Military Review

Latvian arrows. The triumph and tragedy of the praetorians of Lenin

63
Latvian riflemen were destined to play a landmark role in the revolution and the Civil War in Russia. They actually turned into the "praetorian guard" of the Bolsheviks, whom Lenin and his closest associates trusted unconditionally. Iron discipline, dedication and dedication distinguished the units of Latvian riflemen in a favorable direction from many other units of the Red Army during the Civil War. National mentality or political expediency? What made the Latvians from rifle regiments, formed back in tsarist Russia, to faithfully serve the Bolsheviks?


Up until the beginning of World War I, the Latvians served in the Russian imperial army on a general basis. The Baltic States were a rather politically unreliable region; therefore, the tsarist government was not initially set up to create national armed formations staffed by representatives of the Baltic peoples. The situation changed with the beginning of the war. And the most important role was played not so much by lobbying the idea of ​​the Latvian formations by the Latvians - deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, as by the active offensive of the German troops on Livonia and Kurland.



July 27 The 1914 of the year in Wolmar, Vendensky and Valka counties began activities to call for reservists who served in 1909-1913, and already on July 30 general mobilization began. Most of the Latvians were sent to the twentieth army corps in East Prussia, in the garrison of the Ust-Dvina fortress. In East Prussia, there were about 20-25 thousands of Latvian conscripts. At the same time, in Ust-Dvinsk fortress, the formation of voluntary armed squads from among ethnic Latvians began. When 1 April 1915, the German troops entered the territory of Courland, capturing one settlement after another, the tsarist government realized that a little more and the Germans would capture Riga. To remedy the situation, the commander of the North-Western Front, General of Infantry, Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev, August 1 (July 19), 1915, signed a decree on the creation of Latvian rifle battalions. Latvians - State Duma deputies Janis Goldmanis and Janis Zalitis made a call for fellow tribesmen to come into service under Latvian flags.

Initially, it was decided to form the 8 Latvian rifle battalions, partially staffing them with volunteers from the Ust-Dvinsk fortress. Already 12 August began the formation of the first battalions. Latvian riflemen from the 1 Ust-Dvinsk Latvian Infantry Battalion went to the October 23 front. Already on October 25, battles took place in the area of ​​the Tyrele marshes, and on October X, the Latvians in the area of ​​Plakantsiems drove the German troops back. On October 29, the 26 th Battalion of Riga was transferred to the front, which five days later successfully repelled the offensive of the German units. On November 2, the 5 th Kurzeme battalion was also sent to the front.

The successful actions of the Latvian battalions at the front finally convinced the royal command of the reliability and combat capability of the Latvian riflemen, after which the Latvian population was mobilized and the 5 of the Latvian rifle battalions and the 1 reserve rifle battalion were created. The Latvian riflemen made an enormous contribution to the defense of Riga against the German offensive, thereby securing the Russian capital, which, if captured by Riga, would be under attack by the enemy. In March, the Latvian battalions fought again in the 1916 area in the Riga region, delivering new strikes on German positions.

The total number of Latvian rifle battalions by the summer of 1916 was already 11,5 thousand people, among which the majority (10 278 people) were Latvians, and among the remaining 402 people were Estonians, 192 people were Russians, 174 people were Lithuanians, 128 people were Polish and 25 people - Baltic Germans. November 4 The Latvian battalions were converted into Latvian rifle regiments that were part of two Latvian brigades.

The commander of the 1 Latvian Infantry Brigade was appointed Major General August Ernest Misiиньš, a member of the Russo-Japanese War, who commanded the 1912 Siberian Infantry Regiment from 12 and then a brigade of the 79 Infantry Division. The higher command considered that the Latvian Major General Missins, who had already commanded the brigade, would be an ideal candidate for the role of the commander of the Latvian riflemen.

The 2 Latvian Rifle Brigade was headed by Colonel Andrejs Auzans, who after graduating from the Military Topographical School in 1895, served in various positions in the Military Topographers Corps, and before being appointed as 1915 of the Bausk Latvian Rifle Battalion, served as headquarters officer for assignments and astronomical work at the Military Topographic Division of the headquarters of the Turkestan Military District and Head of the Tashkent Physical and Astronomical Observatory.

The Latvian rifle brigades operated as part of the 12 Army, together with the Siberian rifle regiments. They participated in the defense of the Riga direction. The brigades were merged into the Latvian Rifle Division, which very well established itself during the Mitava operation. By February 1917 1, in part, the first Latvian Infantry Brigade were 1-th Latvian shooting Ust-Dvinsk regiment, 2-th Riga Latvian Rifle Regiment, 3-st Latvian Rifle Regiment Kurzeme, 4-st Latvian Rifle Regiment Vidzeme, and The composition of the 2 th Latvian rifle brigade - 5 th Latvian rifle Zemgale regiment, 6 th Latvian rifle Tukkum regiment, 7 th Latvian Rifle Bausky regiment and 8 th Latvian Volman rifle regiment. Each Latvian rifle regiment in the state had a number of 2497 people, including 1854 frontline ranks. In the reserve regiment in Volmar they served from 10 to 15 thousand people.
The February Revolution found a part of Latvia occupied by the Germans, and Latvian rifle regiments were stationed in another part of Latvia, which, unlike many other units and formations of the Russian army, retained discipline. There was simply no place for the Latvian riflemen to desert.

