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Knights in the kitchen. Part of 2

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Of course, the possibilities of the medieval table were most directly dependent on agriculture - plant growing and animal husbandry. That is, it is difficult to eat sturgeon where there is no Volga, and, accordingly, grape wine is constantly there where grapes do not grow. Kliuchevskiy said that we all came out of the rye field, and the Chinese say that "if you are lazy, then this wheat". This determines not only the economy, but also the culture of this or that nation, and then the mentality of the nation grows out of it.


Knights in the kitchen. Part of 2

Barbecue in the Middle Ages was already known, judging by the images on the "Bayesian embroidery." We do not know whether the meat was marinated before cooking, but it was done exactly on skewers and on coals. But his knights ate on their own shields, putting them on special goats!

So, at the beginning of the Middle Ages, the breeding of sheep became almost the main occupation of the peasants of many countries. They were unpretentious, they were easy to graze, and besides, they gave meat, and milk, and wool. By the way, it was for the wool that they valued. The meat of the then sheep was tough. The fact is that sheep flocks were distilled over long distances, the sheep experienced great physical exertion, which did not improve the quality of their meat.


"The magnificent hierarchies of the duke of Berry", otherwise "The luxurious hierarchies of the duke of Berry," the beginning of the XV century. Stored in the medieval collection of the Cloisters of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. On this miniature, the Duke of Berry enjoys a feast.

But as early as the 15th century, judging by the recipes of English cookbooks, the chefs already knew how to turn practically unserviceable meat into a completely edible product. They ground roast lamb into minced meat, mixed it with egg yolk, bone marrow and spices. It turned out the mass, from which the British made lamb meatballs, and lamb brisket stewed in a cauldron with the addition of ale, seasoned with marjoram and cinnamon. Nowadays, it’s quite simple to check how tasty it is to pick up and stew mutton in a dark beer, adding all the spices mentioned. Interestingly, ale itself has been known since the eighth century.


The same image, but larger (fragment). On the table run dogs, Italian greyhound. Bread with a knife cuts the carcasses of some animals ... It is possible that it is fried in honey Sony. For rabbits, they are very small!

Well, and the stuffing itself was known in Europe for a very long time. So, one of the earliest mentions of pate is the legend of how the inhabitants of the city of Chartres fed Attila's warriors with a huge pate, thus seeking to appease them. The conquerors used their pâtés in a good way and in gratitude for the food they decided not to ravage the city.

Very quickly, people learned how to make meatballs from meatballs and the same meatballs, but in Eastern Europe, they began to make zrazy or “meatballs with filling” in ground meat. The Poles, referring to written sources of the 14th century, assert that even then Zrazes were known in Poland. However, this is not a local dish: it is believed that the wife of the Polish king Sigismund I, the Milan princess, the Polish queen and Grand Duchess of Lithuania, brought many Italian dishes to Poland in 1518 — 1556. Bona Sforza. That is, it was already a slightly different era ...


Pier of Charles V in Soot. Dishes from the kitchen were carried under the covers so that they would not have time to cool down, since the kitchens in the castles and palaces were arranged away from the master's rooms.

Well, having minced meat and guts at hand, it was not at all difficult to learn how to make sausages. However, nothing new was discovered in the Middle Ages. Sausage, as a food product, has been known since time immemorial, and references to it can be found in sources not only of ancient Greece and Rome, but also of Babylon and ancient China. But it should be noted that in medieval Europe sausage was a very rare and very expensive product, since it required a lot of work and skills for cooking.


Cooking roast on a spit. The Decameron, 1432. Under the spit tray for flowing fat. Again, remember the immortal Dumas: "Goose shire, very tasty with jam!" Br-rr ...

There was not enough meat for the sausage, and vegetable raw materials, such as boiled peas, were often added to the sausages. In Milan in XVI, the word “saverat”, for example, just meant “sausage with meat”, which emphasized its dignity. The oldest recipe of saveloyat dates back to the same century. This sausage was made from pork with the addition of bacon and cheese, and minced as it should be flavored with spices - ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. It is interesting that at that time the sausage was not smoked, but was scalded with boiling water.


March. Plowing on oxen. Fragment of "The magnificent hierarchical system of the Duke of Berry".

However, the main on the tables in the knightly castles were "dishes of flesh." Well, let's say, a whole roasted wild boar or its head. The boar's head was generally considered not so much a dish as ... an ornament to the festive table of the powerful of the world of that time. She was surely served at royal dinners and ... remember how boarded Porton turned into boar's head and dined at the same table with King Louis XIV (the third part of A. Dumas' novel about the three Musketeers "Viscount de Brazhelon"). Properly cooked boar is head and tasty, and ... allowed me to tell guests (like the boar roasted on a spit entirely!) About the vicissitudes of how the beasts were hunted, how many thoroughbred dogs died (they say, I can afford it!) and which of the hunters how to manifest itself.

But the beef was tough, like lamb, and was a meal of commoners, because the cows were already slaughtered under old age. But here the oxtail soup in medieval Europe was approved. Her recipe was delivered to the British Isles by French Protestant fugitives. True, the British used their food before that. The fact is that when cooked, they make a strong, but not fatty broth, which the then doctors considered a medicine. But the French contributed to this recipe: they added carrots, leeks and quite a few spicy herbs to the broth.


February. Sheep keeping in winter. Fragment of "The magnificent hierarchical system of the Duke of Berry".

But in the hens the people of the Middle Ages understood much more than ours. For us there are rustic hens and from poultry farms. Some are yellower, others are "darker." There are indoutenki, turkeys and geese ... But in France in the Middle Ages, they distinguished as many as four types of chicken meat: chicken, chicken, fowl and capon. And they all had different tastes, and - most importantly, they were all prepared differently! Chickens were fried and boiled. The chicken was boiled broth and extinguished, cut into pieces. Fowl was fried whole or half. But the capon - that is, the rooster, was cooked entirely, as a ceremonial dish. However, if you think that a capon is just “such a cock” and that this is what the French called him so, then this is actually not at all the case.

