillment of especially important tasks in peacetime."

Until 1980, the holiday of air defense troops was assigned a “fixed” date - April 11. And since 1981, the date has become “floating” - the second April Sunday.

When were the air defense forces first used? The answer to this question is obvious - in that historical the period when ground targets and troops were actually threatened from the air. First - with balloons, balloons and airships.

It is believed that the first use of anti-aircraft weapons took place during the war of the so-called First Coalition (90-ies of the XVIII century). We are talking about the anti-French coalition. In the historical notes preserved documents describing the shelling from the ground of the French observant balloon. The shelling was carried out by Austrians from artillery shells - from mortars with the maximum elevation angle of the barrel. The historical document describes the events as follows:
There was a decent undershoot of the nuclei, but the shelling forced the French ball to leave the airspace above the battlefield.


He was simply pulled back with ropes, after which the ball landed. This historical event describes an engraving:
From the rocket of engineer Gerasimov to C-500. Day of the Air Defense Forces


An interesting fact is that after two years, the Austrian anti-aircraft artillery hit a French aerostat in the area of ​​the Charleroi fortress, which at that time belonged to the Dutch. The balloon belonged to the French aeronautic company that existed at that time.

The first massive threat to the use of aircraft manifested itself during the First World War. It was then that not only aerostats and airships, but also airplanes began to work actively against ground positions (including reconnaissance). Moreover, they worked in the rear.

Historians know the approximate ratio of the presence of aircraft from countries that participated in the First World War. To its top, the leading European states had the following number of aircraft fleets:
France - 500, Germany - 150, Russia - 140, England - 65, Italy - 50, Austria-Hungary - 20.

As can be seen, the anti-German coalition had a significant advantage, including at the expense of hundreds of French aircraft. Another question is how effectively these French airplanes were used ...


Soldiers 5-th Army AO aircraft "Voisin" (weapons - machine gun "Maxim"). 1916


Here it is necessary to note such an important point as practical experience in the use of aeronautics during the war with Japan of 1904-1905. In particular, the means of aeronautics then used in the defense of Port Arthur.



Two years after the end of the Russo-Japanese War, the command of the Artillery Committee decides on the development of measures to fight controlled aerostats. After some time, a key principle was actually proposed for the operation of all air defense systems - hitting the target is not necessarily a direct hit of the released ammunition, since it is an extremely difficult task - it is enough to create ammunition that would be torn in the target hit zone. This option was proposed by N.V. Gerasimov, a military engineer of the Russian imperial army, who ultimately designed a gyroscopic rocket, but during the tests the ammunition revealed a number of shortcomings, including deficiencies in performance characteristics.

Modern Russian air defense systems are a real guarantee that the threat from the air is minimized. Behind the C-400 “Triumph” anti-aircraft missile systems there is literally a line of customers who appreciate the effectiveness of these Russian weapons. China, Turkey, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan.

Zamglavkoma VKS RF Lieutenant-General Viktor Gumenny notes the effectiveness of Russian anti-aircraft missile systems in Syria. From his interview with the departmental newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda, in which he noted that thanks to the air defense systems, Moscow and Damascus are aware of “every step” of the American coalition:
We receive from the forces of the air defense point of Syria all the necessary information about the air situation, including the actions of our and Syrian aviation when performing the missions assigned to them. Thanks to the established cooperation, we know about every step of the coalition aviation over the territory of Syria and we inform the military-political leadership of our country about this
.



Other air defense and missile defense systems are also contributing to the security of Russia and other countries of the world. In particular, we can recall the transfer of the C-300 air defense system to Iran.

On the approach is a promising system C-500, the parameters of which are already interested in foreign "partners".

However, air defense is not only a technique. This is primarily people who can create such equipment, and people who can use it effectively to protect the air borders of the country. And these people have a professional holiday today.

"Military Review" congratulates all involved with the Day of the air defense forces of Russia!
Photos used:
Wikipedia, website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
50 comments
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  1. bandabas
    bandabas April 8 2018 06: 52
    +9
    All with the Air Defense Day. We always stand on the protection of the state border. Good luck
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana April 8 2018 07: 07
      +7
      I join in the congratulations and good wishes!
      All involved with the holiday! Happy Air Defense Forces of Russia!