Latvian arrows. The triumph and tragedy of the praetorians of Lenin


From 27 to 29 in March (9 - 11 in April) 1917 was held in Riga at a congress at which Iskolastrel was established - the Executive Committee of the Joint Council of Latvian Rifle Regiments. By May 1917 in Iskolastrele the Bolshevik position finally prevailed, after which the Latvian arrows turned into one of the main strongholds of the Bolshevik agitation in the ranks of the Russian army. After the surrender of Riga, the Latvian arrows retreated under Petrograd. A member of the RSDLP (b) and a native of Latvia, Semyon Nakhimson, who served as a junior doctor in an ambulance car with the rank of “ordinary doctor”, was elected political commissar of the Latvian rifle regiments. October 26 The 1917 Army Military Revolutionary Committee took the power in the front line, where the Latvian rifle units were stationed, into their own hands. November 12 The 22 th Tukkum regiment was deployed to Petrograd to defend the Bolshevik government. A joint company of Latvian riflemen began the service for the protection of the Council of People's Commissars in Smolny. It was the Latvian riflemen who provided protection for the relocation of Soviet organs from Petrograd to Moscow.

13 April 1918 was formed by the Latvian Soviet Infantry Division. The division commander was appointed 44-year-old Joakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis - the son of a Latvian farm laborer, who had managed to make an impressive military career for a man of such origin in the Russian Empire. Having started his service in the 1891 year as a volunteer in the Riga training non-commissioned officer battalion, in 1897, Mr .. Vatsetis graduated from the Vilna Junior Infantry Cadet School, and in 1909 he studied at the Academy of the General Staff. Joachim Vatsetis commanded a company, an educational team, and in 1912, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, he became the commander of the battalion of the 102 infantry regiment of Vyatka. Since the beginning of World War I, Vatsetis participated in battles in Poland, was seriously wounded, and after treatment in the fall of 1915, he was appointed commander of the 5 Zemgale rifle regiment with the rank of colonel. Shortly before the revolutionary events, documents were sent to the Supreme Headquarters to assign Colonel Joachim Vatsetis the rank of major general, but the subsequent political perturbations did not allow the commander of the Zemgale rifle regiment to get general shoulder straps. Vatsetis took over the general position already in the Red Army, becoming the commander of the Latvian infantry Soviet division.

The 9 th Latvian rifle regiment was created to carry out the commandant's service for the protection of the Kremlin, and was involved in the operations of the KGB in the fight against the counter-revolutionary underground and criminals. The Latvian arrows under the command of Vatsetis played a key role in suppressing the Left Socialist-Revolutionary insurrection, participated in hostilities against the White Guards in various regions of Russia.

The effectiveness of the Latvian riflemen and their unconditional devotion to the Soviet power contributed to the further strengthening of trust and sympathy for them from the Bolshevik leadership. Joachim Vatsetis in July 1918 was promoted to commander of the Eastern Front of the Red Army. Latvian arrows fought with Kappel, Denikin, Wrangel. By March, the 1920 was part of the Latvian Soviet rifle division and included 9 Latvian rifle regiments, totaling 17 thousands of soldiers and commanders.

28 November 1920 was decided to disband the Red Banner Latvian Rifle Soviet Division. Most of the Latvian shooters who served in it, numbering about 12 thousands of people, returned to Latvia independent by that time from the Soviet power. However, the main part of the commanding staff of the division remained in Soviet Russia, where many Latvian riflemen made serious careers in military service and in state security agencies.

Joachim Vatsetis reached the rank of commander of 2 rank, although, as a former royal colonel, he was soon sent to teaching. One of the most famous commanders of the Civil War was the former senior non-commissioned officer of the 1 Latvian Infantry Regiment Jan Fabricius (pictured), who then commanded the 17 and 4 rifle corps of the Red Army and then served as assistant to the commander of the Caucasian Red Banner Army (KKA) ). The former warrant officer of the 4-th Vidzeme Latvian rifle regiment Edward Berzin (Berzins) worked with the OGPU from 1921, then headed Dalstroi. The divisional commander, Jan Alksnis, headed the department at the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army. Gustav Bokis, who served in the 7 Latvian Infantry Regiment, rose to the rank of division commander and head of the Red Army Auto Armored Directorate.

The end of the era of the "Latvian riflemen" occurred simultaneously with a large-scale purge of the Soviet power structures from the "Leninist Guard". Already by the beginning of 1930's. immigrants from the Latvian rifle regiments began to gradually move to secondary positions in the army and the state apparatus. The vast majority of prominent Latvian shooters were repressed in 1937-1939. Stalin did not intend to take into account their revolutionary merits — new times were coming in which “Leninist Praetorians” were no longer needed. Someone, of course, was lucky, like, for example, Jan Kalnberzin, who from 1940 to 1959. he was first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Latvian SSR, and he lived to 1986, having died at a very old (92) age.

It should be noted that another part of the Latvian riflemen, who did not remain in Soviet Russia and returned to independent Latvia, later also made a military or political career in bourgeois Latvia. For example, Andrejs Auzans, who returned to 1923 in Latvia, continued to serve as chief of the military topographic department of the Latvian army in the rank of general, and in 1944 he moved to Germany, from where he moved to Great Britain in 1948, where he died in 1953 in the year . General Missins returned to Latvia and from 1919 he served as chief of the general staff of the Latvian army, and then as chief military inspector. Former deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, Janis Goldmanis, to whom the initiative to create Latvian rifle formations belonged, returned to Latvia in the 1918 year and twice, in the 1920-1921 and in 1925-1926, headed the Military Ministry of the Republic of Latvia. Some Latvian riflemen, who returned to Latvia, fought against the Soviet Union during the Second World War as part of the Latvian collaborationist formations of the Third Reich.

