Military Review

Bombers Yakovlev. Yak-2 and Yak-4

97



Indeed, as shown by personal interviews, 99,9% of people associate the name of the designer Yakovlev exclusively with fighter jets.

That's the way it is, and the Yak-9 really needs to be considered the air symbol of Victory on a par with the T-34. But today I would like to talk about Yakovlev Yak-2 and Yak-4 bombers. They deserve it, because the cars came out extraordinary, and if it were not for the war, their fate could have been completely different.

But - in order.

Of course, let's start with the associations of that time. Yakovlev is something beautiful and light. Yes, indeed, Yakovlev's planes differed in some charm, and since the designer worked mainly on small planes, then God himself ordered to be light and fast.

Bombers Yakovlev. Yak-2 and Yak-4


Well, the gift of the designer Yakovlev had a place to be.

It is worth saying a few words about the era itself. The airplane of the First World War finally turned into a plane and “got on the wing”. And, if we talk about dates, then at the turn of 35-36 the monoplane scheme finally took over the biplanes.

Airplanes grew faster, flew higher, raised more and more. There were new ideas for the development of aircraft, beyond the usual fighter, bomber and reconnaissance concepts.

One of the ideas of that time was the concept of a certain universal multi-purpose aircraft, for which in the future the possibility of “working” in different directions was considered. The fact that this aircraft would have to perform the functions as a fighter escort bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, light bomber or attack aircraft, determined the twin-engine scheme and crew in the 2-3 man.

And before World War II, quite a large number of such aircraft appeared in different countries. Potez 630 and Brege 691 in France, Messerschmitt Bf110 and Focke-Wulf FW189 in Germany, PZL P-38 Wilk in Poland, Fokker G1 in Holland and Lockheed P-38D Lightning in USA.


"Messerschmitt Bf110"



"Fokker G1"



Lockheed P-38D Lightning



"Potez 630"



PZL P-38 "Wilk"


The Soviet Union did not become an exception; moreover, developments in this area have been conducted since the beginning of the 30s. Two-engine multipurpose fighters MI-3 and DIP designed by A. N. Tupolev were designed and built.


ANT-21



DIP-1


The WIT-1 aircraft and then the WIT-2 aircraft were developed at the N. N. Polikarpov Design Bureau.





In Yakovlev Design Bureau quite fruitfully engaged in light-motor aviation. And the very idea of ​​working on a twin-engine aircraft was very bold, given the fact that the draft training twin-engine UT-3 failed.

The author of the idea to create a twin-engine multipurpose aircraft is Leon Shechter.

Leon Mikhailovich approached the question in a very original way. He believed that the aircraft could achieve maximum efficiency while obtaining the highest flight speed, which the minimum dimensions of the aircraft and two powerful engines should have ensured.

Powerful engines are M-103 rated at 960 l. with. Well, what to do, we had problems with aircraft engines at that time.

However, the educational and sports approach, as it turned out, can bring success. With a flight mass of 4000 kg, the unit load on the power turned out to be extremely low - only 2,05 kg / hp. Design data.

For comparison: the I-16 type 24 - 2,09 kg / hp., And the "Messerschmitt" Bf 109E-3 - 2,44 kg / hp.

In order to maximally facilitate the construction, the fuselage was made of steel pipes, and the wing was wooden and one-piece. That is, nothing new for the Yakovlev Design Bureau.



The car came out very streamlined and with good aerodynamics. Much has been done to reduce air resistance. The engine cooling radiators were moved to the back of the engine nacelles. The cockpit of the navigator / observer / gunner was inscribed in the contour of the fuselage.

This somewhat complicated the firing of a machine gun that protects the tail, since for firing it was necessary to lower the front part of the gargrot and open the lantern.

But due to good aerodynamics, the Design Bureau planned to get the maximum speed of about 600 km / h. For the end of 30's, this is an achievement. The stock of fuel in the two fuselage tanks should have been enough for 800 km.

Speed ​​was considered more important than machine guns, and, in principle, for good reason. British Mosquito terrorizing Germany at the end of the war, in general weapons not carried.

The priorities in the development of the aircraft were as follows:

1. Fighter (necessarily with gun armament).
2. Scout.
3. High-speed bomber.



Initially, the fighter’s weapons consisted of a ShVAK cannon and a ShKAS machine gun. But already in the course of the work of the fighter, it was decided to strengthen. Two ShVAK cannons were placed in the ventral fairing, a ShKAS machine gun in the nose fairing and two ShKAS machine guns in the engine cylinder camber, firing through the hubs of the screws.



The crew of the fighter reduced to one pilot.

On the scout they planned to mount the AFA-19 camera and the Dvina radio station. In the rear cockpit, a special “bedding” was provided with a porthole in the floor for visual observation.

The reconnaissance armament was supposed to include 8 aerial bombs weighing 20 kg or light bombs in the fuselage bomb bay, one mobile and one fixed (in the nose of the fuselage) ShKAS machine guns.

The armament of the bomber was also provided for very light. The same two ShKAS with ammunition in 1000 cartridges as on the scout.

The bomber was notable for the lack of photographic and radio equipment and a reduced fuel reserve. Due to this, he was able to carry six 100-kg high-explosive bombs.

Initially, in all three versions, the car was designed double with the location of the navigator-gunner in a separate cabin in the middle part of the fuselage.



An increase in the flight range and armament naturally led to an increase in the flight weight of the aircraft by a whole ton (up to 5000 kg, empty mass - 3700 kg).

We had to slightly increase the area (up to 29,4 sq. M.) And the wingspan (up to 14 m), but the specific load on it increased and became excessive in terms of then-170 kg / sq. m. It was not for nothing that the pilots subsequently noted that with the engines turned off, “the machine plans a stone.”

Already in the first flights, the car reached the speed of the instrument over 500 km / h - more than most fighters of that time. But the defects were above the roof. Oil overheated, water temperature exceeded permissible limits, tanks and gas pipelines flowed.

But over time, malfunctions were eliminated. And when, during the test flight, Yakovlev YVL’s chief pilot Yulian Piontkovsky showed a staggering speed in 572 km / h, everyone understood that the car was a success.

Even taking into account amendments and errors, the aircraft overtook the SB (high-speed bomber!) By more than a hundred kilometers per hour, and it’s no secret that many single-engine fighters of that time would have been very difficult to catch up with the “22”.

JV Stalin became aware of the successful and interesting aircraft. The aircraft took part in the 1939 May Day air show.

During state tests, which began on 29 in May on 1939, the overheating of the engines, the unsatisfactory performance of the brakes, the hydraulic system and other aircraft components appeared again.

In general, the all-in-one concept began to crackle. Military experts attempted to form such a system of requirements so that an airplane could be obtained that could replace the SS. But №22 was much smaller than the SB ... The leapfrog started: moving the navigator’s cabin forward, so as not to mount the SPU, the bomb compartment shifted back, the transfer of gas tanks caused a decrease in the flight range ...

And here the NCAP Commission made a huge mistake, in my opinion.

If the commission had decided the fate of №22 in the form of a scout, all this nightmare wouldn’t have been necessary. The Scout did not require these transfers. But the Red Army Air Force did not need scouts and spotters. Unfortunately.

Moreover, reconnaissance determined pilots from fighter and bomber aircraft from among those poorly mastered piloting techniques and the like.

The material part of the intelligence of the Red Army Air Force consisted of, to put it mildly, veterans Р-5, Р-Z, Р-10 and СБ (at best). No wonder the People's Commissar for Defense Voroshilov, speaking at a party congress, said that reconnaissance aircraft had halved.

But when commanders of all levels after 22.06.1941 urgently needed "eyes" behind the front line or around their units, everything fell into place. The already weak and few reconnaissance aircraft actually ceased to exist.

Best illustration: “Sky of War” by Pokryshkin and his story about how he was looking for German on a MiG-3 high-altitude fighter on a low-flying flight Tanks.

But back to #22. In March, 1940, the aircraft received the name BB-22 (short-range bomber) and went into a series.