      Native sky at the castle
      And he has a serious guardian.
      Only the enemy in the distance -
      Will notice his air defense.
      At the moment, track the threat
      And find the air target
      Track the threat from the sky
      And the offender will be knocked down.
    2. Spartanez300
      Spartanez300 April 8 2018 07: 17
      +9
      Congratulations on a holiday air defense troops !!! good drinks soldier

      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 April 8 2018 07: 53
        +9
        Quote: Spartanez300
        Congratulations on a holiday air defense troops !!!

        The unofficial air defense motto is We don’t fly, and we don’t give it to others! laughing
        1. avt
          avt April 8 2018 11: 54
          +1
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Unofficial air defense motto - We don’t fly, and don’t give to others!

          No. Wait, Execute, Cancel. What was confirmed over ,, Wasp nest "with the Korean Boeing and Rust sat down in ,, Sheremetyevo 3" wassat Well, then the more mundane - Drink Vodka One. bully
        2. bandabas
          bandabas April 9 2018 19: 47
          0
          Well, as always. "Wait Execute Cancel."
    3. Spartanez300
      Spartanez300 April 8 2018 07: 53
      +8
      And also I congratulate all Orthodox Christians on Happy Easter !!! drinks
  2. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 8 2018 07: 12
    +9
    Yes ..... the French were very active in using aeronautics! And in the 19 century, the “opponents” of the French had to “rack their brains” in search of means to combat the “air targets”!
    The bold experiments of the French army on the use of balloons in military affairs did not go unnoticed in Prussia. In 1870, Kruppwerke in Essen manufactured a small batch of 3,7cm anti-aerostat guns.
    The gun was placed on a pedestal mounted on a special 4-x wheeled horse-drawn cart, which allowed to quickly mix the guns to cut the balloon drift or closer to it. The design of the wagon allowed round-robin fire.
    A known design of the cart with a special hemispherical platform for the convenience of the gunner-shooter.
    Reach in height was about 700 meters. The gun was serviced by one person and had primitive sights in the form of a rear sight and a front sight.
    The control drives were in the form of a conventional gun stock with a butt.
    Ammunition - 3.7 Cm. Hotchkiss.
    The debut of these guns occurred during the Franco-Prussian war during the siege of Paris. In besieged Paris, French balloons were used as a method of sending letters (pigeons were simply eaten) and evacuating important officials and politicians. Over the entire period of the siege of the city, 65 flights were made, 164 passengers and 11 tons of mail were forwarded.
    The Germans blocking Paris fired on balls of rifles, field artillery guns and, of course, anti-aerostat guns. In total, the Germans had reduced and captured 6 French balls.

    According to unverified data, one of the bottom was shot down by Krupp BallonGeschutz.
    The French using hydrogen balloons should be grateful to the Germans for the fact that the latter did not use tracer shells.
    Such events of the Germans forced the French to fly at night.
    To summarize, the 1870 year was the year of the appearance of the first specialized air defense system and the year of the first victory of anti-aircraft artillery.
    The only surviving instance of the gun is now stored in the Berlin German Historical Museum.


    Happy Air Defense Day! drinks They themselves do not fly and do not give others! stop
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 April 8 2018 07: 56
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      They themselves do not fly and do not give others!

      Each branch of the army had an unofficial motto. The coolest at the construction battalion. good But modernization will cut out for sure! wassat
      1. ul_vitalii
        ul_vitalii April 8 2018 09: 08
        +9
        The signalmen have no worse motto, tested on themselves laughing drinks Pvoshniki, happy holiday!
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 8 2018 09: 15
        +4
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        Each branch of the army had an unofficial motto. The coolest at the construction battalion. But modernization will cut out for sure!

        So not only the "motto"! But also the "characteristic" .... "decoding" of the emblem ... Half of "this" moderators are afraid! wink
      3. geniy
        geniy April 8 2018 13: 24
        +2
        The motto of the construction battalion: "two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator"?
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 April 8 2018 14: 33
          +1
          Decryption of the emblem sent in PM. hi
  3. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter April 8 2018 07: 38
    +1
    Congratulations to the guys from the air defense!
    You have been handed the keys to our sky. Keep it locked!
  4. midshipman
    midshipman April 8 2018 07: 59
    +10
    Happy Holiday Defenders of Russia!
    He devoted his whole life, including to the creation of air defense and military aviation for air defense. It is a pity that the enterprises in Kuznetsk (radio factory), in St. Petersburg (PO "Russia" and others), ceased to exist, thanks to reforms in our country. There, air defense equipment was produced, created under my guidance (as Ch. Constructor). For the air defense systems I was twice awarded the State. Prizes of the USSR.
    1. AUL
      AUL April 8 2018 08: 27
      +5
      And I'm just an ordinary RTV air defense ... hi
      Christ is risen, Orthodox!
    2. bandabas
      bandabas April 9 2018 19: 55
      0
      No offense. It happens ... Everyone has their own shortcomings (or pluses).
  5. Lekov L
    Lekov L April 8 2018 09: 22
    +3
    Happy holiday, colleagues and colleagues!
    All three incarnations of the WWW:
    Rocketman, cameraman and pilot.
    We - air defense three blood brothers ...
    We stand on guard of solar heights
    Always faithful sworn holy.