In modern Latvia, whose politicians like to talk about the “Soviet occupation” of the republic, for some reason prefer not to remember that part of their national storieswhich is connected with the red Latvian arrows and their huge contribution to the defense of the October Revolution and the victory of the Red Army in the Civil War. Red Latvian arrows, Vatsetis and Fabricius, security officers and party leaders do not fit into the beautiful myth of "democratic European Latvia and the horrors of the Soviet occupation."
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 9 2018 07: 10
    +18
    Latvian red arrows and their enormous contribution to the defense of the October Revolution and the victory of the Red Army in the Civil War
    It is strange that the author did not indicate one of the main crimes of these people: the dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly. It was they who beat and poisoned the Russian people.
    These soldiers are an army of independent owls. Latvia, having received houses in the face, as foreign mercenaries from the Bolsheviks, killed and killed Russian people.
    And then, ..... having removed the red bows and posters, they calmly returned to ... bourgeois Latvia, to the damned capitalists.

    The top remained in the USSR and deservedly received a bullet in the back of the head from "comrades in the struggle."
    It remains only to present their faces before the end: "And us, for what ?!"
    1. apro
      apro April 9 2018 07: 43
      +17
      Quote: Olgovich
      It is strange that the author did not indicate one of the main crimes of these people: the dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly. It was they who beat and poisoned the Russian people.

      Really? Who was interested in this meeting? Would it confirm the land decree? The most important question at that time. And what were these empty bells like? First they destroyed the army and fleet. They dispersed the special services promised Atonomy. They dispersed the inflation. They destroyed the economy. They created the food. crisis and wait until things get better?
      Looking at today's chosen ones. I think those, too, have not gone far. The same balobolki.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 9 2018 09: 10
        +9
        Quote: apro
        Really?

        What is "really"?
        Quote: apro
        and who was interested in this meeting?

        Russia and the Russian people, it represented his interests, unlike any so-called snk and tsikov.
        Quote: apro
        would it confirm the decree of the earth?

        One could also know the history of their homeland: the U.S. adopted the Land Law.
        Quote: apro
        the most important question at that time .and what were are these bells and whistles?

        Popularly elected deputies of the Russian people
        Quote: apro
        ? At first they destroyed the army and the navy. They dispersed the special services, they promised atonomy. They broke up inflation. They crashed the economy. They created a food crisis and wait until things get better?

        Starvation and cannibalism, like the rest of the above, began AFTER the thief. Forgot? yes hi
        1. apro
          apro April 9 2018 09: 35
          +10
          Quote: Olgovich
          One could also know the history of their homeland: the U.S. adopted the Land Law.

          But do not remind him of his position? In general, it is only a project.
          About the popularly elected, it’s not necessary today in the bourgeois Duma they are also sitting the same ... popularly elected ...
          And do not put forward alternative theories. Hunger and devastation is a direct consequence of the civil war organized by purebred noble.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 9 2018 10: 56
            +5
            Quote: apro
            But do not remind him of his position? In general, it is only a project.

            Not a project. Law.
            Quote: apro
            About the popularly elected, it’s not necessary today in the bourgeois Duma they are also sitting the same ... popularly elected ...

            I have to! For another is not given. And it is at times better than the endless lies of the congresses of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
            Quote: apro
            And do not put forward alternative theories. Hunger and devastation is a direct consequence of the civil war organized by purebred noble.

            Before the thief, this was NOT there, as was Gr.
            1. apro
              apro April 9 2018 12: 13
              +8
              What is this law about? Can you explain it? Or again, the red ones all lie?
              Theft is better than purposeful development? No words ...
              And what about the events of 1905? 1907 is that "minor excesses on a household basis?" Or should you list the years of famine in Russia and the revolution? Then there were no liquid Bolsheviks ...
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 9 2018 12: 36
                +4
                Quote: apro
                What is this law about? Can you explain?

                About the earth and in many ways is similar to the decree
                Quote: apro
                Theft is better than purposeful development? No words ...

                What theft and what is "development"? More specific!
                Quote: apro
                And the events of 1905 1907 is that? Small excesses on household soil?

                Not small. But the Constitution of the Republic of Ingushetia was signed, a number of other laws - life NORMALLY walked and developed
                Quote: apro
                or you list the years of famine in Russia and the revolution? Then the Jewish Bolsheviks weren’t.

                Remind me, yes: WHEN in the Republic of Ingushetia there was cannibalism and corpse-eating with many millions of victims, as with the Bolsheviks!
                1. apro
                  apro April 9 2018 13: 02
                  +6
                  Yes, Olgovich ... Fedot and not that one.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich April 9 2018 13: 52
                    +4
                    Quote: apro
                    Yes, Olgovich ... Fedot and not that one.

                    Are you talking about? belay
                2. apro
                  apro April 9 2018 13: 38
                  +3
                  That is, the law on land, the mustache and the decree on land, are identical? And what are the mechanisms of implementation? And you do not know that the land is already divided after the fact in the summer of 1917 ... and the army rushed home for this very share?
                  And rightly so, what is theft. Protecting one's vital interests. Higher prices for deliveries to the army. For example.
                  And development is the emergence of a second center of power in the world that was reckoned with. And which pursued its own interests and placed them above the rest.
                  The Constitution did not solve systemic issues. It did not increase productivity. It did not increase land allotment. It did not lead to the emergence of an industrial economy.
                  It was both this and this. They were the companions of hunger. The systemic problem of low productivity. Capitalist management.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich April 9 2018 14: 15
                    +5
                    Quote: apro
                    That is, the law on land mustache and the decree on land are identical?