Serial production was carried out by the plant number 1 named after Aviakhim, one of the most powerful in the country. Surprisingly, the assembly of the aircraft was so disgusting that the maximum speed at an altitude of 5000 m dropped to 515 km / h. Numerous slots around the hatches, between the hoods, landing plates and the wing spoiled the aerodynamics of the aircraft. Fastening of plywood to the frame was carried out on screws with washers without subsequent finishing, while the test aircraft was putty, embroidered and polished after dyeing. The serial car had the color of natural plywood and duralumin, because before testing it was not painted at all!

It is difficult to say what caused this attitude, “zabronzovevshy” (in those years?) Plant director P. A. Voronin, or a small order of the first series in the 242 aircraft. But the plane began complaints and complaints.

It is difficult to understand why the management of the plant number 1 (Director P.A. Voronin) so disinterestedly reacted to the car of Yakovlev, who in January 1940 became Deputy Commissar of the aviation industry for experimental aircraft construction. Perhaps it is too accustomed to a quiet life, adjusting the large-scale production of fighters And-15, and later And-153. Probably, the plant was busy preparing for the production of the newest fighter I-200 (MiG-1). Perhaps the reason was the tiny order volume for the plant - the entire 242 machine. Be that as it may, as the serial construction of the flight data of the BB-22 not only did not improve, but became worse and worse.

Yakovlev himself by that time already had neither the time nor, obviously, the desire to deal with the fate of the BB-22. He was completely absorbed in the work on the I-26 (future Yak-1) and his pairing UTI-26. Plus, the duties of the NCAP deputy secretary.



LTH:

Modification: Yak-2
Wingspan, m: 14,00
Length, m: 9,34
Wing area, м2: 29,40
Weight, kg
—An empty plane: 4000
—Normal takeoff: 5380
Engine type: 2 x M-103
—Power, hp: 2 x 960
Maximum speed km / h: 515
Practical range, km: 800
Rate of climb, m / min: 650
Practical ceiling, m: 8900
Crew: 2
Armament: 2 x 7,62-mm ShKAS machine gun, up to 900 kg bombs.

The plan for the 1941 year included the construction of the 1300 bomber BB-22bis. In December, the aircraft with the M-103 engines were renamed the Yak-2, and with the M-105 engines - the Yak-4.



This did not affect the overall release of the aircraft. Quite the contrary - by 31 on January 1941, Plant No. 81 passed 50 Yak-4, of which only three flew. The planes were never brought to a combat-ready state, which in no way pleased the military. The situation was complicated, especially considering the fact that in the comparative tests of PB-100, Yak-2 and Yak-4, the Petlyakov bomber (the future Pe-2) exceeded Yakovlev’s cars in almost all indicators.

By government decree from 13 in February 1941, the construction of the Yak-4 aircraft was stopped. The overall release of the Yak-2 was 111 aircraft (all built 1940 of the year), the Yak-4 released a little less - 90 (27 machines in 1940 year and 63 - in 1941-m). 198 airplanes, some of which were used for testing, got into combat units.

Some managed to make war.



136-th BBO first began the development of the Yak-2. The regiment entered the war with 49 Yak-2, four Yak-4 and 36 trained crews. The hottest days were the first days of the war — the bombers were actively involved in bombing German forces in the South-Western Front and suffered heavy losses.



On 16 July, the regiment still had six Yak-2 and 16 crews. Until that time, the Soviet pilots had also distinguished themselves, knocking down five German fighters and destroying dozens of tanks and armored vehicles, but the days of the 136-th BBAP were numbered.

314 (31 aircraft and 20 crews) and 316 (19 Yak-2, 34 Yak-4, 6 trained crews) RAPs used their aircraft as bombers and as reconnaissance aircraft.

Several aircraft were in service with the 3-th RAP deployed near Baranavichy. From this amount by the end of July, no more than 17 airplanes remained. 316-th RAP quickly brought to the re-formation, arming with another type of scout.

The 314 th regiment flew on the Yak-4 for much longer - by taking on 1941 in August of an additional 18 of modified bomber, the pilots fought on them until early September.

It is reliably known that 30, the commander of the 207 of the DPAB, Lieutenant-Colonel V. G. Titov, lost almost half of his DB-3 in heavy fighting, requisitioned nine Yak-4 airplanes destined for the 314 of the RAP in the Borovsk aerodrome.

Among the last units operating the Yak-2 and Yak-4 are the 24th Red Banner BAP and the 118th RPA of the Northern Air Force Fleet.

Severomorsk fly on their Yak-4 until the year 1945. The rest of the “Yaks” either fell into the hands of the Germans during the retreat (mostly out of whack) or were used as false targets.

What can be said in the end?

Interesting car. The Yak-2 could become that very “eye in the heavens” for our troops, as did the “Focke-Wulf 187” for the Germans. We lacked aerial reconnaissance, especially in the first half of the war.

And here brought to the mind the Yak-4 could play a role. It is a pity, but it did not happen. It is difficult to say what was to blame, but probably in the complex. And the assembly, and a huge number of childhood diseases, solved, but still. And employment Yakovlev.

No, of course, the Yak-7, Yak-9 and Yak-3 were worth it. And it is wonderful that Petlyakov brought the "weave" to the heavens. However, it is a pity that the scouts and bombers of Yakovlev remained in stories as not implemented or not completed cars.

Sources:
http://www.aviarmor.net/aww2/aircraft/ussr/yak-2.htm
http://авиару.рф/aviamuseum/aviatsiya/sssr/bombardirovshhiki-2/bombard-1920-e-1940-e-gody/blizhnij-bombardirovshhik-yak-2-bb-22/
https://military.wikireading.ru/62425
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97 comments
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  1. Vard
    Vard April 7 2018 06: 33
    +2
    A good car ... What a series, of course, was not a pity ... But it contributed ... How is it ... And experience ... The son of difficult mistakes ...
    1. KERMET
      KERMET April 7 2018 12: 45
      +9
      To make a bomber out of an extremely shrunken record aircraft, (this is the aircraft that did not have reserves) is not a very good idea, as a result, the lost money and resources of the state and the headache of staff
      1. dauria
        dauria April 8 2018 01: 44
        0
        the author did not in vain mention "Mosi" - the famous English intelligence officer De Havilland Mosquito. Plywood, without weapons and arrow. And a speed of 630 km / h. More than Spitfire. Pe-2s picked up this idea in the Pe-2I version, but did not hold out.
        By the way, the “mosquito” turned out to be a mediocre bomber on the battlefield, but the leader of the groups of heavy high-altitude bombers is that. And as a scout, it’s simply amazing. I think the Yak-4 simply did not find the time and money. As well as on the Tu-2 at the beginning of the war. There was a ready Pe-2, it all decided.
    2. Kibb
      Kibb April 12 2018 20: 42
      +2
      What specifically is good and did not go into the series? In the series went, the car was not good
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 7 2018 06: 43
    +3
    I always liked the BB-22 for its grace and nominal characteristics, but it didn’t work out. It was something to fight, not only that plane rested in the Bose, I-180,185 also didn’t reach the series, Tu-2 mocked until 1943, Su-6 didn’t lucky!
  3. Amurets
    Amurets April 7 2018 07: 08
    +6
    Interesting car. The Yak-2 could become that very “eye in the heavens” for our troops, as did the “Focke-Wulf 187” for the Germans. We lacked aerial reconnaissance, especially in the first half of the war.
    And here brought to the mind the Yak-4 could play a role. It is a pity, but it did not happen. It is difficult to say what was to blame, but probably in the complex. And the assembly, and a huge number of childhood diseases, solved, but still. And employment Yakovlev.
    Yakovlev himself wrote about this aircraft as follows: “Before the war, our design bureau developed a very fast twin-engine reconnaissance aircraft YAK-4 with high aerodynamics and beautiful streamlined shapes. It was equipped with two engines designed by Klimov. This car, built almost entirely of wood having the same engines as the SB bomber, it had a greater speed of almost 150 kilometers per hour.This circumstance tempted us to turn the scout into a close bomber. However, the machine launched into serial production as a close bomber did not live up to expectations. small arms on a standard mobile installation, with a bulky protective shield for the shooter, and this worsened the aerodynamics, made the car heavier. The attempt failed, and in the end it had to be abandoned. The Yak-4 was almost unable to participate in the war: by this time the metal bomber Petlyakov PE-2, which was launched in mass production instead of my car. "
  4. Strashila
    Strashila April 7 2018 08: 18
    +2
    If you look closely at that era, a lot hasn’t gone into the series and the reason is simple, the engines ... they either didn’t go into the series, as a result of which the new machine lost all its advantages and production wasn’t produced ... or they were released little and the choice was made that to produce with them at that moment in time. Yes, and the personnel issue, it took time to solve it ... and it wasn’t necessary to retrain the crews ... the stake was on the affordable.
  5. Severok
    Severok April 7 2018 09: 26
    +19
    The eternal problem of Russia of all ages is medium-power motors and motors for small aircraft. The same is in the automotive industry - skeletons M 21 (ZMZ 40210) and YaMZ 236 are still used, of which ZMZ 406, UMZ 409 and in-line Yaroslavl diesel engines have grown. New buildings motor industry in Russia is far from shining. We are extremely far behind in the school of design and in technology in all industries. Forgotten the skills of unification, the competent use of materials, conducting resource tests and refinement. The continuity in the system of education and training of personnel for industry has been lost ...