First of all, a capon is a rooster-neuter, and he underwent this operation at a very early age. Actually, the origin of the name comes from the Latin caponus, that is, “holoscheny”. To control the quality of the removal of the testes, the scallop was also removed: and if it grew again, this meant that the operation failed, and this capon should be isolated from his brethren, so that he would not provoke their cocky behavior. Then, the future capons needed to graze in the wild for nine months. And not just "at liberty". A lawn with lush grass was needed, a stream and a small forest were necessary - all this was absolutely necessary as a pledge of the right amount of movement and adequate nutrition, without which the desired taste could not be achieved from Capon.

The last month of his life capon spent in a small cage, where he was fed only with a mixture of corn and wheat flour, which was soaked in fresh milk. As a result, by Christmas, he weighed at least four kilograms (no worse than another turkey!) And was served fried on the table.


December. Harassment boar. Fragment of "The magnificent hierarchical system of the Duke of Berry".

Plyaruki - also specially fed fat chickens. The most famous were Bress poultry from the city of Bressa in western France. It is believed that this breed is about 5000 years old. Although for the first time “a bird from Bress” is mentioned in the annals of 1591, when the Burgundians helped the inhabitants of the city of Bourgogne-en-Bresse to repel the attack of the Savoy. For this, the inhabitants gave the marquis de Trefort two dozens of Bress chickens to the leader of their rescuers!

To be continued ...
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech April 11 2018 05: 28
    +4
    Of course, I love the shish kebab and even in nature with the singing of birds and a glass of the Tsar’s.
    But you won’t fry barbecue ... The site is not barbecue ... I would like to speculate more on military topics.
    No need to litter this topic in.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 11 2018 05: 44
      +13
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      But you won’t fry barbecue ... The site is not barbecue ... I would like to speculate more on military topics.

      As you dig, so you sink. Hungry warrior, what a warrior? So the topic itself is that.
  2. Vard
    Vard April 11 2018 05: 29
    +6
    A very interesting article ... Due to circumstances, my main occupation is housekeeping ... Including cooking .. I’m probably using something ...
    1. ICT
      ICT April 11 2018 07: 36
      +4
      Quote: Amurets
      Hungry warrior, what a warrior? So the topic itself is that.

      the theme is just right, for example, not about the Great Patriotic War and cooks on it (there were articles on the topic), but looking for centuries to come

      (C)
      I love barbecue, but I don’t like to eat meat.
      Dima, 6 years

      1. kalibr
        April 11 2018 08: 39
        +2
        Very good gear!
        1. Looking Petrovich
          Looking Petrovich April 11 2018 12: 29
          +2
          The capon spent the last month of his life in a cramped cage, where he was fed only with a mixture of corn and wheat flour, which was soaked in fresh milk.

          Is there really corn in medieval Europe? And also a professor ...
          And here is how in the East around this time - more on fruit and tea (or whatever they had there) leaned on.
          1. kalibr
            April 11 2018 12: 58
            +2
            You have clearly noticed this on corn. But ... the recipe for feeding capons was also used after corn was brought to Europe. True, this was no longer the Middle Ages ...
          2. Curious
            Curious April 11 2018 13: 13
            +6
            "But was there corn in medieval Europe? And also a professor .."
            But didn’t they peek into the book? Although historians do not have a single opinion about the end of the Middle Ages, NGOs in most cases begin to grow corn in Europe in the Middle Ages.
            1. Looking Petrovich
              Looking Petrovich April 11 2018 13: 37
              +2
              In the XVI century. have begun. The period from the beginning of the XVI century. and until about the middle of XVII it is customary to call the Early New Time. Presenting yourself here as a connoisseur of history, and mainly doing copy-paste from Wikis and specialized sites, you would first need to know at least the basics.
              1. Curious
                Curious April 11 2018 13: 43
                +4
                "The period from the beginning of the XNUMXth century until about the middle of the XNUMXth century is commonly called the Early New Time."
                Where and by whom is it accepted, since you are already an expert on the basics?
                1. Looking Petrovich
                  Looking Petrovich April 11 2018 16: 47
                  +1
                  Quote: Curious
                  "The period from the beginning of the XNUMXth century until about the middle of the XNUMXth century is commonly called the Early New Time."
                  Where and by whom is it accepted, since you are already an expert on the basics?