                    Not identical
                    Quote: apro
                    and you do not know that the land is already divided in fact in the summer of 1917 ... and the army rushed home for this very share?

                    WHAT SHARED, WHICH land?
                    90% of plowing in the European part and 100% in the Azat part of Russia were already among the peasants! The increase after the division of landowner land amounted to .... 8% percent, that's nothing! Moreover, landless peasants who worked for the landlord for money-did not get ANYTHING. The land was not found, as it came to life. The most cynical deception of the Xeans to support
                    Quote: apro
                    And development is the emergence of a second center of power in the world that was reckoned with. And which pursued its own interests and placed them above the rest.

                    People, so you know, want to eat normally, dress and live with dignity, this is what the Bolsheviks promised them, and right away. And they gave a worse existence than in 1913 for de-decades. They did not promise any "second centers" and they did not interest anyone
                    Quote: apro
                    The institution did not solve systemic issues. It did not increase productivity. It did not increase land allotment. It did not lead to the emergence of industrial enterprises.

                    The constitution gave freedom, unthinkable in the USSR.
                    The yield of 1913 was unattainable in the USSR for another 40 years (except 1937! Do you even know that ?!
                    Industrialization went on in Russia until 1917 at an unprecedented pace, and by 1940 it would have been the same.
                    Quote: apro
                    then satellites of hunger. the systemic problem of low productivity. capital economy. we can’t eat but take out. poor peasants have not eaten.

                    we don’t "eat but take out" the motto of 1931-33, 1946-48, when many MILLIONS died, there was a huge cannibalism, carcass eating, eating fell.
                    This has never happened in Russia, remember this!
                    1. apro
                      apro April 9 2018 14: 49
                      +6
                      In general, Olgovich a statistical guide to help you. Olgovich has something to remember and remember.
                      Russia that some lost. So they could not learn. They live in the astral world.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich April 9 2018 15: 41
                        +5
                        Quote: apro
                        In general, Olgovich a statistical guide to help you. I Olgovich has something to remember and remember. Russia that some lost. So they could not study. They live in the astral world. Invented ..

                        Dear Oleg, FACTS are given to you, many of which you did not even suspect. And you have nothing to object to them.
                        You protect yourself from them, but in vain: it’s impossible to live in a deceitful, prosperous world in which, according to the leaders, EVERYTHING has become “prosperous people” already in the early 1930s, and in this time these "prosperous people" were dying of starvation by millions. I don’t think so, disrespect the history of your country. hi
                    2. Hantengri
                      Hantengri April 9 2018 22: 19
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      90% of plowing in the European part and 100% in the Azat part of Russia were already among the peasants!

                      Indicate the source of the numbers, or again suggest writing off everything on fluctuations in white noise in your cranium?
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich April 10 2018 08: 44
                        +1
                        Quote: HanTengri
                        Indicate the source of the numbers, or again suggest writing off everything on fluctuations in white noise in your cranium?

                        With you, do not communicate, leave me alone.
              2. 4thParasinok
                4thParasinok April 13 2018 12: 36
                +1
                Quote: apro
                And what about the events of 1905? 1907 is that "minor excesses on a household basis?" Or should you list the years of famine in Russia and the revolution? Then there were no liquid Bolsheviks ...

                Here is the answer:
                ... To join the strike, “unconscious” workers were attracted by force, through threats and even beatings, by defeating those industries that refused to go on strike ...
                . They got statements based on propaganda, not real facts.
                1. 4thParasinok
                  4thParasinok April 13 2018 13: 01
                  +1
                  And I’ll add:
                  After the publication of the Tsar’s manifest on October 17, 1905, powerful anti-government demonstrations took place in many cities, with the Jewish population actively participating.

                  In total, from 1901 to 1911, during the course of revolutionary terrorism, about 17 thousand people were killed and wounded (of which 9 thousand were directly during the period of the revolution of 1905-1907). In 1907, an average of 18 people died every day.
      2. svp67
        svp67 April 9 2018 10: 13
        +6
        Quote: apro
        and who was interested in this meeting?

        Country, its political system. The choice of the further path of development was to take place in the PEACEFUL way, precisely on it. And he was dispersed by force. So we got all the charms of the Civil War, which has actually lasted more than a century ...
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 9 2018 11: 01
          +8
          Quote: svp67
          Country, its political system. The choice of the further path of development was to take place in PEACEFUL wayon it. And he was dispersed by force. So we got all the charms of the Civil War, which has actually lasted more than a century

          Right! I’ve been trying to convey this OBVIOUS thought to the opponents all the time: millions of lives and the economy of the country could have been saved!
          And NOBODY did not interfere with the Bolsheviks to convince, to uphold their ideas there, in the CSS. Something would pass, something would soften on the basis of consensus, that is. normal PEACEFUL practice!
          But.... request
          1. svp67
            svp67 April 9 2018 11: 29
            +3
            Quote: Olgovich
            And NOBODY did not interfere with the Bolsheviks to convince, to uphold their ideas there, in the CSS

            They convinced everyone, only with their own, "revolutionary methods", which their opponents do not hesitate to use ... modern opponents.