    Everything is extremely depressing for the lack of desire of the authorities to improve the situation within the country.

    I have the honor.
    1. K.A.S.
      K.A.S. April 7 2018 14: 02
      +4
      Quote: Severok
      Everything is extremely depressing for the lack of desire of the authorities to improve the situation within the country.

      You want to say what engines man and whether Tayota or Rollsroys do under the leadership of the authorities of Germany and England and Japan? Or maybe they do it somehow? And if they fail, they will go bankrupt and governments will not help!
      Engine building is a problem of Russia of all time! And I think it’s not the government’s business, but the general technical upholding! Russia Late in Kapgonka and Industrial Revolution
      Continuity was broken after the revolution when competent and smart people left to develop foreign countries, for example (Colonel Ipatiev) and often upstarts without education came in their place! Ended up with the purchase of licenses for the production of engines !!! and they were selling us an outdated model. most of our engines are of western origin !!!
    2. Alf
      Alf April 7 2018 17: 13
      +5
      Quote: Severok
      Everything is extremely depressing for the lack of desire of the authorities to improve the situation within the country.

      How dare you raise your voice against the Wisest? You are not a patriot of Russia! laughing
    3. not main
      not main April 7 2018 23: 29
      +4
      Quote: Severok
      The eternal problem of Russia of all ages is medium-power motors and motors for small aircraft. The same is in the automotive industry - skeletons M 21 (ZMZ 40210) and YaMZ 236 are still used, of which ZMZ 406, UMZ 409 and in-line Yaroslavl diesel engines have grown. New buildings motor industry in Russia is far from shining. We are extremely far behind in the school of design and in technology in all industries. Forgotten the skills of unification, the competent use of materials, conducting resource tests and refinement. The continuity in the system of education and training of personnel for industry has been lost ...

      Everything is extremely depressing for the lack of desire of the authorities to improve the situation within the country.

      I have the honor.

      Are you talking about that? About ZMZ-21 and the subsequent agree. But ZMZ-405 (406 and 409) is a completely different version and have nothing to do with the 402 series! And UMP has never produced engines of the 405, 406, 409 series! The top of the UMP was 4216, 4217, which in principle is a deep modernization of the ZMZ-21!
  6. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx April 7 2018 09: 30
    +17
    Yak-9 really needs to be considered an air symbol of Victory along with the T-34
    from which hangover the author came up with this metaphor: it’s never understood. Just to make a pleasant Yakovlev- designer? For me, this character is primarily an official-apparatchik and protectionist of his beloved, carefully trying to maintain the image of a "young and brilliant designer", and then the "designer" of airplanes. The king of fighters once and for all - Polikarpov N.N., and Yakovlev - the king of spiders in the bank.
    And the airy symbol of victory along with the T-34 is Il-2!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 7 2018 09: 58
      +6
      Quote: Fil743
      For me, this character is primarily an official-apparatchik and protectionist of his beloved, carefully trying to maintain the image of a "young and ingenious designer"

      Well, you can agree and disagree.
      From January 11, 1940 to 1946, he was simultaneously the Deputy People’s Commissar of the Aviation Industry for new technology, and from March 1946, the Deputy Minister of Aviation Industry (for general issues). In July 1946, he left the post of deputy minister of his own free will: This is the time when he was an official. And the rest; he is the head of the design bureau, who must take care of the company he manages, and if he does not provide the company with orders, workers and engineers, earnings, a workshop and a laboratory with new equipment, then he is worthless as a manager. And Yakovlev was not the only one. In the same way, other chief and general designers fought for orders and factories. Sukhoi and Yakovlev for the Novosibirsk plant with the production of Su-9 and Yak-25-Yak-28. Or remember the history of the Sukhoi T-4, here in the failure of the project Tupolev’s “very big help”.
      https://topwar.ru/840-ubijca-avianoscev-tragiches
      kaya-istoriya-sotki-t-4.html
    2. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 10: 19
      +1
      Quote: Fil743
      The king of fighters once and for all - Polikarpov N.N., and Yakovlev - the king of spiders in the bank.
      And the airy symbol of victory along with the T-34 is Il-2!

      As for Yakovlev, this is still mildly said. By the way, the Yak-2, 4 were not accepted into service. The planes were flawed. And their production was simply not an efficient expenditure of state resources.
      Yakovlev's protectionism of his aircraft to the detriment of Polikarpov (and as a result to the detriment of the Red Army Air Force) had even more serious consequences.
      As for the IL-2, not everything is so simple. For example, until 1943, besides IL-2, also Su-2 and I-16 were used as attack aircraft. So both of these aircraft had significantly better survival - 3-5 times more number of sorties per one loss.
      1. Alf
        Alf April 7 2018 15: 51
        +4
        Quote: Captain Pushkin
        I-16. So both of these aircraft had significantly better survival - 3-5 times more number of sorties per one loss.

        And the performance? How many rockets and bombs did Ishak carry?
        1. Captain Pushkin
          Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 16: 50
          +3
          Quote: Alf
          Quote: Captain Pushkin
          I-16. So both of these aircraft had significantly better survival - 3-5 times more number of sorties per one loss.

          And the performance? How many rockets and bombs did Ishak carry?

          You will be surprised, IL-2 and I-16 carried up to 400 kg of bombs.
          For example, in 1941, the strategic Chernavodsky bridge in Romania was repeatedly unsuccessfully bombed by SB and DB-3. And it was destroyed only after two I-16 raids, bombing from a dive. In the second raid, six aircraft achieved 5 direct hits on the bridge and left without losses.
          1. Alf
            Alf April 7 2018 17: 10
            0
            Quote: Captain Pushkin
            You will be surprised, IL-2 and I-16 carried up to 400 kg of bombs.

            In the summer of 1940, in the repair shops of the Navy Air Force, two Type 24 aircraft were equipped with bomb racks by designer Orlov. Aircraft took 10 bombs of 15 kg or one 100 kilogram bomb. Installations were tested in the 62nd Air Brigade of the Air Force of the Black Sea Fleet.


            I-16 type 29 with six underwing RS-82 and two FAB-100 bombs (could be installed instead of outboard gas tanks)

            I-16 type 29 with six underwing RS-82 and two FAB-100 bombs (could be installed instead of outboard gas tanks)

            On the latest serial modifications of the I-16, suspended gas tanks could be replaced with two FAB-100 bombs (gas tanks were suspended on standard bomb holders).