                  Encyclopedic Dictionary of F.A. Brockhaus and I.A. Efron.
                  The Middle Ages - (Latin medium aevum, French le moyen â ge, German Mittelalter, English middle age, etc.) - the name for the millennium that elapsed from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 after R. X. ) before the discovery of America (1492).
                  Encyclopaedia Britannica.
                  Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors )
                  1. Curious
                    Curious April 11 2018 18: 59
                    +3
                    Dear Petrovich! Well, you, calling for the study of the basics, from those very fundamentals pulled out only those fragments (foundations) that confirm your point of view. But what about the others?
                    "According to the periodization (inevitably conditional) adopted by world and domestic science, the origins of the Middle Ages in Western Europe are the collapse in the second half of the XNUMXth century of the Western Roman Empire. The meeting of two worlds - ancient Greco-Roman and barbarian (German, Celtic, Slavic ) - became the beginning of a profound revolution that opened a new, medieval period in the history of Western Europe. For the history of Byzantium, the beginning of the Middle Ages is the XNUMXth century, when the Eastern Roman Empire gained independence.
                    The solution to the question of the boundary between the Middle Ages and the new time looks more complicated in science. In foreign historiography, their border is usually considered the middle or end of the 1640th century, linking it with such phenomena as the invention of printing, the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks, the discovery of America by Europeans, the beginning of the Great geographical discoveries and colonial conquests. From the point of view of social changes, this boundary fixes the initial stages of the change of systems - feudal to capitalist. In the recent past, domestic science pushed the beginning of a new time to the end of the 1660th century, referring it to the French bourgeois revolution and taking into account the option of a longer aging of the new system and a more decisive break with the old. In the practice of teaching, it is customary to consider the conditional end of the Middle Ages the first bourgeois revolution of pan-European significance - the English revolution of the 1618-1648s, which laid the foundation for the dominance of capitalism in Western Europe and coincided with the end of the first Pan-European Thirty Years War XNUMX-XNUMX ....
                    ... It should be noted and new trends in modern domestic science, which make significant adjustments to the problem of periodization. This is primarily the desire of researchers to separate the concepts of "Middle Ages" and "feudalism." .... A new trend has led to attempts to attribute the upper chronological border of the "Middle Ages" to the end of the XV - beginning of the XVI century. Such innovations are explained not by a formal desire to unify the periodization of the Middle Ages with Western historiography, but by a new level of historical knowledge. "
                    History of the Middle Ages: In 2 vol. Textbook / Ed. S.P. Karpova. - 4th edition. - M: Publishing house Mosk. un-that; Publishing House "Higher School".
                    As you can see, historians are in no hurry. So the capon still has a chance to peck corn in the Middle Ages.
              2. hohol95
                hohol95 April 11 2018 14: 07
                +5
                Corn was first brought from America to Europe in 1494 by H. Columbus. After 16-20 years, corn was grown in Portugal, in 1533 appears in India, at the beginning of the 16th century. in China, Burma, India, in 1755 in Japan, at the end of the 16th century in Africa. Corn in Europe was first used as an exotic garden crop, but was soon recognized as the most valuable food crop, which was characterized by higher productivity than other crops. The widespread distribution of corn in Europe is due to the fact that H. Columbus brought a ripe siliceous, which is well adapted to the conditions of most European countries, and the ripened tooth-like forms appeared in the second half of the 19th century.
          3. hohol95
            hohol95 April 11 2018 15: 07
            +1
            T. Kryndushkina, candidate of agricultural sciences
            V. Romanenko, candidate of agricultural sciences, VNITIP
            Castration of birds was carried out in ancient times. In China, caponization was known more than two thousand years ago. The birds were single: Romans, Greeks, Babylonians. Aristotle mentions the use of capons for food dates back to the 30th century BC. In the Middle Ages, technology penetrated Europe from Armenia and Persia. In England in the 1932th century, capons were highly valued not only for food, but also for making beer, in which the meat of this bird was brewed. In pre-revolutionary Russia, the production of capons, according to I.I. Abozin was even an industrial industry. In the USSR, attempts at mass capillization date back to the 1936s of the last century; they were carried out in Ukraine (N. Dorofeev, 1937), at the Moscow Poultry Plant (V. Zaruchinsky, XNUMX) and in Zagorsk, Moscow Region (Y. Rosenbakh, XNUMX).

            Fattened and before the discovery of America.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik April 11 2018 07: 52
    +6
    Shish kebab in the Middle Ages was already known, judging by the images on the Bayesian Embroidery
    . Judging by the Bayesian embroidery, barbecue was not known .. Apparently this is a way of cooking carcasses of birds, hares, and other animals on a spit. In Russia, this method of cooking was called "spun". In the West and in America, the “grilled” dishes quickly turned into “overturned” ones, they cook meat on a grill in roasting tanks called “barbecue”. Europeans cooked kebabs, taught the famous author of “Musketeers” Dumas father, who during his long trips around Russia visited, among other things, the Caucasus. It was he who brought the French barbecue recipe.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 11 2018 10: 10
      +6
      In Russia, this method of cooking was called "spun".

      Spinning hare buds - also on a spit, it turns out? I somehow had no idea about the origin of this word.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 April 11 2018 10: 25
        +3
        From the Internet -
        This is how real kidney kidneys were prepared in the time of Ivan IV the Terrible.
        We need:
        400 g of kidneys, 300 g of fat, 200 g of onion set (small onions), 1000 ml of cow or goat milk, one bay leaf, two juniper berries, five or six peas of black pepper, coarse salt.

        The recipe for kidney rabbit minced: bring the milk to a boil and put a lavrushka in it. Cool the milk, throw the laurel. Separate all excess film type from the kidneys. First, we soak the kidneys for a couple of hours in cold water, drain it and again soak the hare kidneys for two hours. Then again we drain the water. Now we put the hare’s kidneys in milk for a period of two to six hours, put it in a colander and dry it. We crush juniper with salt and pepper in a mortar and rub the rabbit kidneys with the resulting mixture. Now the work is not for the nervous ones: we wrap each rabbit kidney with a thin strip of pork lard and string all the kidneys wrapped in bacon onto skewers or thin skewers alternately with onions peeled from the inedible skin. We cook on coals, often, often turning over. Fat will certainly begin to drip on the coals, but you can not let it burn.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 11 2018 10: 26
          +4
          stunned. belay straight "complex barbecue"! drinks
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 April 11 2018 10: 35
            +3
            Just how many rabbits or rabbits need to be put under a knife ... drinks
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 11 2018 11: 00
              +3
              the king, I think, did not consider wink "at whose expense is this banquet?" drinks
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 April 11 2018 11: 15
                +2
                HE IS THE KING ... good
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik April 11 2018 11: 55
                  +5
                  Then there were hares, a dime a dozen ... They didn’t count for the beast smile
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 April 11 2018 11: 57
                    +3
                    Then the trees were higher, sturgeon fatter ... good
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 11 2018 12: 19
                      +4
                      Then the trees were higher, sturgeon fatter ...

