Mutiny of Andrey Staritsky
During the war with Sigismund revealed another betrayal. It became apparent during the preparation of the campaign in Kazan. He was disrupted by the behavior of the uncle of the sovereign Ivan Starytsky. The prince sat down in his inheritance, defamed the princess, refused to come to the capital to the meetings of the Boyar Duma. He declared himself sick and, under this pretext, refused to participate in state affairs. During the war with Lithuania, he and his army remained "neutral." It turned out that Helen and her son were fighting with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And the old prince has nothing to do with war.
When the old prince was ordered to speak with the squads of his boyars against Kazan, Andrei again ignored the instructions of the government. In Staritsa, the princess and her people had "eyes and ears." They denounced that those who were dissatisfied with the rule of Elena Glinskaya were gathering around Andrei, the detachments were gathering, but they did not participate in the wars with Lithuania and Kazan. It also became known that the prince maintains ties with Lithuania. There was a suggestion that Andrew was going to flee to Sigismund, or even raise a rebellion. However, Staritsky did not have time to complete the preparation for the speech. Elena sent her favorite, Prince Obolensky, to prevent Andrew from fleeing. With his court, his family and a significant detachment, Andrei marched westward, intending to "sit down Novgorod", where there were many dissatisfied with the policies of the central government. He began to send letters to the nobles: “The great prince is small, and the boyars hold the state. And who will serve you? And you gladly complain. ”
Many supported Andrei Ivanovich, began to come to him. Including the prominent governor princes Pronsky, Khovansky, Paletsky, boyars Kolychev. However, the old prince missed time. Boyar Nikita Khromoi-Obolensky was urgently sent to Novgorod, he was ahead of the rebels and took control of the situation in the city. And Ivan Telepnev-Obolensky with horseman pursued Andrei. The Staritsa prince, having received the news that Novgorod was lost for him, turned to the Lithuanian border. Telepnev-Obolensky overtook him and prepared for battle. Andrei was confused, he did not dare to fight (there was confusion in his army - some did not want to fight their own, others didn’t want to flee to Lithuania) and preferred to start negotiations. He agreed to surrender in exchange for immunity. The leaders of the rebels were brought to Moscow. Staritsky was imprisoned, where he soon died. Princesky, Khovansky, Paletsky's princes were subjected to “trade executions” - they were beaten with a whip on Torgu (Red Square). Other boyars and notable accomplices were sent to prisons and links. Only 30 children of the boyars were sentenced to death, and hanged in various places on the road from Staritsa to Novgorod. After the death of Andrei, the Staritsa Principality passed to his son Vladimir.
Thus, the insurgency suppressed quickly and almost bloodless. But the political damage was great. The prepared campaign on Kazan with the aim of its reconciliation and bringing under the hand of Moscow was foiled. Safa-Girey and Sahib-Girey managed to get ready to fight. I had to agree to the formal subordination of Kazan to Moscow. At the same time, everyone understood that there would be no peace on the eastern border. In order to protect the country from the raids of Kazan, Princess Elena ordered to build new fortresses in this direction - Mokshan, Buygorod, Soligalich. They began to build new fortifications in Balakhna, Ustyug, Vologda, Pronsk, Temnikov.
Miniature of the Facial Chronicle of the XVI century: "And Prince Andrew from Torzhok did not go abroad, but went to Novgorod the Great, he wanted to sit down in Novgorod"
Elena, showing herself to be a sensible ruler, carried out a monetary reform. She was prepared in the reign of Vasily III. Several principalities were attached to the Moscow principality, in which there was its own mint, minted the coin, the weight and content of which were determined at the discretion of local authorities. The development of foreign trade required the unification of the monetary system: the multiplicity of the weight content and denominations of coins created difficulties in the calculations and led to losses. Coin chaos favored counterfeiters. The criminals were brutally executed, but circumcision of coins and their admixture flourished. In addition, the active foreign policy of Moscow required large expenditures and only the next state “damage of the coin” could reduce the situation - reduction by the government of the weight of coins or the content of precious metals while maintaining the nominal value of coins.
A decree replacing old money was announced in Moscow in February 1535. Under this decree, from the weight hryvnia (204,7 g) instead of the 520 coins of the Sovereign, the Mint began to mint 600. Thus, the scale of "devaluation" was 15,4%. The weight of the new coin, which was already called “denga” in Russia, was 0,34 g. At the same time, to support small calculations, a half-weight coin (0,17 g), which was commonly called “polushka”, was minted.