            The heaviest bomb that the I-16 could carry was the FAB-250. Two of these bombs hung under the wings. The bomb load of 500 kg was clearly excessive: with such a load, the donkey could not independently fly into the air. Therefore, the described bomb weapons were used only in the version "Link-SPB".
          2. Mihail28
            Mihail28 3 July 2018 20: 46
            0
            Quote: Captain Pushkin
            You will be surprised

            No, I won’t be surprised, I just DO NOT BELIEVE. Without reference to specific documents.
            This is about the I-16 bomb load.
    3. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 7 2018 11: 47
      +4
      Quote: Fil743
      And the airy symbol of victory along with the T-34 is Il-2!

      IL-2 alone didn’t do the “weather” ..... one of the mass planes of V.O.V. was Pe-2
      1. vadim dok
        vadim dok April 7 2018 15: 59
        +4
        The bomb load of PE2 was 1000 kg .- BOMBERS, and Fokker Wulf-500 kg-fighter!
        1. KERMET
          KERMET April 7 2018 16: 07
          +1
          We could also have a fighter with a 500 kg loading bomb, but it didn’t work out
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 8 2018 02: 15
            +1
            Quote: KERMET
            We could also have a fighter with a 500 kg loading bomb,

            And he was a VI-100 then redone in Pe-2. The real bombers of that time were the Tupolev 103 Aircraft and Polikarpov St. Petersburg. Tupolev did not lead with motors: AM-37 did not go into the series.
            About the epic of St. Petersburg: http://www.airwar.ru/enc/bww2/spb.html
        2. Alf
          Alf April 7 2018 16: 19
          +3
          Quote: vadim dok
          The bomb load of PE2 was 1000 kg .- BOMBERS, and Fokker Wulf-500 kg-fighter!

          So what ?
          I do not want to offend you, but I do not really respect people who compare paper evidence.
          What bomb sight was on Fokker?
          How many free eyes and hands did aiming?
          What was the speed of 190 and Pe-2?
          1. Captain Pushkin
            Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 19: 56
            +1
            Quote: Alf
            What bomb sight was on Fokker?
            How many free eyes and hands did aiming?

            My father was a sapper in WWII. I recalled a case, a pontoon bridge was brought up in the morning, only the first car drove in with its front wheels, and then there was a series of explosions - the FV-190 planned with a muffled motor from the rising sun and dropped a cluster of fragmentation bombs. And the bridge went under the water. Enough for the pilot and the hands and eyes and sights ...
            He gave the command to dig holes. Just finished, went Xe-111 waves of 3-6 aircraft. As soon as they started repairing the bridge, they flew right there, until they caught the airborne pilot in the forest ...
            So, one aircraft was enough to destroy, and more than a dozen were attracted to prevent restoration. Oh, there are sights and other things not measured.
        3. mark1
          mark1 April 7 2018 16: 39
          +1
          Quote: vadim dok
          PE2 bomb load was 1000kg .-

          The normal Pe-2 bomb load was 600 kg; 1200 kg was the maximum
          and all because of the "high-speed" wing profile. ne-2 methodically brought to mind the whole war and the Yak-2 was abandoned almost immediately after its birth. I will say the same - if Polikarpov provided normal support for the I-16, then the donkey would have looked quite decent in 41-42
          1. Alf
            Alf April 7 2018 16: 54
            +2
            Quote: mark1
            I will say the same - if Polikarpov provided normal support for the I-16, then the donkey would have looked quite decent in 41-42

            So it was I-180, then I-185. Just there was no duralumin and motor.
            1. mark1
              mark1 April 8 2018 06: 21
              0
              Quote: Alf
              So it was I-180, then I-185. Just there was no duralumin and motor

              That’s just the point, and with the I-16 escort in the series, it was possible to introduce a wing with a hard skin, even of the I-180 type, even with plywood (prototypes flew), engine capirovanie (nevilat "lobost" and improve the external and the internal flow around the experience of the same I-180 to help but for the Shvetsovskie motors), the chassis at least on the type of I-153, just to improve the quality of assembly and decoration. The increase in speed would be at least 10% - that is, 530-550 kM / h with a 63rd motor.
            2. Captain Pushkin
              Captain Pushkin April 8 2018 14: 40
              0
              Quote: Alf
              Quote: mark1
              I will say the same - if Polikarpov provided normal support for the I-16, then the donkey would have looked quite decent in 41-42

              So it was I-180, then I-185. Just there was no duralumin and motor.

              There was an I-185 variant with the M-82A. The first flight on July 21, 1941.
              Polykarpov’s work on installing the M-82 on the I-185 was used on the later La-5.
              1. Alf
                Alf April 8 2018 21: 01
                +1
                Quote: Captain Pushkin
                There was an I-185 variant with the M-82A. The first flight on July 21, 1941.

                Was duralumin for him?
                1. KERMET
                  KERMET April 9 2018 21: 52
                  0
                  Well, did they find duralumin on all-metal bombers, but could you not cover the fighter?
                  1. Alf
                    Alf April 9 2018 22: 17
                    0
                    Quote: KERMET
                    Well, did they find duralumin on all-metal bombers, but could you not cover the fighter?

                    It is impossible to build a bomber from a tree, a fighter, albeit a little worse, yes, that's why they did it.
        4. Captain Pushkin
          Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 16: 59
          +1
          Quote: vadim dok
          The bomb load of PE2 was 1000 kg .- BOMBERS, and Fokker Wulf-500 kg-fighter!

          Normal load Pe-2 500 kg, overload 1000 kg, and Ar-2 with the same motors - normal 1000 kg, overload 1500 kg.
          The Germans U-87 - up to 1500 kg, U-88 up to 3000 kg.
          But the IL-2 is only 400 kg
          1. Alf
            Alf April 7 2018 17: 25
            +1
            Quote: Captain Pushkin
            The Germans U-87 - up to 1500 kg, U-88 up to 3000 kg.

            Concrete strip.
            New motor.
            Target at the end of take-off.
            1. karabas86
              karabas86 April 7 2018 18: 22
              +1
              Do not carry nonsense.
          2. fighter angel
            fighter angel April 9 2018 10: 02
            +2
            To captain Pushkin:
            The IL-2 has a bomb load of up to 600 kg. Plus - RS-132, up to 4 missiles, plus - two VYA-23 guns, plus - two ShKAS 7.62 mm. You understand, IL-2 is a ground attack aircraft, not a bomber !!! Bombs are not his main weapon. Remember how much he could take PTABs for example? And do not compare "Ilyukha" with the bombers of the Yu-87 and Yu-88, it is simply not competent and not correct.
        5. karabas86
          karabas86 April 7 2018 18: 21
          +1
          Moreover, in overload, the norm is not more than 600, and Yu-87 to 1500.
        6. Cannonball
          Cannonball April 7 2018 18: 55
          +1
          Not Fokker-Wulf, but Fokke-Wulf. The Fokke-Wulf FW-190 is the brainchild of Kurt Tank, not Anton Fokker.
        7. unknown
          unknown April 7 2018 20: 24
          0
          The bomb load Pe-2 - 600 kg. U-88 bomb load - up to 3000 kg.
          1. stalkerwalker
            stalkerwalker April 7 2018 20: 42
            +1
            Quote: ignoto
            The bomb load Pe-2 - 600 kg. U-88 bomb load - up to 3000 kg.

            Do not compare front and long bombers. In this case, it should be compared with IL-4.
            1. unknown
              unknown April 8 2018 09: 49
              0
              And the Germans which front-line bomber?
              IL-4 was used as a distant and front-line. Yu-88 - too.
              Pe-2 is extremely unsuccessful as a bomber. There was simply nothing else. The SB-Ar-2 line was covered, but the Tu-2 was not completed.
              By the way, in addition to the Ju-88, the Germans used both the He-111 and the Do-217 as frontline
              1. stalkerwalker
                stalkerwalker April 8 2018 10: 36
                +2
                Quote: ignoto
                And the Germans which front-line bomber?