    For you brothers! drinks
    soldier
  6. victorsh
    victorsh April 8 2018 09: 27
    +3
    Thank you for your congratulations. In the VPO with 1982 ro 2012. Congratulations to ALL Pvoshniks on this day!
  7. igorspb
    igorspb April 8 2018 09: 42
    +1
    All colleagues with a holiday!
  8. mp-133
    mp-133 April 8 2018 09: 54
    0
    Happy holiday to all the Defenders of our peaceful sky!
  9. turbris
    turbris April 8 2018 09: 59
    +1
    I congratulate everyone on Air Defense Day, the most technically advanced specialists serve in these troops, and computers and automated control systems appeared when everyone else did not even know such names. The troops of constant combat readiness, are on alert in peacetime - success and clear skies over your head!
    1. NN52
      NN52 April 8 2018 10: 10
      +2
      Happy Holidays to all involved in air defense !!!
      1. Cossack 471
        Cossack 471 April 8 2018 11: 04
        +4
        Comrades! All Happy Air Defense Forces. ! And especially colleagues. with whom they made their way along the tundra on the ZIL-157. We went to the training ground at Balkhash and Ashuluk. They were fried in Libya. We served at the “points” on the S-200 S-75 and S-125. Respect to all.
  10. cat hippopotamus
    cat hippopotamus April 8 2018 11: 02
    +3
    Dear colleagues, I congratulate you on Air Defense Day! May our sky be locked! I especially congratulate the engineering staff who first decade TO-2 and prepared the equipment, put the debugged on B.D. on the 10th He went through this school and fingered the cascades 1RL129, P-19, P-18. 1C11 and 1C31, well, 2P25 sorted out.
    1. 2k11
      2k11 April 8 2018 13: 21
      0
      Happy holiday to all! Of course, we didn’t defend the country’s air defense, but the SV air defense (Circle), but nevertheless we also made a small contribution.
  11. geniy
    geniy April 8 2018 13: 31
    0
    There is an idea how to create a fundamentally new air defense system - and highly effective - capable of making millions of shots over the entire territory of our homeland in such a way as to hit any targets (starting with small ones - for example, with a glass) and with a range of destruction up to space orbits and up to 1 meter above the ground . And every shot is amazingly cheap. But it is advisable to get technical assistance in the creation. And even money is practically not needed - it will be very cheap, you can make the first samples with bare enthusiasm, but I have not enough knowledge in this area. Someone would suggest how to make a controlled jet engine in the size of a match head. And you also need to create a computer control system with a size of no more than a pea. Well, to produce all this in hundreds of thousands or millions of copies. .
    1. Golovan Jack
      Golovan Jack April 8 2018 13: 36
      +7
      Quote: geniy
      There is an idea ... but my knowledge in this area is not enough

      good laughing good
      Quote: geniy
      ... hit any targets (starting with small ones - like a glass, for example) ...


      ... with a glass ... with a glass ... um recourse
      Quote: geniy
      Who would tell how to make a controlled jet engine in the size of a match head

      Your humble desires, what to say ... and most importantly - easily doable yes
      1. geniy
        geniy April 8 2018 13: 47
        +1
        Yes, I think that there is nothing particularly difficult and impossible to do in this topic.
        And what do you think is difficult to create a micro-jet engine with a size of 2x2 mm? Yes, by stamping the nozzle easily! For example, from quartz, which has a melting point of 2300 degrees Celsius. And jet nozzle control systems have also been invented for a long time, only I am a layman in this field and do not know about them. But I will find time - I read special literature and maybe I'll figure out how to arrange it myself.
        And what else do you find difficult: could it be the creation of a pea-sized computer control system? So now they are trying to create microrobots smaller than a cockroach. And I don’t need a full-fledged computer, but just one that could give commands “to the right” or “to the left,” a little “up,” or a little “down.” That is, a micro-microchip capable of producing simple motion parameters.
        1. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack April 8 2018 14: 01
          +7
          Quote: geniy
          Yes, by stamping the nozzle easily! For example, from quartz