Despite the elimination of the monetary regalia of destinies, the new system preserved features dating back to the times of Ivan III and due to the special role of Novgorod in Russia's foreign trade. In order not to burden the merchants during large calculations, they minted coins of double weight. The weight of the new Novgorod coin, according to the 1535 reform of the year, was correspondingly 0,68. On the new Novgorodians, a horseman with a spear was depicted, and therefore in everyday life they were called pennies. Novgorodians were interested in the speedy transition to new coins: they started their minting there earlier than in the capital - just 4 a month after the imperial decree was issued. The money of the Moscow coinage ("train"), by analogy with Novgorod pennies, was called "saber" - they depicted a rider with a sword. A doubly heavier penny tied to the Novgorod subsystem oriented towards foreign trade and large settlements was associated with a multiple decimal ratio to the ruble. 100 Novgorod was 1 ruble, which was divided into two half a fat or 10 hryvnia.
Thanks to the reform of Elena Glinsky, the Russian monetary system has reached a new qualitative level. As a result of the reform, a unified system of monetary circulation of the Russian state was created, which over the following centuries underwent various changes, but on the whole retained unity and stability. This has become an objective positive factor in the political and economic development of Russia.
During the reign of Glinskaya, steps were taken in other directions. So, attention was drawn to the imperfection of the administrative system. Especially a lot of complaints were caused by criminal investigations. Governors and townships often showed indifference to such matters. They trusted dishonest guarantors, false witnesses, for bribes they released criminals on bail. Local authorities were not interested in finding criminals. By law, in their favor was "vira" (fine) for the crime. He was crying urban or rural community. The central authorities directed investigators, but this practice also did not lead to a positive result. The detectives did not know the local peculiarities, preferred to agree with the governors. Therefore, under Elena, they began to develop lip reform so that the local residents themselves would choose officials who would investigate crimes on the ground. But in this direction only the first steps were made. Helen's brief reign did not allow for reform, it was fully carried out under Ivan the Terrible and it was beneficial for Russia.
After the war, the government continued the centralized redemption of prisoners from the Tatars. In addition, there was an increase in population by attracting peasants from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Immigrants were provided with land, various benefits, indulgences. Invitations were distributed through merchants, travelers, agents. The position of the Western Russian population in Lithuania was deteriorating, the power of the nobility was growing, and pressure was growing in accordance with national and religious grounds. Russian nobility intersected, took Catholicism, became a stranger. Therefore, the Western Russian peasantry from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the masses flowed under the authority of Moscow. The protests of Lithuania were ignored. Like, look at your people yourself.
Kopek Ivan the Terrible (XVI century)
Helen's death. Beginning of boyar rule
4 April 1538, 30-year-old Elena Glinskaya died unexpectedly. None of the sources report any serious illness of the Grand Duchess. The data of a modern study of its remains indicate a suspected cause of death - poisoning with poison.
It was not just a kill. A carefully prepared palace coup. Obviously, it was headed by Vasily Vasilyevich and Ivan Vasilyevich Shuisky. Noble princes who held the highest places in the Boyar Duma. Vasily Nemoy Shuisky was the main commander in the army. Everything was well prepared. The princess was immediately buried. Without the usual long church services, the grand duke's funeral rite, without parting the people, mourning. Even the metropolitan did not participate in the burial. He was not allowed. The ruler of Russia was hastily taken away from the palace and buried to avoid crowds and inevitable interpretations.
Ivan Telepnev was only strong with the Empress. He was immediately eliminated. On the seventh day after the death of Grand Duchess Ovchina-Obolensky and his sister Agrafen were captured in front of the minor Grand Duke Ivan. Ivan Telepnev in prison was starved to death, and her sister was exiled to Kargopol and tonsured as a nun. Thus, Tsar Ivan at one moment lost the closest people.
Obviously, if Andrei Staritsky lived to this point, he could become a grand duke. However, he hardly waited. The insurgency began prematurely. Therefore, the conspirators-boyars saved the life of Ivan, to rule on his behalf. The new government was headed by Vasily Shuisky. This man of few words, nicknamed for it, had serious ambitions. He received almost unlimited power, however, wanting to further strengthen it, he married the daughter of Tatar prince Peter Anastasia, a cousin of the minor Ivan IV. The representative of the oldest branch of Rurik became in addition the sovereign's uncle. Basil immediately released from prison and exile the participants of the previous conspiracies: Ivan Belsky, Andrei Shuisky, etc. But the juvenile Prince Vladimir Staritsky and his mother left in custody. The extra challenger to the throne Shuisky was not needed.
Vasily settled in the Kremlin, in the chambers of Andrei Staritsky. Assigned himself to the old title of deputy of Moscow. With the Grand Duke at this time did not reckon at all. Fed poorly, or even forgot to feed. Boyars shared power, wealth, intrigued, and government affairs began to decline. The defense of the state Shuisky abandoned. We agreed to all the demands of the Crimea, began to pay a big tribute, pledged "not to fight Kazan". At this price, they concluded an "alliance" with the Crimean Khan Sahib-Giray. But the detachments of the Crimeans, sensing the weakness of the new Russian government, began to strongly attack the southern Russian borders. Kazan troops also climbed to Russia, ravaged the environs of Nizhny Novgorod, Murom, Meshchery, Vyatka, Perm. Appeared where the robbers have not seen for a long time - near Vologda, Ustyug, Totma, Kostroma.