                U-87.
                Quote: ignoto
                IL-4 was used as both distant and front-line

                An attempt to use the IL-4 as a front-line bomber led to unreasonably large losses.
                In the future, ALL IL-4 were used in DBA.
              2. Alf
                Alf April 8 2018 21: 03
                +1
                Quote: ignoto
                Pe-2 is extremely unsuccessful as a bomber.

                What?
                Quote: ignoto
                The SB-Ar-2 line was covered,

                Because the AR-2 already had no prospects, squeezed out everything that is possible.
    4. gurzuf
      gurzuf April 7 2018 14: 34
      +5
      And I like this metaphor. And the Yak-i made the same contribution to the victory as the above-mentioned t-34s and il-2s. And you advice - have a snack hi
    5. Karelian
      Karelian April 7 2018 17: 46
      0
      That's right! It is enough to read the memoirs of Yakovlev himself, there, between the lines everything is as on an x-ray.
    6. Igor V
      Igor V April 8 2018 22: 10
      +1
      Quote: Fil743
      Yak-9 really needs to be considered an air symbol of Victory along with the T-34
      from which hangover the author came up with this metaphor: it’s never understood. Just to make a pleasant Yakovlev- designer? For me, this character is primarily an official-apparatchik and protectionist of his beloved, carefully trying to maintain the image of a "young and brilliant designer", and then the "designer" of airplanes. The king of fighters once and for all - Polikarpov N.N., and Yakovlev - the king of spiders in the bank.
      And the airy symbol of victory along with the T-34 is Il-2!

      I read the article and was amazed: it must be written well about A.S.Yakovlev! Thanks, Roman.
      But the comments put everything in their place. Yakovlev Rvach is an official, and everyone could do airplanes. I would be interested to hear what such advantages were given by the post of deputy minister during the war? Responsibility not only for oneself, but also for hundreds of other people? But for such responsibility it is possible "according to the laws of wartime"! You, equal Yakovlev, answer, what are the preferences. Moreover, explain how an official could design and build a family of airplanes that really fought on equal terms with the enemy, and sometimes surpassed him.
      Are these ears still sticking out of Tupolev’s resentment?
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer April 10 2018 14: 07
        +1
        Quote: Igor V
        Moreover, explain how an official could design and build a family of airplanes that really fought on equal terms with the enemy, and sometimes surpassed him.


        Do you think Yakovlev personally spent time behind a kulman?
        The chief designer is a manager and organizer - he was a researcher at the plant that appeared a couple of times a week - everyone dragged the deputies, the designers designed them.
        And Yakovlev pushed the way for his cars.
    7. fighter angel
      fighter angel April 9 2018 10: 09
      +2
      Fil743:
      You are captivated by stereotypes regarding Yakovlev. Have you tried to understand the situation on the basis of newly opened unbiased sources? Take it yourself and figure it out, without looking at someone’s idle reasoning? A lot of materials came out in extreme times, both according to Yakovlev and Polikarpov. And not everything is as simple as you try to imagine. The easiest way to stick a person to the label "spider in the bank", is not it? Moreover, this person will never be able to answer you ...
  7. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 April 7 2018 10: 52
    +2
    Yakovlev Bombers
    Although this fact was known to me, many thanks for the article. I read it with interest.
  8. shuravi
    shuravi April 7 2018 11: 42
    +4
    It may already be enough to do the favorite pastime of journalism-humanities, that is, if we don’t understand something, we attribute it to intrigue.
    When adopting models of equipment for service, first of all, they ruled the possibilities of industry. And then the characteristics.
    1. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 20: 21
      0
      Quote: shuravi

      4
      shuravi (Vladimir) Today, 11: 42
      It may already be enough to do the favorite pastime of journalism-humanities, that is, if we don’t understand something, we attribute it to intrigue.

      In the Second World War, half of the aircraft designers sat, worked in "sharaby". And they all sat down on the denunciations of other designers. Both Pe-2 and Tu-2 were created by convicts.
      And what kind of undercover struggle was for securing a serial aircraft factory, you can shoot thrillers. Those who did not have a factory, those and serial aircraft in the Second World War did not (or did not). The losers were Polikarpov, Sukhoi, Mikoyan and many less well-known.
      1. Alf
        Alf April 8 2018 21: 04
        +1
        Quote: Captain Pushkin
        Both Pe-2 and Tu-2 were created by convicts.

        And were the planes bad?
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. orskp
      orskp April 11 2018 21: 37
      0
      We all understand, "Russia has two troubles - fools and roads." wink
  9. rubin6286
    rubin6286 April 7 2018 12: 17
    +7
    The article is interesting. For anyone who wants to learn more about the history of the creation of this aircraft and A.S. Yakovlev, I suggest downloading from the Internet and reading the following books and monographs:

    1.N. Yakubovich. “Unknown Yakovlev. "Iron" aircraft.
    2. Y. Ostapenko “The Great Yakovlev. "The purpose of life" of a brilliant aircraft designer. "
    3. A.I. Medved, DB Khazanov “Near bomber BB-22 (Yak-2 / Yak-4) supplement to the magazine“ Modelist-designer ”No. 3, Moscow, 2007
    4. N. Yakubovich “Yak-2 / Yak-4 and other close Yakovlev bombers” M., publishing house “Yauza” 2015

    I’ll add from myself that I was familiar with the WWII veteran who fought in the 118th Special Operated Command of the Northern Fleet on the Yak-4 and completed 71 sorties on this machine (this is the most in the Red Army Air Force). According to him: “As a close reconnaissance aircraft was good, but its conversion into a bomber made the car much worse. It was compact, easy to operate, accessible to pilots flying on SB and DB-3. I moved to it with Sat after 2-3 test flights. With M-105 engines at an altitude of 4 thousand meters, the Yak-4 accelerated to 600 km / h and the Messers could not catch up with it, but the technicians were tormented with it. The plane was notable for its lack of knowledge and low production culture. From it I switched to Pe-2. He was better in every way. ”
    1. dgonni
      dgonni April 7 2018 12: 42
      +1
      That’s the whole answer! If the pawn was better in all respects :(. And the pawn was not a sensible plane from the word vaabsche!
      1. vadim dok
        vadim dok April 7 2018 16: 13
        +1
        I agree !! 2 engines, 3 crew, 1000 kg of bombs, bomber, FV190 1 engine, 1 pilot, 500 kg of fighter bombs! Boston A 20G 1800 kg of bombs!
        1. Alf
          Alf April 7 2018 17: 17
          +1
          Quote: vadim dok
          I agree !! 2 motors, 3 man crew, 1000 kg of bombs, bomber,
          Boston A 20G 1800 kg of bombs!

          PE-2-2 motors for 1260 mares.
          A-20G-2 engines of 1600 artiodactyls each.
          Feel the difference.
        2. karabas86
          karabas86 April 7 2018 18: 24
          0
          1000 is almost the edge, according to recollections almost never, 400-600 is the norm. Ap 2 above wrote, the norm is 1000 in overload1500.
      2. John22
        John22 April 7 2018 16: 19
        +6
        The Pe-2 bomber is also a remake from a high-altitude fighter, and therefore there is a small bomb load in the bomb bay. Its main advantage is the all-metal construction and safety margin (fighter past). Only when the plane was finalized and the pilots learned to bomb from a dive (thanks to Polbin) - did Pawn become an intelligent aircraft. And all Yak aircraft had a critical margin of safety, and when the bomb load was added, the fuselage “led” and warped. This continued until the Yak-28.
        1. unknown
          unknown April 8 2018 09: 52
          0
          Pe-2 finalized to 43. It took an extensive modernization of Myasishchev, including technological.
      3. Captain Pushkin
        Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 20: 26
        0
        Quote: dgonni
        That’s the whole answer! If the pawn was better in all respects :(. And the pawn was not a sensible plane from the word vaabsche!

        Only Tu-2 with M-37 was the real bomber, but alas there weren’t enough engines, even the MiG-3 and M-37 were discontinued, all these engines went to the Il-2.
        1. pro100y.belarus
          pro100y.belarus April 7 2018 21: 42
          +2
          On the Tu-2 were motors ASH-82. Exactly like on La-5FN.
          1. DimerVladimer
            DimerVladimer April 10 2018 14: 24
            0
            Quote: pro100y.belarus
            On the Tu-2 were motors ASH-82. Exactly like on La-5FN.