                      sturgeon then just found .... and Olearius wrote that the Meadows are rich in salmon .... recourse went eating, read your comments, wanted again! belay
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 April 11 2018 12: 24
                        +3
                        I’ve also added a comment about Guriev’s porridge a little lower ... good
                      2. hohol95
                        hohol95 April 11 2018 12: 37
                        +4
                        But it’s possible and easier -
                        So, 1918 in Russia. In the country, do not understand what is happening, in the minds of men it is not clear what is happening. At that time, as now, peasants and young men were gathering in taverns, and if the man’s sex was getting into a fight for an innocuous reason, then imagine what happened in a turbulent revolutionary time, and even with the disappearance of food and the cost of those remaining.
                        And who is primarily responsible for losses in such cases? That's right, restaurant owners. I see, huh?
                        So Anastas Bogomilov, a Moscow merchant and the owner of several taverns suffered from such fermentation in his minds, he incurred losses, that means. And what if the food rises in price, and the men did not drink less? Moreover, with a small amount of snacks get drunk faster than usual? That's right, come up with a cheap but satisfying snack, which the cook of one of the taverns of the aforementioned merchant Aristarkh Prokoptsev made.

                        They say that at that time herring was one of the cheap products, so the cook gathered a salad of it, potatoes, onions and beets, flavored all this with mayonnaise, which Russian citizens still love immeasurably. Nowadays, there is a legend about the political component of lettuce, which says that this salad is a “dish of the world” and was created to combine the powerful classes that the revolution relied on: herring as a symbol of the proletariat, onions and potatoes - as representatives of the peasantry, and beets in their red color represented the revolution itself, well, mayonnaise is either assigned the role of a devoured enemy, or they pay tribute to the revolutionary past of France. So we got a salad-slogan, salad-manifesto, salad-symbol. So it was or not, no longer know.

                        Think "Herring under a fur coat" - the original name of the salad? No matter how. The first name of the salad was consonant with the spirit of that time and the passion of our people at the beginning of the century for abbreviations - Sh.UBA, stands for "Chauvinism and Decline - Boycott and Anathema!". But, as usual, such a strange name was simplified and turned into "Herring under a fur coat."
                        This salad was invented in 1918, but presented just on the eve of 1919. He was so fond of visitors to the tavern that, despite the cheap products that make up the salad, he remained festive. Moreover, he became one of the main symbols of the Russian New Year.
                        The revolution has subsided, the Soviet Union has sunk into oblivion, the twenty-first century has come, and the love of Russian people for "Herring under a fur coat" is not diminishing. Now on our New Year's tables, foreign wines, overseas products, fresh fruits from strange countries appear more and more often, but in many houses next to all these delights, the salad "Herring under a fur coat" takes pride of place.

                        The history of the salad "Herring under a fur coat", Open Kitchen ...
                        open-cook.ru
                      3. parusnik
                        parusnik April 11 2018 16: 14
                        +4
                        Students back in the 18th century ate sturgeon in the diet was smile
        2. Nehist
          Nehist April 12 2018 00: 27
          +3
          I wonder who could have cooked kidneys like this in the time of Ivan the Terrible? Pepper cost incredible money at that time, salt, by the way, was also not cheap
  4. kalibr
    April 11 2018 08: 22
    +2
    Quote: parusnik
    on Bayesian Embroidery
    . Judging by the Bayesian embroidery, barbecue was not known.

    Probably got out when I looked at the picture from the embroidery ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 11 2018 08: 30
      +4
      Quote: kalibr
      Probably got out when I looked at the picture from the embroidery ...

      Vyacheslav Olegovich, the topic is necessary, but mistakes, so who do they not have? In fact, culinary in general and army in particular, is also a section of history.
      1. kalibr
        April 11 2018 08: 45
        +4
        There are a few pictures of them on Bayeux !, where there are skewers and shields on the goats. Somewhere it’s better, somewhere worse. But it’s quite obvious that the carcasses - partridges, beksaov, quail, put sleepyheads on them, and so baked, and ... pieces of meat. Well, this is elementary logic, it’s not a bull to be planted every time. Someone would have guessed to cut into pieces. Our ancestors were not foolish. .
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 11 2018 09: 57
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          The ancestors of us were not bad. Although it is clear - "everything was bad in the West, and always."

          Yes, this is not about that. Well, firstly: each region has its own food culture, its own products and its cooking methods. Well and secondly what to use for seasonings. An example of my own experience when they served, but I heard in the taiga. From May to October, the divisions switched to "dried fruits" - dried vegetables. And here I can say, you can choke on dry, tasteless potatoes, but you can choose the moment and pick wild garlic, wild onions or garlic, other wild plants and the same dry potatoes have a completely different taste. So it all depends on the cook and the availability of products, and Eastern or Western cuisine does not play a big role.
          Although it is clear - "in the West everything was bad, and always." Here I don’t agree at all. In the 18th century, the Great Embassy of Peter and the Great French Revolution of 1789-1799 influenced Russian cuisine. When in Russia we got acquainted with Western culture and cuisine in particular. Many foreign experts came to the embassy of Peter, and during the French Revolution, many French aristocrats fled from the horrors of the revolution, saving their lives. So there is a mutual influence. And I think the Chinese restaurant in Heihe will also impress you.
          1. kalibr
            April 11 2018 11: 40
            +2
            Well, Nikolai, and you can’t make a joke ...
          2. parusnik
            parusnik April 11 2018 11: 52
            +4
            In addition, the favorite and popular dish, Soviet citizens of the USSR, Olivier salad, though the real one is somewhat different from the original ingredients ... But nevertheless .. in the West it is not so bad ... True, this salad in the West is not very and eat, even in the original version ...
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 11 2018 12: 16
              +4
              True, this salad is not very eaten in the West, even in the original version ...