          2. 4thParasinok
            4thParasinok April 13 2018 12: 53
            0
            Quote: Olgovich
            And NOBODY did not interfere with the Bolsheviks to convince, to uphold their ideas there, in the CSS. Something would pass, something would soften on the basis of consensus, that is. normal PEACEFUL practice!

            they did not know how to convince political opponents with a word, but only with weapons. From childhood, I remember a book about one of the “heroes” of the civilian (the book was published before the 70th year), which openly told how residents of Minsk were outraged by the May Day bombing, and the Bolshevik combatants simply opened fire from their pistols to defeat them. This was before the 1st World War.
            In total, from 1901 to 1911, during the course of revolutionary terrorism, about 17 thousand people were killed and wounded (of which 9 thousand were directly during the period of the revolution of 1905-1907). In 1907, an average of 18 people died every day.
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. GUSAR
        GUSAR April 11 2018 18: 25
        0
        Listen, you would have changed your profile picture, it’s a disease!
    2. avt
      avt April 9 2018 08: 07
      +10
      Quote: Olgovich
      It is strange that the author did not indicate one of the main crimes of these people. It was they who beat and poisoned the Russian people.

      Well, the noble assembly of the Proletarsky district pulled itself up
      We were terrified of excitement
      And with the number on the leg.

      He came running extremely excited
      And the message shocked us
      It turns out not Zheleznyak with ,, the guard is tired ", but the Latvian division arranged
      Quote: Olgovich
      dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly.

      wassat
      Quote: apro
      and who was interested in this meeting?

      Well ,, Olgovich "raving about them incessantly.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 9 2018 09: 17
        +5
        Quote: avt
        It turns out not Zheleznyak with ,, the guard is tired ", but the Latvian division arranged


        Zheleznyak later (a year later) received his bullet for "fatigue" yes I would not be tired, you look, and would live still. wassat
        And the Latvians "guarded" the DC, standing in a cordon: letting through the deputies, they beat and poisoned them.
        Quote: avt
        and who was interested in this meeting?
        Well ,, Olgovich"raving about them incessantly.

        belay Russia "raved" them. Even the bald foreign tourist at first crucified for him
      2. svp67
        svp67 April 9 2018 10: 25
        +5
        Quote: avt
        It turns out not Zheleznyak with ,, the guard is tired ", but the Latvian division arranged

        That's the whole tragedy that we do not know our history well. From it, all the "black pages" from the history of the Bolsheviks have been "extinct" very successfully. The Constituent Assembly had its supporters and there were many of them.
        January 5, 1918 - on the orders of the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks, a peaceful demonstration in defense of the Constituent Assembly was shot in Petrograd.
        Together with the rear units of the Latvian riflemen and the Lithuanian Life Guards regiment, the Bolsheviks surrounded the approaches to the Tauride Palace. Supporters of the Assembly responded with demonstrations of support; according to various sources, from 10 to 100 thousand people participated in the demonstrations. Supporters of the Assembly did not dare to use weapons in defense of their interests; according to Trotsky’s sarcastic expression, they came to the Tauride Palace with candles in case the Bolsheviks turned off the light, and with sandwiches in case they were deprived of food, but they did not bring rifles with them.
        1. BAI
          BAI April 9 2018 11: 36
          +5
          The Constituent Assembly had its supporters and there were many of them.

          So it was not enough. In all revolutions and civil wars, the question of victory is solved simply and unequivocally - the one who is supported by the majority of the population wins. The wider the support, the faster the victory. If the society is split exactly in half - you can fight indefinitely.
          1. svp67
            svp67 April 9 2018 11: 39
            +5
            Quote: BAI
            . In all revolutions and civil wars, the question of victory is solved simply and unequivocally - the one who is supported by the majority of the population wins.

            Our Oktyabrskaya showed that in order to win, especially in a coup, overwhelming support is not needed, but a united, militant party capable of decisive action.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 9 2018 12: 13
            +8
            Quote: BAI
            So it was not enough. In all revolutions and civil wars, the question of victory is solved simply and unequivocally - the one who is supported by the majority wins population.

            belay fool
            Bolsheviks were supported by a MINORITY of the population (see the results of elections to the CSS).
            And then they deceived their voters, promising to work in the CSS. Themselves ....
          3. Weyland
            Weyland April 9 2018 15: 26
            +6
            Quote: BAI
            In all revolutions and civil wars, the question of victory is solved simply and unequivocally - the one who is supported by the majority of the population wins.

            Who told you such nonsense? Most of the population is always inert - all else being equal (when army also split) usually the one supported by the majority wins active part population! In the French Revolution, less than 10% of the population actively participated. and in the American - even less! And if the army is not split ... as Emperor Septimius Severus said: "If the army is on your side, you can [censored] (well, let's say, don't give a damn) to the opinion of everyone else"
          4. 4thParasinok
            4thParasinok April 13 2018 13: 06
            +1
            Quote: BAI
            So it was not enough. In all revolutions and civil wars, the question of victory is solved simply and unequivocally - the one who is supported by the majority of the population wins. The wider the support, the faster the victory. If the society is split exactly in half - you can fight indefinitely.