It is clear that not all boyar clans liked the rule of the Shuisky. There was also a “patriotic” party headed by Metropolitan Daniel, who wanted to preserve a strong grand-ducal power and throne for Ivan Vasilyevich. The opposition was led by Metropolitan Daniel and Ivan Belsky. Although Belsky himself was an old conspirator and was released from prison by Shuisky, he now became their rival. Belsky wanted to weaken the power of the Shuisky and elevate his kind. However, the Shuiskys turned out to be stronger. In the fall of 1538, they crushed the opposition. Belsky was again imprisoned, and his supporters were sent to remote villages. Daniel was overthrown from the metropolis and exiled to the Joseph-Volokolamsk monastery. In his place was erected Trinity Hegumen Joasaph.
True, Vasily Shuisky could not enjoy the fruits of victory. In November 1538, he died suddenly. Perhaps the elderly boyar simply could not stand the pressure of the political struggle. And maybe the rivals "helped." The government was headed by his brother Ivan Vasilyevich Shuisky. It was a completely different person. He did not carry far-reaching designs. He was an ordinary thief. Higher power used for personal enrichment. Together with the closest relatives of the treasury of the treasury gold and silver, ostensibly for issuing to the children of boyars (soldiers). And in order to "launder" the loot, precious metals were melted down into bowls, various vessels and products, on which they put the family stamp of Shuisky. It seems like hereditary good received from ancestors.
It is clear that, looking at the central power, local governors, Shuisky's appointees, also completely unbelted, hit the frank predation. There was nowhere and no one to seek justice for thieves. Instructions of the Boyar Duma or equal force with the orders of the sovereign. And the decisions of the Duma controlled by Ivan Shuisky. He could now do without the formal consent of the sovereign. To the young sovereign temporary worker treated dismissively. Ivan IV later recalled with offense: “We are playing in our childhood youth, and Prince Ivan Vasilyevich is sitting on a bench, leaning his elbow on, laying our father on a bed, not bowing to us.”
Thus, after the palace coup, the internal and external position of the Russian state seriously deteriorated and continued to deteriorate. Central and local authorities stole. Taxes did not reach Moscow or were stolen already from the treasury. Salaries warriors did not receive. The nobles and the boyars children left the service on the estates to feed themselves. The construction of fortresses and augmentation lines for the defense of the southeastern and southern frontiers begun under Elena Glinskaya has decayed. The entire defense system of Russia, carefully built under Ivan III, Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya, began to fall apart.
Fortunately for Russia, Lithuania has not yet recovered from the last war. In addition, Sigismund was busy with the war with Turkey. But the Lithuanians, Livonians and Swedes behaved more and more arrogantly, violating the previous peace agreements. We saw the weakness of Moscow. But in the south and east the situation was awful. Tatar khans saw themselves as masters of the situation. Crimean troops invaded the Russian borders. But in the south the defense system has not yet completely collapsed. The population was militant, accustomed to raids, quickly hid, gave surrender. In the east, the situation was worse. Kazan lived closer, they did not have to go through the Wild field. Passing secretly forest paths, their troops immediately broke into the densely populated areas of Russia. There were no watch lines, posts and fortresses that would have managed to warn people to hold back the first onslaught. Therefore, in 1538 - 1540. Kazan hordes walked well in the Russian lands, with impunity, arrogantly and terribly. Thousands of people died, many thousands were taken to full, for sale into slavery. Thousands of Russian people filled the Crimean, Turkish, Middle Eastern, African, Central Asian and Persian slave markets.
The chronicler noted: “Batu passed away the Russian land with lightning, Kazan didn’t come out of it and poured the blood of Christians like water ... who wasn’t taken prisoner, so they punched out eyes, cut off ears and nose, cut off hands and feet ...”. One of the chronicles reported: "The Ryazan land and the Seversky Crimean sword are destroyed, the whole Nizovskaya land, Galich and Ustyug and Vyatka and Perm, are neglected from Kazan." It got to the point that Kazan Khan Safa-Girey considered himself the winner of Russia and demanded that he pay "exit" - the same tribute that Russia had previously paid to the Horde. And the Shuyskys, instead of teaching the predators, humiliated, increased the "gifts" of the Crimean horde, agreed to recognize Kazan as the possession of the Crimean Khan.
And on Russia itself, the internal situation continued to deteriorate. The governors and volosteles completely ruined the people. Their areas ravaged by the Tatars, the masses fled, the refugees did not provide assistance. They spread throughout the country, begged. Gangs of “robberies” appeared in different parts of the country, their number quickly grew. The authorities even had to recall lip reform. Thus, the murder of Elena Glinskaya extremely adversely affected the country. Boyar clans solved personal and narrow group tasks, fought for power and wealth. External enemies intensified, and tyranny of the powers that be flourished within the country. The people began to ferment, a harbinger of a terrible distemper. Russia could die.