              In the Dominican Republic guides it was written that you can ask for “Russian salad” in some restaurants, and they will bring you a salad of chopped boiled potatoes, carrots and something else there. No sausage! belay Like, these Afro-Latin Americans understand the concept of "Olivier". request by the way, their sausage is not our couple. Our tastes much better! soldier
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 April 11 2018 12: 30
                +3
                And pickled carrots in the Republic of Korea are called carrots in SOVIET!
                At the same time, the ensemble from the Republic of Kazakhstan, as they tried to surprise with black caviar. She did NOT LIKE them! They said pickled (sauerkraut) cabbage KIMCHI TASTY (they carry it with them - nowhere is there such a cabbage).
                In the DPRK, 90 kg of cabbage a year is given for pickling (from media articles about the DPRK).
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik April 11 2018 13: 03
                  +2
                  At the same time, the ensemble from the Republic of Kazakhstan, as they tried to surprise with black caviar. She did NOT LIKE them!
                  ... Here it is a matter of taste ...
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 April 11 2018 14: 22
                    +2
                    Right. We don’t go to the Swedes about their national dish -
                    Surströmming (Swede. Surströmming) - Swedish national product, which is a canned pickled herring.
                    In April 2006, some major airlines, such as Air France and British Airways, banned the carriage of canned surstrumming, explaining this by the potential “explosion hazard” of cans. As a result, product sales were halted at Stockholm Arlanda Airport.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 11 2018 14: 43
                      +2
                      Surströmming (Swede. Surströmming) - Swedish national product, which is a canned pickled herring.

                      there is Icelandic hakarl - smoked rotten meat of the polar shark wink basurman-perverts they are! soldier
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 April 11 2018 14: 49
                        +1
                        In Iceland, this delicacy is included in the mandatory program of festivities for Christmas and New Year. To eat rotten shark is to be persistent and strong, like a real Viking. After all, labor-viking has not only iron armor, but also the stomach.

                        The meaning of this ugly food is that a giant shark is a rather weighty food product, but fresh meat is poisonous, it contains a lot of uric acid and trimethylamine, which disappear when the product decays.

                        This dish is far from a stuffed seal from Aleutian cuisine ... soldier
                      2. ruskih
                        ruskih April 11 2018 18: 46
                        +7
                        there is Icelandic hakarl - smoked rotten meat of the polar shark wink basurman-perverts they are!

                        Oh how ... what and what can you say about the “Pechora salting”))) not only herring, nelma and whitefish, but also salmon)), this is also a fragrant delicacy. So it turns out Pomors are also perverts ?! wink
                        Its essence lies in the fact that the fish laid in barrels is poured with a weak saline solution and under the influence of heat it does not deteriorate and does not grease to the end, but gradually turns sour, acquiring a pungent smell, and becomes slightly salted and sour in taste. love
              2. parusnik
                parusnik April 11 2018 13: 02
                +4
                Olivier without meat or sausage, pickles or fresh cucumbers, it's like beer without vodka, money down the drain ... laughing
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 11 2018 13: 22
                  +3
                  don't say it, basurman, verily! laughing Although .. rum is excellent. wink and German topless grandmothers are very perky! fellow
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 April 11 2018 14: 23
                    +2
                    and German topless grandmothers are very perky! fellow

                    Especially after ROMA ?????
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 11 2018 14: 45
                      +1
                      rum was a consequence - soothing after what he saw .... laughing drinks
                2. mol1949
                  mol1949 April 11 2018 21: 16
                  +6
                  If you drink vodka without beer, you are an accomplice of Tel Aviv! laughing
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 11 2018 21: 50
                    +3
                    Today you listen to jazz - and tomorrow you will sell your homeland drinks variation on the theme:
                  2. SEER
                    SEER April 22 2018 00: 14
                    +1
                    Quote: mol1949
                    If you drink vodka without beer, you are an accomplice of Tel Aviv! laughing

                    "" Tequila "without the" Crown "- peso down the drain!"
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 11 2018 21: 12
                +4
                Sausage is different everywhere. In Spain, sausage is Lamme Guzak’s dream !!! (I suspect that Ulenspiegel needed to feed a friend, this is the essence of his resistance, and not Klaas's ashes). In Greece, sausage - well, sausage and sausage ... In Israel, I specifically did not like the sausage.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 11 2018 21: 20
                  +2
                  In Greece, sausage - well, sausage and sausage ... In Israel, I specifically did not like the sausage.