          Quartz stamping? Ahem ... a quick jack, unless request
          Are you definitely a genius, or maybe still a child of a genius? wink
          1. NN52
            NN52 April 8 2018 14: 50
            +2
            Golovan Jack

            Here on the VO in this area of ​​geniuses it rules Gridasov ... (normal things from it periodically skip)
            He will not tolerate competition ... am


            And comrade ml genius seems to be ending cahors ...
            1. Golovan Jack
              Golovan Jack April 8 2018 14: 58
              +7
              Quote: NN52
              Here in this region of geniuses Gridas drives

              I am aware, I remember his very first appearance on the site.
              Quote: NN52
              normal things from him periodically skip

              I have never seen, to be honest. True, it really, um, is evolving - it has become, at least, less tongue-tied.
              But in essence of his statements this, IMHO, was not reflected request
              1. NN52
                NN52 April 8 2018 15: 02
                +1
                His tongue-tied tongue rolls in his waves ... It's normal, it's not ...
          2. geniy
            geniy April 8 2018 15: 19
            0
            So what do you see the problem? Personally, I do not see any difficulty. If you think that stamps can only be made of steel, this is a misconception. Stamps (punches and dies) can, in principle, be made (for example, by electrospark processing from practically any material: for example, from tungsten carbide - an ultrahard material with a melting point of the order of 3500 degrees. And, by the way, the combustion chamber and the nozzle of a micro-jet engine will weigh about a thousandth of a gram. And stamping is supposed to be automatic - that is, at least one product per second, and about 3 thousand micro-jet engines per hour. And so day and night. Moreover, the assembly of the entire product is also automatic: air jets supply millions of component parts through pipes and they are immediately oriented in the right position and assembled, possibly without any participation of people at all, and the size of such an assembly "workshop" will be in the dimensions of a small room located underground in an unknown place in Russia.
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather April 8 2018 15: 40
      0
      Quote: geniy
      geniy (Mr. X) Today, 13:31 New
      I have an idea as
      how-how ... take dufolac ... laughingthere was already such a "genius" in VO ... although, perhaps, this is you ... good funny you, peshiteischo! yes
  12. geniy
    geniy April 8 2018 15: 35
    +1
    Yes, and here's another piquant question from me: if you create combat aircraft for Russia entirely from non-metallic materials, that is, for example, from an alloy of quartz mixed with carbon fiber fibers - that is, ultra-strong material with a high melting point, but absolutely RADIO-TRANSPARENT. Moreover, the engines and, in general, all the components of such an aircraft will be made of radio-transparent materials. So how then will your colleagues from potential adversary countries then be able to fight against such aircraft - which no radar detects? Of course, we will still have to fight to reduce the visibility of the aircraft in the infrared, but suppose that this is achieved, and even worse - God forbid, such planes will appear at the enemy: how then will you fight? That is, the situation will return to the thirties of the last century, when there were no radars at all.
  13. Altona
    Altona April 8 2018 17: 13
    0
    Quote: geniy
    So how then will your colleagues from potential adversary countries then be able to fight against such aircraft - which no radar detects? Of course, it will still be necessary to fight to reduce the visibility of the aircraft in the infrared, but suppose that this is achieved, and even worse - God forbid, such planes will appear at the enemy: how then will you fight? That is, the situation will return to the thirties of the last century, when there were no radars at all.

    ----------------------------------------
    How do you live with all this? The first locators determined the movement of the aircraft in an acoustic manner. Or are you up to date? All Pvoshniks on the holiday and Resurrection of Christ! drinks
    1. geniy
      geniy April 8 2018 19: 58
      0
      The first locators determined the movement of the aircraft in an acoustic manner. Or are you up to date?

      Sorry, but I cannot help but object to the blatant distortion of the truth. If you call sound pickups locator, then this is the deepest error. Because the sound detectors determined very roughly only the approximate direction to the plane, and did not determine the distance to it at all.
      A locator is an abbreviation for the full word radar. AND radars work on a fundamentally different principle than sound pickups
  14. Altona
    Altona April 8 2018 17: 14
    0
    Quote: geniy
    So what do you see the problem? Personally, I do not see any difficulty. If you think that stamps can only be made of steel, this is a misconception. Stamps (punches and dies) can, in principle, be made (for example, by electrospark processing from practically any material: for example, from tungsten carbide - an ultrahard material with a melting point of the order of 3500 degrees.