            Well, not quite like that - with varying degrees of reduction.
            Serial production of engines M-82FN but factory number 19 began in April 1943. The designation of the engines began with the numbers "82", and they were still made in two versions: M-82FN-112 with a reduction of 11/16 for fighters and M-82FN-212 with a reduction of 9/16 for bombers. Their resource before the first bulkhead was set 100 hours
        2. Alf
          Alf April 8 2018 21: 08
          +2
          Quote: Captain Pushkin
          even the MiG-3 and M-37 were discontinued, all these engines went to the Il-2.

          On the MIG-3 were AM-35, on the IL-2, the low-altitude modification AM-38.
          1. Snakebyte
            Snakebyte April 9 2018 15: 04
            0
            Quote: Alf
            On the MIG-3 were AM-35, on the IL-2, the low-altitude modification AM-38.

            And these engines produced one plant. And engines were required for attack aircraft. This buried the MiG-3 at a time when its flaws were mostly obsolete.
            1. Alf
              Alf April 9 2018 20: 28
              0
              Quote: Snakebyte
              This buried the MiG-3 at a time when its flaws were mostly obsolete.

              MIG-3 was buried by the fact that there were no goals for it at high altitudes.
              1. svp67
                svp67 April 9 2018 21: 03
                0
                Quote: Alf
                MIG-3 was buried by the fact that there were no goals for it at high altitudes.

                But did MiG have real opportunities for this? Engines, especially wartimes, were not high. Here's a real one. Until the end of the war, Moscow’s air defense used everything they could, from special high-altitude Yaks to the Spitfaers, but not MiGs.
                1. Alf
                  Alf April 9 2018 21: 05
                  +1
                  Quote: svp67
                  Quote: Alf
                  MIG-3 was buried by the fact that there were no goals for it at high altitudes.

                  But did MiG have real opportunities for this? Engines, especially wartimes, were not high. Here's a real one. Until the end of the war, Moscow’s air defense used everything they could, from special high-altitude Yaks to the Spitfaers, but not MiGs.

                  True, but there were no mass raids at high altitudes, there were isolated raids, and even then Yu-86R scouts.
              2. Snakebyte
                Snakebyte April 10 2018 08: 03
                0
                Quote: Alf
                MIG-3 was buried by the fact that there were no goals for it at high altitudes.

                Just not. The MiG buried Stalin’s telegram that the IL-2 "is needed as air, as bread." The plant management collapsed, and curtailed the issue, which had just been deployed in the evacuation. By this time, the MiG was finalized, pulling up its characteristics at low altitudes (due to high) by changing the engine reduction from 0,907 to 0,732.
  10. dgonni
    dgonni April 7 2018 12: 41
    0
    Cardboard prodigy. I have a mustache! for 1941, the principles of application have changed dramatically, and the speed of the fighters that attacked them as well. if you compare with AR-2 of Arkhangelsk, then see for yourself. No comments.
    1. KERMET
      KERMET April 7 2018 13: 02
      +3
      In the second half of July, the 314th RAP was withdrawn to Moscow for replenishment. Leading engineer of the Air Force Research Institute A.T. Stepanets recalled how negative the assessment of the flight structure of the Yak-4 was. "How did you adopt such an unfinished aircraft?" - pilots and navigators surrounded me indignantly. I feel a little more - and beat. What saved me was what I managed to explain: I am a leading engineer for testing fighter Yakovlev, and I have nothing to do with the Yak-4. "
  11. K.A.S.
    K.A.S. April 7 2018 13: 47
    +4
    The fake described in the article sucks! Just ditched resources for projects! This miracle will never compare with the frame as a scout, not with the SB as a bomber! No review, no maneuverability, no bomb load or defensive weapons !!! Only the speed obtained on an experimental aircraft !!!
    In my opinion, the article made an attempt to pass off the brown substance as chocolate! Yak 2-4 are the worst planes invented by Yakovlev !!!
    Critics of ne2 I want to remind The main problem of the pawn is weak engines, poor assembly and (basic) poorly trained crews!
    With all due respect to the author, the article is superficial !!!!!
    1. Borik
      Borik April 7 2018 15: 03
      +6
      At the first stage of the war 41-42g, the SU-2 was considered to be the best intelligence agent.
      And the Yak-2-4 in all its forms was the worst aircraft in spite of its beautiful appearance.
    2. karabas86
      karabas86 April 7 2018 18: 26
      0
      PE-2 is very strict and difficult to manage, the Americans were crazy - how do you fly on this.
      1. pro100y.belarus
        pro100y.belarus April 7 2018 21: 48
        0
        The Germans tried to fly on captured I-16s. After a series of disasters abandoned this business.
        You must be able to fly.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer April 10 2018 14: 40
          +1
          Quote: pro100y.belarus
          You must be able to fly.


          In general, the accident rate of I-16 is very high
          The I-1b aircraft was put into mass production, however, problems arose when mastering it in the Air Force. The combatant pilots, accustomed to less fast and less strict biplanes in piloting, did not immediately accept the I-16. After a series of flight accidents (unsuccessful takeoffs and landing, careless piloting), which culminated in serious accidents, they began to be apprehensive about the new fighter.
          Source and details: http://www.airaces.ru/plane/voennye-samoljoty-sss
          r / i-16.html
          The pre-war high accident rate of I-16 remained after the onset of the war.
          Because for its time, the I-16 project is bold, but crude.

          Here's an example of how they describe the modernization of the I-16 captured by the Francoists:

          In 1947, the remaining I-16s (there were 15 pieces suitable for flights, some more were under repair), it was decided to modernize. The work was carried out by Captain Tordesillas from aircraft repair workshops in Seville. Here is how Tordesillas himself described the situation:

          “First of all, I assembled all aircraft of this type in Seville based on the Maestranza Aerea. Those who are able to fly - drove through the air, the rest - delivered along the river. I flew around the fighter "S.8-43", this machine from a technical point of view was considered one of the best. The fuselage of the aircraft was painted in blue, the hood - the color of metal. In the climb on the fighter, the engine was warming up very much, the fuel did not burn out completely, due to which a train of black smoke stretched behind the machine in flight. So, I realized: the first thing is to improve engine cooling.

          There was a case when, when taking off from a wet grassy field of Tablad, the plane began to tumble to the left wing. Rollover trend I retorted by changing the engine's operating mode. The plane tried three times to fall on the wing. I was able to take off only at maximum engine speeds, giving right foot all the way. This time, “Rata” miraculously did not strike the ground with its right wing. I realized - you should pay attention to improving the handling of the aircraft on the ground.

          After a series of flights, I organized a meeting with the participation of Commander Garcia Perez, command of the 22nd group and pilots who had experience in flying aircraft of this type. Together we have developed directions for modernization:

          Poor forward vision: the forward view can be reduced by replacing the bent visor of the cockpit lamp with a faceted one, similar to that used on CR.32 aircraft. Replace the telescopic sight with a ring frame sight.

          Engine overheating: install an oil cooler from an Alfa Romeo-126 engine on a fighter from an SM.79 bomber.

          Chassis: the main landing gear supports are manually retracted; to clean the landing gear, it is required to complete 30-40 full revolutions of the helm mounted on the starboard side of the cockpit. There were cases of uneven winding of the support cables when cleaning the chassis, after which, upon the release of the strut, they hung in an intermediate position. The reason for the cable overlap is in loose mechanisms. For normal operation, it is necessary to strengthen the design of the mechanism for cleaning the main landing gear and inspect it before each flight.

          Brakes: The brakes are generally operational, you should only follow the same cable tension to the brakes in both chassis supports. Different cable tension provokes the aircraft when braking to hooding.