                  not been, have not tried. Although we have smoked "Jewish sausage" on the shelves, it’s called that! drinks
                  I am a minuscule in sausage. wink You can fry a circle of "doctor's", pour an egg ... mmm .. yummy! good
                  1. ruskih
                    ruskih April 11 2018 22: 05
                    +5
                    And in Belarus what a home-made jerky sausage is delicious mmm good
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 11 2018 22: 07
                      +3
                      so you and fat mmmm! good and other products in utero about 40 degrees!
                    2. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 April 12 2018 00: 14
                      +4
                      Sausage in Russia in birch bark letters is mentioned in the 11-12 century. wink
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 April 11 2018 12: 16
              +3
              Seen in the West strained with Grouse and CANCER NECK for salad Lucien Olivier!
              One of the recipe options, the main ingredients of which are:
              hazel grouse, potatoes, cucumbers, Provence, lettuce, crayfish, lanspeak, capers and olives are given in the book of P. P. Alexandrova, "A Guide to the Study of the Basics of Culinary Art" of 1897.
            3. hohol95
              hohol95 April 11 2018 12: 22
              +3
              Yes, and we ourselves do not painfully indulge ourselves with the porridge from the Minister of Finance of the Russian Empire Dmitry Guryev -
              ... stayed at the estate of his friend, a retired military Yurisovsky. And one day porridge was served for dessert during dinner. Yes, not simple semolina, but special - on baked milk, with froths, with nuts, and berries. The minister was so delighted that he asked to call the cook who came up with the recipe. It turned out to be a serf named Zakhar Kuzmin. The sympathetic minister condescended to the fact that he kissed him on both cheeks, and then bought it with his whole family from Yurisovsky and brought him to St. Petersburg. There Kuzmin began to cook porridge very often. And whoever the minister regaled with this dessert, everyone was delighted. So he got the name by the name of the landowner, who owned a talented cook, - "Guryev porridge."
              But to complete the history of dessert, we add that abroad he gained fame during the Napoleonic Wars. And the love of Alexander III for this dish added to him the epithet “imperial”.
              Zakhar Kuzmin created his masterpiece with the help of a Russian stove. But, if you try, you can cook a delicious Guryev porridge according to an old recipe and on a regular gas stove. But for this you need a thick-walled stewpan. The whole process can be divided into phases:
              Milk heating and picking foam.
              Cooking semolina.
              Annealing nuts.
              Preparation of candied fruits and dried fruits.
              Laying and languishing dishes in the oven.
              1. parusnik
                parusnik April 11 2018 13: 04
                +4
                And I like pearl barley ...
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 April 11 2018 13: 40
                  +3
                  My cat doesn’t refuse pearl barley with stew - I don’t refuse drinks
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 11 2018 21: 49
                    +3
                    damn, you have to cook .. All Viktor Nikolaevich is to blame! Buckwheat taught me how to cook, and I like wheat kulesh. It’s necessary to get to pearl barley! drinks I remember that our cadets called her “bolts”.
            4. mol1949
              mol1949 April 11 2018 21: 20
              +3
              Insalata russa in Spain is quite popular. It tastes almost like olivier. And with meat.
    2. parusnik
      parusnik April 11 2018 11: 46
      +4
      kalibr
      Well, I apparently, as always, wrote with a drunk or a fool ... laughing It’s pointless to look for a country where barbecue first appeared. Even ancient people, learning how to make fire, ate meat cooked at the stake. Probably, if you dig, you can find drawings among Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, Assyrians where the carcass of an animal or bird is roasted on a skewer ... But it’s documented in the first recipe of the one that we we know published in the book by Dumas father in his book on cooking ..
      Although it is clear - "in the West everything was bad, and always"
      .
      ... I wrote about this a little bit higher ... and besides, verbatim from my comments, give a similar phrase .. Or similar in meaning ... Strange Vechaslav Olegovich .. love you to answer in the style of do-it-yourself and cancer .. Probably you behave with students ...
    3. parusnik
      parusnik April 11 2018 11: 57
      +4
      kalibr
      The picture presented in the article .. A cooked bird on a spit .. Would have presented a different picture ... By the way, such a preparation took a lot of firewood and time ..
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 11 2018 15: 27
        +2
        Quote: parusnik
        They would have presented a different picture ... By the way, such a preparation took a lot of firewood and time ..

        Alexei, you probably meant this dish? Witch on a spit.
        1. parusnik
          parusnik April 11 2018 16: 56
          +5
          Sarcasm appreciated. wink But the bulls and pigs and sheep were fried in a similar way ..
          1. Mikado
            Mikado April 11 2018 20: 19
            +2
            Sarcasm appreciated.

            yes, Nikolai is generally an extremely “kind person” laughing drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 11 2018 21: 21
              +4
              Oh, in our regiment of "humanists" arrived!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 11 2018 21: 37
                +2
                Yes! notice there are two witches. One is already being prepared, the second is just being prepared to pickle hi the picture, apparently, is a remake. Hardly executed like that .. what
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 11 2018 22: 00
                  +4
                  Well, in any case, these women are already dead, and thank God they are, in a sense, lucky ...
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 April 11 2018 10: 34
    +4
    novostioede.ru
    Medieval cuisine
    Seasonings
    An essential attribute of medieval cuisine was seasoning.
    Moreover, it makes no sense to distinguish seasonings for the poor and seasonings for the rich, because only the rich could afford spices.
    It was easiest and cheapest to buy pepper. The import of pepper made many, but many, rich, namely those who cheated and mixed dried berries in pepper, brought them to the gallows. Along with pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and nutmeg were favorite spices in the Middle Ages. Saffron needs to be specifically mentioned: it cost even several times more than a very expensive nutmeg (in the 20s of the XV century, when nutmeg was sold for 48 cruisers, saffron cost about one hundred and eighty, which corresponded to the price of a horse).
    Spices were used not only to demonstrate wealth, they also blocked the smell exuded by meat and other products. Meat and fish stocks in the Middle Ages were often greasy so that they would not deteriorate as long as possible and would not cause a disease. And, therefore, spices were designed to drown out not only smells but also taste - the taste of salt. Or sour. Sour wine was sweetened with spices, honey and rose water so that it could be served on the table to the masters.
    Some modern authors, referring to the length of the journey from Asia to Europe, believe that during transportation the spices lost their taste and smell and essential oils were added to return them.
    In the Middle Ages, along with spiritual literature, it was cookbooks that most often and willingly corresponded.
    Around the period from 1345 to 1352, the earliest cookbook of this time was written - "Buoch von guoter spise" (Book of Good Food). The author is considered to be the notary of the bishop of Würzburg, Michael de Leon, who, along with his responsibilities to note budget expenditures, was engaged in collecting recipes.
    Fifty years later, the "Alemannische Buchlein von guter Speise" (Aleman Book of Good Food), the master of Hansen, a Württemberg cook, appears. This was the first cookbook in the Middle Ages, on which the name of the compiler was indicated. A collection of recipes for the Eberhard meter, the cook of the Duke Heinrich III von Bayern Landshut, appeared around 1495.