    --------------------------------
    Please quote the cost of the stamp. And google world reserves of tungsten.
  15. Radikal
    Radikal April 8 2018 17: 21
    +1
    Happy Communion! soldier At the same time, the question from the uncomplicated wassat Why are the transport and launch containers of missiles on PU S-300, 400, and some other white? To make air defense positions better visible from space? laughing hi
  16. geniy
    geniy April 8 2018 20: 23
    +1
    Quote: Altona
    Please quote the cost of the stamp. And google world reserves of tungsten.

    Actually, I’m the first profession engineer for metal processing pressure - that is, simply stamping. And if you don’t know anything about this topic at all, I’ll remind you that for example the designer made the PPSh machine specifically with the maximum use of stamping, instead of the Degtyarev PPD machine, based on the technology of lathes.
    So the essence of stamping technology is that on a single stamp you can sequentially stamp a huge number of parts - hundreds of thousands or maybe millions. I personally worked on stamping, when a dozen products were stamped in one mold in about a second, and thousands of parts in one shift.
    And the cost of a stamp depends mainly on its size and on the effort. Then, when I was studying, we were voiced by the figure that the maximum pressure force of the stamp reached 75 tons.
    I am in this thread talking about the manufacture of miniature products weighing approximately 0,001 GRAM. And the cost of metal for such a stamp (even though it is tungsten) will be mere pennies, because the weight of such a stamp will be less than the weight of the spiral of a conventional light bulb itself. And if you know absolutely nothing in military affairs, then letting you know that during the Second World War, subcaliber shells with a tungsten core were manufactured (and are still being manufactured). Moreover, most of these shells flew past the target, and just buried in the ground. Do you understand that humanity has simply thrown away millions of kilograms of tungsten? But I offer our country with great benefit for protection against ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads - to detonate them even in orbit, where the atmosphere is practically absent, and therefore there will be no shock wave from an atomic explosion, our country will spend for this purpose approximately 0,01 grams of tungsten.
    1. NN52
      NN52 April 8 2018 21: 40
      +2
      Everything, the curtain ...
      Put out the lights ....
      Do not forget to register a patent ...
  17. NF68
    NF68 April 8 2018 21: 36
    0
    Happy Holidays!
  18. climatic
    climatic April 8 2018 21: 45
    0
    Happy Easter and Air Defense Day
  19. Fedorov
    Fedorov April 8 2018 21: 52
    0
    Unpleasant topic. As an officer of the former Hohland, I will drink a glass for peace. Wasp - AKM is the native element, they did not really let them relearn to Buk. In Osa everything is on lamps, crazy circuitry. plus waveguides ...
  20. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx April 8 2018 22: 21
    0
    All colleagues with a holiday!
    1. Cossack 471
      Cossack 471 April 8 2018 22: 46
      0
      At first, I didn’t understand when the battalion commander said that “the air defense forces are like hair in a causal place in women. They interfere.
  21. Altona
    Altona April 9 2018 09: 18
    0
    Quote: geniy
    Sorry, but I cannot help but object to the blatant distortion of the truth. If you call sound pickups a locator, then this is the deepest mistake. Because the sound detectors determined very roughly only the approximate direction of the plane, and did not determine the distance to it at all.
    A locator is an abbreviation for the full word radar. And radars operate on a fundamentally different principle than sound catchers

    ------------------------------
    Bats use echo location and nothing. Doesn’t it bother you?
  22. Altona
    Altona April 9 2018 09: 19
    0
    Quote: geniy
    Actually, I’m the first profession engineer for metal processing pressure - that is, simply stamping. And if you don’t know anything about this topic at all, I’ll remind you that for example the designer made the PPSh machine specifically with the maximum use of stamping, instead of the Degtyarev PPD machine, based on the technology of lathes.

    ----------------------------
    I understand who you are by profession. I am a hydraulic worker by profession and what? But tungsten in the world is still not so much. Although it is used on shells. I don’t know anything in the military, of course (although no one knows about tungsten and cheaper ones from depleted uranium except you, of course). And I do not pretend to this knowledge. laughing laughing
  23. geniy
    geniy April 10 2018 07: 09
    +1
    Quote: Altona
    Bats use echo location and nothing. Doesn’t it bother you?