            So, in your 2014 coup in Kiev, those who made up the majority in the country made it? Well do not carry nonsense ...
    3. Finches
      Finches April 9 2018 14: 50
      +8
      Olgovich, my respect hi But today there is a reason for the squeals of Latvian nationalists to remind them of which city ... they were removed by the Bolsheviks and thanks to whom now there is "independent" Latvia, which today, like their ancestors, yesterday is ready to give in all places for food! laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 10 2018 09: 04
        +2
        Quote: Finches
        from which r ... the Bolsheviks extracted them

        Greetings, Eugene! hi
        WHY removed?
        In RUSSIA, nowhere to get the money?
        In Moldova, it’s bitter to look at dozens of powerful abandoned factories, tens of millions of gold rubles were thrown out, hundreds of thousands of Russian people were torn from their seats! fool
  2. avt
    avt April 9 2018 08: 03
    +5
    On November 28, 1920, it was decided to disband the Red Banner Latvian Rifle Soviet Division. Most of the Latvian riflemen who served in it, numbering about 12 thousand people, returned to Latvia, independent by that time from the Soviet government.
    Oh yeah !? How can this be? Well, if at 21 .11. 1920 in the Latvian division there were 16 314 people? Of these, 48% are ethnic Latvians, that is, over 8000 people, and after merging with 52 divisions, most of them really left. The command staff remained. So where are these 12000? And by the way, there were no more than 65% ethnic Latvians in the division for the entire duration of the Civil War battles. So it was actually an international part, highly motivated ideologically - a fact
    1. sxfRipper
      sxfRipper April 9 2018 09: 20
      +5
      it was actually the international part, highly motivated ideologically
      Very high - The rifle gives rise to power! ©
  3. Opera
    Opera April 9 2018 09: 19
    +12
    Crimes of the Latvian shooters, as well as other ideologically motivated internationalists are widely known! But the motivation of the majority of Latvian mercenaries was not in the victory of the world revolution. but exclusively in profit! This did not prevent them from being so motivated to live calmly later in bourgeois Latvia! He would even say petty - bourgeois! And the bet on Latvians and other foreigners was made by Lenin and Trotsky initially, the latter stated in 1917 that "a number of peoples have accounts for the Russian monarchy and the Russian people and this must be skillfully used in the fight against counter-revolution and other internal enemies." In essence, these were punishers. Of their special feats, one can say about the suppression of the uprising in Moscow in the summer of 1918! Then in Petrograd, Kaluga, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Veliky Novgorod ... You can say about the Latvian - Estonian detachments of the Cheka-OGPU and indeed a large number of Latvian security officers who put things in order in hated Russia! And of course about the exploits of the Baltic internationalists in the formation of the Gulag system! An interesting fact is the return of a large part of these criminals to Latvia after the signing of the peace treaty between Latvia and Russia on 11.08.1920/XNUMX/XNUMX and their warm welcome! How else?! After all, they fought against United and Indivisible Russia! It is clear that this was a real support and the personal protection of non-Russian Bolshevik leaders! Who else can a true internationalist trust in ?! Only another internationalist! Not Russian?!?!
  4. Basil50
    Basil50 April 9 2018 10: 13
    +6
    Wailing about the lack of ideology in RUSSIA is nothing more than a bluff and an outright lie. We now have the ideology of a provisional government, with the frank plunder of state property and the construction of specific principalities, with the transition to * Vlasov’s ideology *, or whatever they pass off as * Vlasov’s ideology *. It seems like a struggle with Bolshevism * for the freedom of a free person *.
    The fact that they are trying to defame the Bolsheviks is just understandable. No one needs successful predecessors. But the misunderstanding that these very liberoid democrats is simply an amazing tool in the hands of strangers and unkind. Moreover, in the year before last, in the past, already in this century, the Anglo-Saxons did not hide their attitude to all these wrestlers for everything good, but after all, there are a paradox and some wrestlers serve for such a small fraction that they pass themselves off as * ideological *.
    1. Opera
      Opera April 9 2018 10: 30
      +6
      Dmitry, do you consider other options for the development of Russia than you consider the Bolshevik and liberal? Just do not see?
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 April 9 2018 11: 03
      +11
      The idiocy of what is happening is simply amazing. I had to face the terry Middle Ages, and in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE there were not only castes, but hunger was at intervals of three to five years. True, they fought hunger in newspapers and public meetings, calling hunger a malady.
      The fact that in RUSSIA for three hundred years people were trafficked and it was they who were the basis of the wealth of fools from permissiveness none of the libroids apparently really cares. The only thing that worries is that the church and the nobles and the nobleman were torn from the feeder and FORCED to serve the FATHERLAND.
      The fact that the nobles went to serve the FATHERLAND is not surprising, nor is it surprising that the footmen and others from the servant went to the interventionists and for maintenance to foreigners.
      However, as today.
      1. Opera
        Opera April 9 2018 13: 16
        +7
        I’m not going to argue with you about the Russian Empire! And I do not consider the Russian Empire to be a paradise since paradise on earth is not foreseen at all after the fall naturally. Equally, I can’t consider tsarist Russia a prison of nations! Just because it's a lie! I am very sorry that you have such a derogatory opinion about the history of your country! If this is of course your country? It is a pity that you speak with contempt not only about the country but also about the Russian people! How else can you read what you wrote ?! You just impoverish your life and that’s it! It’s one thing when a person has a great history of the country of which he is a particle! The history is difficult and glorious with defeats and victories with heroes, martyrs and saints! Another thing is when a person has darkness, lackeys, castes ... Horror! There is an order established by God in this world! Although, what am I explaining to you? You deigned to speak derogatoryly about the church! Let me tell you a better joke!) In a Soviet school, a teacher explains to first-graders - there is no God! He is not here! All this is fiction! It is only in backward tsarist Russia that they believed in God! Well, let's all together - God doesn’t! Well done! Now fold your fingers with your fig and raise your hand up! Little Johnny, are you not showing this to God?!?! Little Johnny - well, if it’s not there, what the hell ?! And if so, why spoil the relationship?!?!
        And yet, please do not consider all non-Bolshevik supporters liberals! For me, these are generally very close concepts and equally harmful for Russia!
  5. Des10
    Des10 April 9 2018 12: 45
    +2
    There must always be people who do not betray.
    1. 4thParasinok
      4thParasinok April 13 2018 13: 16
      +1
      Quote: Des10
      There must always be people who do not betray.