    Around 1350, the French cookbook "Le Grand Cuisinier de toute Cuisine" was created, and in 1381 the English "Ancient Cookery" was created.
    1390 - "The Forme of Cury", author - Cook of King Richard II. As for the Danish collections of XIII century recipes, it is worth mentioning the "Libellus de Arte Coquinaria" by Henrik Harpenstreng.
    1 354 year - Catalan "Libre de Sent Sovi" by an unknown author.

    The most famous cookbook of the Middle Ages was created by the master Guillaume Tyrell, better known under his creative pseudonym Teilivent. He was the cook of King Charles the Sixth, and subsequently even received the title. The book was written between 1373 and 1392, and published only a century later and included, along with famous dishes, very original recipes that a rare gourmet will decide to cook today. Today it is believed that the real author of the book was not Teilivent, however, he did not just copy recipes, but improved them and brought them in line with his era.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 11 2018 10: 59
      +5
      The import of pepper made many, but many, rich, namely those who cheated and mixed dried berries in pepper, brought them to the gallows.

      we have such scams, however, already in modern times, carried out with falsification of tea. Ivan-tea was mixed. laughing
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 April 11 2018 11: 08
        +4
        In ancient times, in Russia with salt deficiency, ASH was added to it!
        But such salt was sold as expensive as pure!
        In some of the books, such actions were attributed to monks (monasteries were the main salt traders).
        And Ivan-tea is now more expensive than plain tea ...
        In the 19th century, our ancestors added cow or lamb brains to it to increase the fat content in milk diluted with water ...
        Food fraudsters have always been ...
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 April 11 2018 11: 22
    +2
    and the Chinese say that "if you are lazy, then this wheat."

    I am not special in grain crops, but yesterday, according to the “zombie”, they said that the RIS is stored for the longest time - up to 8 years (they told me what should be taken with me to the bunker in case of war).
    But buckwheat is only 1 year old.
    Apparently this is why the Chinese rested on rice - stored longer!
  7. Weyland
    Weyland April 11 2018 11: 32
    +3
    By the way, it was for wool that they were valued. The meat of the sheep of that time was tough. The fact is that sheep herds were driven long distances, sheep experienced great physical exertion, which did not improve the quality of their meat.
    About another place and time, but quite typical: In the Hittite empire, a sheep cost 1 shekel - and a dressed skin 1 shekel. That is, for the dressing of the skin, the whole mutton carcass went - which cost only 0,1 shekels.
  8. Weyland
    Weyland April 11 2018 11: 37
    +4
    The oldest cervelat recipe dates from the same century. This sausage was made from pork with the addition of lard and cheese, and the minced meat was properly seasoned with ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg.

    In fact, the "cervus" in Latin - deer. laughing However, the “chakhokh” in Georgian is a pheasant. Chahohbeat - chicken that beat until she confesses that she is a disguised pheasant sent by the enemy to the chicken coop!
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 April 11 2018 11: 56
      +3
      Chakhokhbili (Georgian ჩახოხბილი) - poultry stew, Georgian national dish.
      Originally made from pheasant (Georgian ხოხობი - [Khokhobi]), but now from any poultry meat, especially domestic chicken.

      Pheasants have been eaten before us ...
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 11 2018 13: 04
        +3
        Quote: hohol95
        Pheasants have been eaten before us ...

        How to us? We have, on the outskirts of the city, and autumn give licenses. Here are the pheasant hunting rules for this year: "From October 20 to November 18 this year, hunting for pheasants, which also inhabit the entire territory of the Primorsky Territory, opens. The hunter must have a membership hunting ticket (with contributions paid for the current year), permission to store and carry hunting weapons, a nominal one-time license, a ticket. In accordance with applicable law, it is necessary to pay a fee for the use of an animal world object (in this case, a pheasant) in the amount of 20 rubles per head. The claim for damage in case of illegal pheasant production is 2 minimum wages. "
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 April 11 2018 13: 17
          +2
          So it’s YOU ... In Primorye ... We haven’t been found here in the Black Earth ...
          And THEM (in Georgia - Georgia) have eaten pheasants long ago - USE ... drinks
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 11 2018 14: 40
            +3
            Quote: hohol95
            So it’s YOU ... In Primorye ... We haven’t been found here in the Black Earth ...
            And THEM (in Georgia - Georgia) have eaten pheasants long ago - USE ... drinks

            More precisely, in the Far East. Just the general rules. I live in the Amur Region
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 April 11 2018 14: 42
              +2
              For the Amur Region drinks
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 11 2018 21: 29
                +3
                And what to take from that pheasant ?! Even this toast is not enough to eat!
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 11 2018 21: 35
                  +4
                  And what to take from that pheasant ?! Even this toast is not enough to eat!

                  it’s good that they mentioned the pheasant, and not the quail! it’s just to dig deeper into your teeth wink I once came to Khabib (Anton, you know, to Stachek), a friend decided to try the quail .. brought .. something like a crucified sparrow. That’s exactly who is miserable among the chickens - quail!fellow what is there to eat? not even a glass to bite! crying
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 11 2018 22: 09
                    +4
                    I usually say: "Have you seen the eggs of these quail?! (They are sold in any Pyaterochka). What can be sensible of this nanoproduct?!?!?! Works......
  9. Mikado
    Mikado April 11 2018 12: 39
    +4
    hohol95,
    I’ve also added a comment about Guriev’s porridge a little lower ...

    Saw, appreciated! good we’ll wait for Viktor Nikolayevich’s arrival - he’ll teach him how to cook buckwheat! wink drinks
  10. kalibr
    April 11 2018 12: 53
    +2
    Quote: parusnik
    It’s strange Vechaslav Olegovich .. love you to answer in the style of do-it-yourself and cancer .. Perhaps you behave with students too ...