    I would not want to discuss with a member of Alton. Just blatant illiteracy in technical matters. Not horse feed to explain how military equipment works. But it is possible that some others do not know the simplest things.
    The fact is that although bats really use a sound locator (just like dolphins), but a sound locator is absolutely unsuitable for detecting enemy aircraft. This is because the range of the sound locator is very small - about ten meters. Bats in full darkness can bend around stretched threads and wires, but this only means that they use a very short wavelength. Indeed, in order to detect an object by location according to the law of physics, the wavelength must be less than the size of the object. That is, if the thickness of the string is less than 0,5 millimeters, then the wavelength of the bat locator should also be less than this value.
    But the fact is that the shorter the wavelength, the stronger it attenuates in space. That is, even if you take radars, then locators with a wavelength of 3 centimeters are usually used. But the range of their action is small. Because clouds consisting of droplets of water or snow quench such radio waves. But radio waves with a length of 10 centimeters propagate much further, and even more so radio waves with a wavelength of 1 meter. But the longer the wavelength, the more difficult it is to detect small objects.
    And besides, sound waves cause a slight but concussion, and radio waves are electromagnetic waves that propagate thousands of times further than sound waves of short lengths.
    In addition: the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves - radio waves is stunningly high - it is equal to the speed of light of the order of 300 kilometers per second, and the speed of a sound wave is only 000 kilometers per second. Therefore, sound locators are completely unsuitable for detecting aircraft, and they never were, and in the thirties of the last century only primitive ones were used sound pickupsbut this technique is hundreds of times worse and more primitive radar.
    In particular, I hope to apply the relatively small range of propagation of sound waves in the method of destroying enemy nuclear warheads. The fact is that an atomic explosion is essentially also a sound wave, albeit of great power, and a shock wave of a nuclear explosion propagates exactly according to the same laws as ordinary sound waves. And somehow we were asked at the military department a tricky question: what are the factors of a nuclear explosion, if it occurred at a very high altitude - about several tens of kilometers above the ground. And we all profane students naively answered that the factors of a nuclear explosion are a shock wave, light radiation, and penetrating radiation. Then the teacher hinted to us: You are all fools. There is generally no shock wave from the explosion at high altitude. The fact is that there is very thin air - that is, an almost complete absence of atmosphere, and sound waves propagate only in it, and the lower the density of the medium - the worse the sound waves propagate. Therefore, a nuclear explosion that occurred dozens of kilometers above the ground will not even create the slightest damage.
    Moreover, light emission is exactly the same: fires from a nuclear explosion actually occur only near the epicenter - I'm afraid to make a mistake, but not further than 4-6 kilometers. Therefore, light emission from a great height is safe.
    And the penetrating radiation from a high-altitude explosion will also not play any role. After all, the evaporated matter of a nuclear warhead simply scatters into atoms and rises even higher in heated air - by sony kilometers, and there are constant streams of air, and these atoms will settle on the ground only after decades, unlike a ground explosion. And as the teacher told us - in fact, the main factor in a high-altitude explosion is an electromagnetic pulse - that is, all electrical devices in the explosion area will simply cease to work for thousands of kilometers. But I only care about the survival of people, God bless them, with electrical appliances.
    And he came up with his own system for combating nuclear warheads so that, with some effect on the warhead, it would either destroy it or cause an explosion at very high altitude. Where he poses no danger to people's lives. Another thing is that any nuclear warhead, in principle, consists of two main parts: the nuclear charge itself, which is divided into sections, and conventional explosives, which explode and compress parts of the nuclear charge. Moreover, most often the nuclear charge is arranged in the form of a ball laden on all sides with conventional explosives, and the designers' task is to cause the explosion of ordinary explosives strictly simultaneously from all sides - so that the accuracy of the detonation of different sections of ordinary explosives is on the order of millionths of a second. And if an explosion of parts of ordinary explosives occurs at different times, then it will simply scatter parts of the nuclear warhead to the sides and no nuclear explosion will occur at all.
    Few ordinary people know that pieces of a part of a nuclear warhead are absolutely safe from the point of view of radiation exposure. This case is known: Stalin was shown a ball of uranium, and when he asked - and this is not a hoax, he was asked to stroke this uranium ball with his hand, and to make sure that it is warm - the nuclear decay reaction is gradually going on and this ball is heated. And Stalin personally stroked this ball. It is clear that a single exposure to small doses of radiation is absolutely safe for humans. Therefore, this method of combating enemy warheads that cause their destruction at high altitude will be absolutely safe for the Russian people.