          Sustainability: the aircraft does not have trimmers at all, therefore, due to individual characteristics, the fighter is prone to spontaneous movement relative to one of the axes, then the pilot constantly has to parry this movement in flight by deflecting the rudders. It is necessary to install compensator plates on the rudders and ailerons, which allow you to adjust the stability of the aircraft. In flight at high speeds, the efforts on the control stick and pedals are excessive.

          Taxiing: Steering on an airplane is extremely bad due to the hard shock absorbers of the main landing gear and narrow high-pressure pneumatics. Difficulties are also taking off. Before takeoff, as usual, the right hand is on the control handle, the left - on the gas sector. After take-off, the gas sector must be fixed with a special latch, grab the control handle with your left hand, and with your right hand make 30-40 turns of a tight helm for landing gear cleaning. But after cleaning the chassis "Rata" flies like an angel.

          Risk of capsizing over the nose: The aircraft’s desire to stand on its nose while landing or at taxiing is the biggest nuisance this plane is capable of presenting. The first with a complete capotation of the aircraft, the cockpit suffers, the likelihood of death while the pilot remains high. It is advisable to install a protrusion frame of three steel pipes welded in a triangle, in addition to incorporating an armored back with a pilot's seat into the design of the protrusion frame. The top of the frame should be 12 cm above the pilot’s head.

          All improvements were carried out on a C.8-4 aircraft, I took it into the air in mid-August. In flight at low altitude, I did not get tired of being amazed at how much the car changed: a great view ahead, oil temperature is within normal limits, the engine works like a clock, no dark loop extends beyond the plane. The plane easily completed all aerobatics. Landing went fine.

          I handed over the plane for overflights to Commander Paes and the pilots from the 22nd group. Everyone was satisfied. The group received 13 single “Rat” and one double, after which it regained combat readiness. Pilots began to spend a lot of time in the sky, practicing aerobatics and group flight, waiting for the visits of distinguished guests. The group of aircraft "Rata" took part in parades in honor of Victory Day in the Civil War, the anniversary of the naval forces. "I already had nothing to do with the further history of the I-16 fighter in the Spanish Air Force." [1]

          By the early fifties, I-16s were used mainly in the flight school in Moron. On the last serviceable I-16 with on-board code C.8-25, the most experienced school instructors flew. In August 1953, Spain signed a military assistance agreement with the United States, including the supply of modern fighters. On August 15, 1953, Miguel Entrena last lifted the I-16 into the sky. Thus ended the career of "Rat" with the Franco. And since by this time Franco-Spain remained the sole operator of the Polikarpov monoplane, the history of the I-16 military service was completed.


      2. fighter angel
        fighter angel April 9 2018 10: 17
        +2
        karabas86
        And Ivan Semyonovich Polbin, major general, Hero of the Soviet Union, in turn, "lost weight" from the Americans !!! Departing on Douglas, A-20, he was shocked by this "passenger bomber". By his standards of strength, this American did not allow any maneuvers with overloads of more than 1.5G, not to mention diving. The Polbinsk division definitely preferred the Petlyakovs! It is a fact.
  12. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 14: 31
    +2

    In the picture there is a cab of such a machine as the Yak-2 KABB, which was equipped with a combined artillery-bomber battery KABB-MV of the design of Mozharovsky and Venevidov.
    The battery included two ShVAK guns and two ShKAS machine guns with ammunition of 300 rounds for guns and 1000 rounds for machine guns. Installed in the navigator’s cabin on a movable frame.
    At the top in the middle is the K-8T sight, mounted on a movable arc that rotates synchronously with the weapon.
    Bomber weapons conventional for the Yak-2: 20 x AO-8 or AO-20 in two cartridges KD-1-1038 or 4 FAB-50 (FAB-100). The bombing was carried out by the ESBR-ZPA.
    Despite a generally positive assessment of the KABB-MV military installations on the Yak-2, with the outbreak of war, all work on KABB-MV was discontinued.
  13. Alf
    Alf April 7 2018 16: 13
    +4
    One of the ideas of that time was the concept of a certain universal multi-purpose aircraft, for which in the future the possibility of “working” in different directions was considered. The fact that this aircraft would have to perform the functions as a fighter escort bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, light bomber or attack aircraft, determined the twin-engine scheme and crew in the 2-3 man.
    And before World War II, a rather large number of such aircraft and the Focke-Wulf FW189 in Germany appeared in different countries,

    The 189th was originally designed only as a reconnaissance spotter.
    The P-38 was originally designed only as a heavy fighter.
    In order to maximize lightweight construction, the wing is wooden and integral.

    Ie unrepairable.
    The bomber was notable for the lack of photo and radio equipment

    Bomber without RADIO? Yakovlev would have made it right away without bombs ...
    In general, the all-in-one concept began to crackle. Military experts attempted to form such a system of requirements so that an airplane could be obtained that could replace the SS. But №22 was much smaller than the SB ... The leapfrog started: moving the navigator’s cabin forward, so as not to mount the SPU, the bomb compartment shifted back, the transfer of gas tanks caused a decrease in the flight range ...

    Yeah, the military is to blame .. The military, such bad ones, forced Yakovlev to make a bomber out of a MULTI-PURPOSE aircraft, i.e. what Yakovlev had to provide in advance, he created exactly the MULTI-PURPOSE plane.
    The best illustration: “Sky of War” Pokryshkin and his story about how he was looking for German tanks on a low-level MiG-3 fighter jet at low-altitude flight.

    And on which scouts did the allies fly? Something special does not come to mind, the same Mustangs and Lightnings. And the Allies did not see anything wrong with this.
    In comparative tests of the PB-100, Yak-2 and Yak-4, the Petlyakovsky bomber (the future Pe-2) exceeded Yakovlev's vehicles in almost all respects.

    Moreover, which is typical, with the same engines, the same bomb load, with radio equipment.
    It’s just that Yakovlev gave the experimental car as a jack of all trades, and then he accused the military that they had spoiled this plane with their requirements (LEGAL). But there is no arguing against the laws of aerodynamics.
    [And finally.
    In Yak-2,4 Yakovlev applied "interesting" technical solutions, using the non-standard aircraft refueling units, which, to put it mildly, was not welcomed by the military.
    1. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin April 7 2018 20: 33
      0
      Quote: Alf
      It’s just that Yakovlev gave the experimental car as a jack of all trades, and then he accused the military that they had spoiled this plane with their requirements (LEGAL).

      Quote: Alf
      The bomber was notable for the lack of photo and radio equipment

      Bomber without RADIO? Yakovlev would have made it right away without bombs ..

      Yakovlev blamed not only the military. According to him, in 1941 the entire leadership of the Flight Testing Institute was shot. It “interrupted Yakovlev’s work” by its requirements to provide for the installation of radio stations in the design of his aircraft.
      1. fighter angel
        fighter angel April 9 2018 10: 23
        +1
        Captain Pushkin:
        But Yakovlev LII didn’t personally shoot? No? Kind of weird...
        Where did you get this from? Respected! Or provide the facts, or stop already "tryndet" and throw excrement on the propeller!
  14. svp67
    svp67 April 7 2018 17: 02
    +3
    A BRAVO. And now tell us that our people “bronze” and do not know how to hear critics. Great style article. I can argue with a lot. I do not really like these creations of Yakovlev. But it normal.
    Interesting car. The Yak-2 could become that very “eye in the heavens” for our troops, as did the “Focke-Wulf 187” for the Germans. We lacked aerial reconnaissance, especially in the first half of the war.
    Controversial statement. The “Rama” was good in that it was not super-fast, but a super-manoeuvrable aircraft with excellent visibility and communications. Yaks, that “deuce”, that “four” it was not peculiar. These cars could become our Mosquitoes, but here again our eternal problem fails us - the lack of good engines.
    And still being more of a fan of NN Polikarpov’s talent, I regret that for various reasons, including subjective ones, his SPB plane didn’t go in the series


    This machine and took the bomb load more than a "pawn", not to mention Yaki, could dive and had very good visibility, which could help her a lot when conducting reconnaissance, and his maximum speed was at the level ...
    And here’s another machine, the designer Tairov, who was not destined to appear in the ranks of the Air Force SC, but it’s a pity ... TA-3, our pilots on it could spoil a LOT of blood “Luftwaffe”
    1. Alf
      Alf April 7 2018 17: 32
      0
      Quote: svp67
      and subjective in the series did not go his plane St. Petersburg

      But what are the subjective reasons if the designers did not see the M-107 motor.
      According to TA-3. All, unfortunately, the same thing, the M-89, M-90, AM-37 did not reach the series.
      1. Snakebyte
        Snakebyte April 9 2018 15: 08
        +1
        Quote: Alf
        But what are the subjective reasons if the designers did not see the M-107 motor.