      and what will you do when your money runs out? You sincerely believe that in this case, the mercenaries will not cut your throat for anything else to fuck you, the clothes of the former owner can be handed over as well.
      1. Des10
        Des10 April 13 2018 19: 02
        0
        and what about my money here:
        Quote: 4-th Paradise
        There must always be people who do not betray.
        there is? laughing
        1. 4thParasinok
          4thParasinok April 13 2018 20: 45
          0
          The conversation is about Latvians. If something else has arisen in your head, then talk about what exactly, and do not create the appearance of an incomprehensible genius. From the outside it looks very alarming ...
  6. tegezen
    tegezen April 9 2018 15: 25
    +5
    In the book of Kaganovich Kagan Stewart’s nephew, “The Kremlin Wolf”, there is such that 300 people, mostly Jews who arrived with Trotsky on a parachute from New York, were also presented as “Latvian arrows”, because they spoke little Russian, because like Latvians internationalists. Of these, there was the shock and command skeleton of the Bolshevik fighters. He rode with Trotsky to raise the loot and exterminated the Russians without pity. So in many ways a collective image for the "internationalist fighters" from around the world.
    1. captain
      captain April 9 2018 20: 02
      +5
      Quote: tegezen
      In the book of Kaganovich Kagan Stewart’s nephew, “The Kremlin Wolf”, there is such that 300 people, mostly Jews who arrived with Trotsky on a parachute from New York, were also presented as “Latvian arrows”, because they spoke little Russian, because like Latvians internationalists. Of these, there was the shock and command skeleton of the Bolshevik fighters. He rode with Trotsky to raise the loot and exterminated the Russians without pity. So in many ways a collective image for the "internationalist fighters" from around the world.

      Victor, why are you talking about the peasant Trotsky and the miner Lenin? Lenin in general, according to the Bolsheviks, from a family of miners. There wasn’t any sealed car. Lenin, having the skills of a miner, broke through the course to Finlanidia, and Krupskaya drove the earth into the underground in wheelbarrows.
      Dear Victor, you are trying in vain to convince the representatives of the Marxist-Leninist Guard in some way. These are Russophobes. These people fiercely hate Russians and the history of Russia. For them, Russia began in October 1917. For them there is no homeland with a history up to 1917. For them, the Russian people are barbarians whom the Bolsheviks tried to train, but did not work out.
    2. kan123
      kan123 April 9 2018 20: 06
      +2
      You are talking nonsense. You need to understand what the Baltic states were like Finland, and Polyakia, and Germany — these are all farm laborers. The whole army was there - the Communists, because you have a choice - to be hunched over by a Latvian (German) burgher, to work at a Polansky pan - but they will call you into the army, give you a rifle, you can easily change that.
  7. Weyland
    Weyland April 9 2018 15: 31
    +9
    EMNIP, from 2200 the Latvian riflemen who returned to Latvia in the 20s, there were 1900 communists. 1941m around 1800 of these Latvian shooters entered the "Latvian SS Legion" - and all without exception Legionnaires awarded the Iron Cross were former "Leninist shooters"! So that their motivation in both cases was the same: to slaughter the peaceful Russian population! "The enemy was numerous, but unarmed - these two constantly acting factors made victory impressive and inevitable."
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit April 9 2018 17: 25
      +5
      Where did you get this information? At least some source.
      The Legion began to form in the year 43. Those who fought in the Civil were from 45 years old and above. So do not mislead people, to say the least.
      1. Weyland
        Weyland April 9 2018 18: 05
        +2
        Quote: Moskovit
        Those who fought in the Civil were from 45 years old and above.

        So what? At this age did not take into the army? My grandfather (born in 1895) fought in the WWII, in the Civil, and in the Patriotic!
        Source - EMNIP, somewhere on the same site, but I don’t remember exactly
        1. Moskovit
          Moskovit April 9 2018 19: 13
          +7
          You at least read how the creation of this Latvian legion was going on, about mobilization, about draft dodgers. There were so many who wanted that a forced mobilization was carried out and execution for evasion was introduced.
          Your grandfather is a unique person. Not so many. And you recorded in fascist volunteers almost all the shooters. Just to live to these years it is necessary, and even burdened with children with grandchildren, to go to war.
          In 1941 there was no legion of ss. After Stalingrad, when they began to burn, they decided.
          All the same, try to operate on facts, otherwise it turns out ugly.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 9 2018 22: 50
            +1
            Quote: Moskovit
            And you recorded in fascist volunteers almost all the shooters.

            Not "almost all shooters", but almost all shooters who returned to Latvia in the 20s! There is a difference?
            1. Moskovit
              Moskovit April 10 2018 03: 19
              +2
              I meant them. I will not say that I know the history of the Latvian ss well, but I did not hear what the former ringleaders ruled there.
              All Latvians sympathetic or somehow connected with the Soviet regime were cleared in 41 after the swift capture of the Baltic states. All the main "heroes" of the Latvian SS did not have a red past. Iris, Tsukurs, Tselminsh ..
          2. Paranoid50
            Paranoid50 April 9 2018 23: 30
            +4
            Quote: Moskovit
            In 1941 there was no legion of ss.