        At St. Petersburg were M-105.
        1. svp67
          svp67 April 10 2018 23: 18
          0
          Quote: Snakebyte
          At St. Petersburg were M-105.

          And it was Polikarpov who made every effort to bring this engine to condition, as it was he who first installed it on his VIT
    2. fighter angel
      fighter angel April 9 2018 17: 00
      +1
      svp67
      About the TA-3 I absolutely agree with you. The machine had good prospects, powerful weapons, and in terms of maneuverability it was slightly inferior to single-engine fighters. By the way, it was Alexander Yakovlev who patronized and supported Vsevolod Tairov in every possible way, considering his work on Ta-3 (OKO-6) and Ta-3bis one of the most promising. But, the war began, the evacuation of industry, and what they did not have time to put on the "stream" before the war, during the war it was almost impossible to introduce into production. But with Ta-3 the chance was to get to production. And then Tairov’s death in a plane crash. There was no new successor, the team disintegrated. A good car is gone. The real "Super fighter" for the Red Army.
      1. Alf
        Alf April 9 2018 20: 35
        +1
        Quote: fighter angel
        But with Ta-3 the chance was to get to production.

        The aircraft is possible, but the M-89, M-90, M-107 were never completed, and without an engine there is no aircraft.
  15. Din48
    Din48 April 7 2018 22: 41
    0
    For the German troops, the “Eye in the Sky” was Focke-Wulf 189 (Rama known to us), and not Focke-Wulf 187!
    The FW-187, the failed competitor of the Bf-110, was not in service with the Luftwaffe, and the three production and non-demanded serial FW-187A aircraft were used in the air defense of the Fokke-Wulf plant, and piloted by their factory pilots. Although they were featured in the Fascist Germany Aircraft directories for our Air Force until the end of the war (like many other failed or non-existent aircraft. For example, the notorious He-113 or Bf-162 (Jaguar). All this was a result of effective German pre-war propaganda ( numerous photographs of these aircraft in the combat units of the Luftwaffe, including the FW-187, which were widely published in the German press and newsreels) Not only our military, but also future allies bought it!
  16. Zakonnik
    Zakonnik April 7 2018 22: 45
    +1
    They didn’t cost anything. Underbomber. About Yakovlev correctly said - the rat king.
  17. ltc35
    ltc35 April 9 2018 04: 05
    0
    Maybe it was not in vain that he didn’t go into the series, because there were found more demanded aircraft, more needed at that time. The same IL-2. Another thing captivates: in what quantities aircraft were being built at that time! And now there’s even no agricultural aviation ...
  18. rubin6286
    rubin6286 April 10 2018 02: 12
    +1
    Sharing the views of most commentators, I would like to draw attention to the following. Everyone writes about the shortcomings of this aircraft. For some reason, no one writes about its advantages. Did he have them? Yes, but for some reason they are not seen.
    Let's fill this gap. To begin with, Yakovlev launched the BB-22 on an initiative basis, showing that the achievement of high performance characteristics is possible with the use of new technical solutions. On BB-22 was the first time in the USSR:

    • the integral wing was tested, which facilitated the assembly of the machine and transportation by rail;
    • part of the truss fuselage was used in the manufacture of a relatively large and high-speed aircraft;
    • spaced (ie two-keel) tail unit was installed, which significantly improved the visibility of the rear hemisphere and the possibility of its protection;
    • mounted weapons firing through the shaft of the screw
    (motor gun);

    These and other technical solutions were reflected later in the design and creation of single-engine fighters in the design bureau of A.S.Yakovlev, which became classic.

    BB-22, according to VB Shavrov, "was a harbinger of a new generation of high-speed monoplanes, showed the possibility of further increase in speed, gave impetus to the acceleration of similar work in other design bureaus."
    1. svp67
      svp67 April 10 2018 04: 33
      0
      Quote: rubin6286
      On BB-22 was the first time in the USSR:
      • spaced (ie two-keel) tail unit was installed, which significantly improved the visibility of the rear hemisphere and the possibility of its protection;

      Yes, the trouble is, old Tupolev, back in 1933 he launched his ANT-21 (MI-3) into the sky
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 April 10 2018 09: 14
        0
        In the book of VB Shavrov, “The History of Aircraft Structures in the USSR,” about MI-3 the following is said:
        "The vertical plumage was made spaced ,,,,, Factory tests were started in the autumn of 1933. Immediately there were problems with the tail plumage. An accident occurred on September 14, 1933. After that, the separated vertical plumage was replaced by the usual ......"
        At the same time as MI-3, from July to December 1934, his double-plane MI-3 bis was tested. he did not pass the tests and work on him was stopped.
        So, it did not work for Tupolev to release this airplane into the sky.
      2. fighter angel
        fighter angel April 10 2018 09: 58
        0
        I dare to note that even before the "old days" of Andrei Nikolaevich Tupolev, in 1931 the first flight was a two-seat fighter DI-3, designed by Nikolai Polikarpov, which had a tail tail in the form of "classic" ellipsoidal washers.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. rubin6286
          rubin6286 April 10 2018 12: 09
          0
          Unlike BB-22, the DI-3 aircraft was not mass-produced. He just ascended into heaven, then giving way to other, more advanced machines in us.
    2. Alf
      Alf April 10 2018 21: 30
      0
      Quote: rubin6286
      On BB-22 was the first time in the USSR:
      mounted weapons firing through the shaft of the screw
      (motor gun);

      In what place on the BB-22 was a motor gun?
    3. Vovan 73
      Vovan 73 April 13 2018 10: 37
      0
      That's just the all-in-one wing, made, by the way, to save weight and was the main smut in the transportation of all Yakovlev cars. For in the truck body, and on the railway platform, unlike the MiG and Lagg, they did not fit precisely because the wing consoles, technologically, were made integral.
  19. hohol95
    hohol95 April 10 2018 15: 22
    +1

    ... In conclusion, I will quote the words of the famous aircraft designer and aviation historian Vadim Borisovich
    Shavrova: “The aircraft did not receive widespread use and had no continuation, since under the load
    Alterations characteristic of the BB-22 design, which were also introduced during the production process without proper development, the logic of the design development was violated, which remained unfinished.
    The significance of the BB-22 is that it was a harbinger of a new generation of high-speed monoplanes, showed the possibility of a further increase in speed, and gave impetus to the acceleration of similar work in other design bureaus. ”
    The author fully supports what was said. On my own, I will add that the intervention of politicians in the person of Stalin in the ideology of the aircraft, as well as the thoughtless worship of the military by the authorities, discredited a good
    the designer's idea, causing a significant moral damage to the design bureau. In addition, reinforced the negative attitude towards the head of the design team A.S. Yakovlev, giving rise to many unreliable rumors and speculations.
  20. Vovan 73
    Vovan 73 April 13 2018 10: 31
    0
    “But today I would like to talk about the Yakovlev Yak-2 and Yak-4 bombers. They deserve it, because the cars got out of the ordinary, and if it hadn't been for the war, their fate could have been completely different.”
    To be honest, after the articles about the MiG-3 and I-185, I was sworn to comment on the opus of this author. But the phrase I copied above simply smiled. I would like to ask the author, and how, in his opinion, the fate of a military aircraft should take shape, if not participation in the database, sorties, military exercises, exercises ... At parades or something, are we building to fly ????