            Quite right, there was no Latvian legion. There was a Latvian battalion as part of the mixed SS legion (Norgians, Estonians, Latvians), they were neighbors with the Dutch legion and the Flanders legion on the southwestern outskirts of Leningrad, periodically moving along the front line in rotation. Here is the situation on 9.10.1942/XNUMX/XNUMX.
            1. Moskovit
              Moskovit April 10 2018 03: 24
              +3
              Since 42 years, Latvians in the police battalions have been engaged in bloody activities to destroy the population of the former USSR. Having previously cleared its Latvia of Jews, Communists, and their sympathizers. On the basis of these battalions 15 and 19 SS divisions were created. But in my opinion, the former red Latvian arrows could not play any role there, although there could be exceptions. All the same, they were "slurred" in communist activity. And Latvia is a small country. They all remember and know.
              1. 4thParasinok
                4thParasinok April 13 2018 12: 44
                0
                Quote: Moskovit
                All the same, they were "slurred" in communist activity.

                they messed up in the destruction of Russian, which means they were national heroes ...
  8. Hantengri
    Hantengri April 9 2018 19: 31
    +6
    Olgovich,
    Quote: Olgovich
    Dear Oleg, FACTS are given to you, many of which you did not even suspect. And you have nothing to object to them.

    Olgovich, are you really sure that the use of "Caps Lock" is a good substitute for a link to a source of "FACTS"? Can you go to the doctor? To undergo a course of treatment (well, there, "In the morning kefir, in the evening klystir ..." (c) "Shmatitsa")? laughing Mozh will feel better. Cockroaches in the head calm down, stop thinking and sobriety, again, overshadow you ... yes
  9. kan123
    kan123 April 9 2018 19: 55
    +3
    First, the Bolsheviks signed the “freedom of the Baltic states” with their “eternal pain of the Baltic states” - therefore they fought against the whites, who did not give them anything. Secondly, the only - assembled units - Lenin, that he understood correctly about the army - that it must be "rebooted". The Russian army was a disbanded army, still Kerensky - even where they stood, did not scatter, there was no power there. As a result, it turned out that there was no Russian army — there were assembled combat units — Latvians, Khokhlov, Czechoslovakians — the Russian army had to be reloaded and re-assembled into what was called the Red Army. To create an officer corps for them, to give them weapons, to finally come up with a form for them. While this tramp went on, they were driving the "national" units. It’s only a mistake to think that the Latvian arrows were the main ones there - Lenin wrote that the force that the Council of the Republics defended was the Ukrainians — the Khokhlyat units, obviously, because of their number, in comparison with the Latvians — who worked well, but they were few . Lenin wrote that by the year 18, if it weren’t for the Ukrainians — if I had to go to this Switzerland again — the Latvians would work under the closest guard as elite units. The headquarters of Lev Davydych was surrounded by Latvians - they were sent as an elite, where there were great difficulties. But, again, there were too few of them - Ukrainians made all the weather while they were creating the Red Army. Russian army, again.
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene April 9 2018 23: 54
      +1
      Quote: kan123
      Lenin wrote that the force that the Council of the Republics defended was the Ukrainians — the Ukrainians — apparently because of their large numbers, in comparison with the Latvians — who worked well, but they were few. Lenin wrote that by the year 18, if not for the Ukrainians, we would have to go to this Switzerland again

      Dear cap-one-two-three, why write such nonsense? In the lexicon V.I. Lenin didn’t mention the word "Ukrainians" and the phrase "Ukrainians".
      1. 4thParasinok
        4thParasinok April 13 2018 13: 46
        0
        Quote: Alexander Green
        Dear cap-one-two-three, why write such nonsense? In the lexicon V.I. Lenin didn’t mention the word "Ukrainians" and the phrase "Ukrainians".

        Well, yes, there was the term "Ukrainian units." But at the expense of nonsense, there is none here. As an example-
        The threatening situation in which the whites found themselves was intensified by the uprising of the Ukrainian smoker named after Taras Shevchenko, which was joined by four more regiments and the jaeger battalion, which became the main factor determining the breakthrough of the front by the Reds.
        Yes, this is not 18, but the 19th, but it does not change the essence.
  10. Poppy
    Poppy April 10 2018 12: 49
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly.

    Would you learn a story or something. The constituent assembly no longer made sense - after the Bolsheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries left it, it did not have a quorum - a banal talking room. Yes, and no one dispersed him, but they gathered the next day - battered, but dispersed
    1. 4thParasinok
      4thParasinok April 13 2018 14: 02
      0
      Quote: Poppy
      Would you learn a story or something. The constituent assembly no longer made sense - after the Bolsheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries left it, it did not have a quorum - a banal talking room.

      The Socialist-Revolutionaries did not go anywhere, only a part left. The Bolsheviks made up only 38% of those present at the 1st meeting, but in general they had only 159 out of 707 seats, and the Social Revolutionaries had 279. What kind of CSS quorum is there?
  11. adena
    adena April 11 2018 19: 23
    +1
    Do not look for the executioner, look for the Latvian.
  12. 4thParasinok
    4thParasinok April 13 2018 12: 42
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    With you, do not communicate, leave me alone.

    straight "leave nasty" ... laughing