    Well, how can one not respond in that sense by reading such fabrications about his work with students? So they would laugh when they read ... You are one thing, they are another.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik April 11 2018 17: 08
      +5
      Well, what can I do, 4-classes of the parish school ... I did not finish Penza universities ... laughing But the most interesting .. You missed the word "probably" .. What does not mean fabrication, but only an assumption ... And the last thing you could answer ... only this phrase .. For the rest, you can’t refute , either to prove or did not want, or could not ... laughing .
      1. kalibr
        April 11 2018 18: 02
        +3
        Alexei, I’m not proving anything to anyone. Fundamentally. I can - I can’t, I wish, I don’t want to ... I’m not interested in guessing over the words, the meaning that you put in them. Laughing faces to draw me also does not make sense. You think this is unpleasant for me. And therefore ... you add them. But it really doesn't matter to me. I answer you only from nothing to do, no more. Sometimes I have a clear excess of free time and then I don’t care - with whom, about what, for the sake of ... About Penza universities ... I understood the hint, but it’s important not who finished what, but what he did afterwards.
        1. parusnik
          parusnik April 11 2018 18: 40
          +7
          I answer you only from nothing to do, no more.
          ... Vyacheslav Olegovich, what an honor for me .. Next time, do not bother yourself .. About Penza universities .. No hints, absolutely ... You have a disregard for those who read your articles .. unfortunately .. You pretend to the truth in the last resort ... If someone does not agree with you, from the excess of free time, you are ready to get hungry .. show your education, or something ... Here I am ... And as for the smiles, I’m not from those people who feel bad when the other is good and vice versa ... This expression of emotions is no more .. Really funny ... Then say goodbye ... Do not waste too much time writing a comment .. Better, read or re-read the play by J.P. Sartre " Flies ", I will not retell briefly, if you haven’t read it, it will not be interesting to read, but if you have read it, then probably a long time, re-read it ... Devote time to this .. spend it profitably ...
          1. Mikado
            Mikado April 11 2018 20: 03
            +7
            oh Lord Jesus, a story abouthow Alexey Anatolyevich quarreled with Vyacheslav Olegovich". drinks over-aged and respected people, is it possible to communicate soso that words that might offend by chance do not slip? And is it possible to stop on time and not bring the situation to the point of absurdity? The most terrible conflicts are because of the most empty things, believe the experience of the despicable Mikado, which suits both of you as sons. hi And even more so, the topic of the article is clearly not conducive to abuse. stop This is empty. But pay attention, if everyone quarrels on our branch, the site will do nothing. fool Vyacheslav Olegovich, tomorrow I'm waiting for the article! soldier Alexey Anatolyevich, tomorrow I’m waiting on the forum under it! drinks Sincerely yours (both!), Nikolay love
            1. kalibr
              April 11 2018 20: 12
              +3
              The article, dear Nikolai, will be in any case. This is my job. Alexey himself chose another, to comment on everything that appears on VO. Well, thank God, this is also a necessary thing.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 11 2018 21: 11
                +2
                Vyacheslav Olegovich, I am deeply grateful to you for the articles. hi Well, and the forum .. Each participant is valuable! request Otherwise, discussion is not discussion. It is enough to look at some other branches, where they are not so much discussing as they are throwing slogans at each other. No. Thank God, we communicate with each other and discuss, and good people gathered! drinks
          2. kalibr
            April 11 2018 21: 26
            +2
            parusnik I didn’t want to answer you, but I can’t help myself .. I don’t like it when people are slandered. "You are claiming the ultimate truth." Where did you see this? In my opinion, I only do what I write in the comments - look at Truth No. ... Here is a cover photo of the book that is worth reading. Read, magazines ... names ... Here are links ... read for yourself and come to your own conclusions. Look, recently, Dmitry (reptiloid) got to the article in Pravda and didn’t I agree with his conclusions? Imposed his own on him? Or did I come up with it all? Does it pretend to be the ultimate truth? I did not know that this is done like that. Thanks, now I know! And then you still get offended when I write something to you in a simple way? It is for me to be offended that you reproach me with what actually does not exist and did not exist.
            1. parusnik
              parusnik April 12 2018 08: 24
              +5
              Vyacheslav Olegovich ... I admit that the barbecue in the form as it exists now was known in Europe, which is confirmed by the tapestry from the Bayeux .. Especially the fragment you cited .. Now I will know a few birds roasted on a skewer .. this is barbecue .. .On the first sentence, your comment, I can judge, ZHP. Sartre did not want to read ..: Sorry ... smile: ...I write by the common people... of course..Quod licet Jovi, non licet bovi .. You don’t worry, I'm leaving .. from the forum .. I won’t write any more comments, especially for everything .. sorry, I read a lot from my childhood .. And now I’m drunken fool and, I’m reading my misfortune a lot .. The question is, why .. When there are people like you on the forum .. As it was said there before ... doo wander your way .. smile Greater creative success to you..And still read Sartre's "Flies" ..
              1. kalibr
                April 12 2018 12: 00
                +1
                Well, why are you so, Alex! Nobody wants, and I, including you, to leave the forum. There is such a saying - whoever remembers the old and the eye here. You didn’t like what I wrote? And you spit! I get in trouble every now and then. So what? But nothing! I just don’t pay attention to it. And I advise you to adhere to the same practice, you never know who will write something, especially the person with whom you have "no children, no lashes." Words, believe my life experience, mean nothing. "Call at least a pot, just do not put in the stove!" - so said our ancestors and they were right. On this note, I suggest you not to keep evil on me and not to leave the site. Or to keep - why not, if you want, but still stay on the site. This is both useful and interesting. Why deprive yourself of this ?!
                P.S. Thank you for your good wishes! But Flies just have no time to read, even if it is Sartre. Physically. In addition to VO, there is a lot of other work and everything is connected with reading.
              2. Mikado
                Mikado April 12 2018 12: 37
                +1
                I will join Vyacheslav Olegovich with an appeal, and many, too! drinks Alexey Anatolyevich, imagine the situation: now, suddenly, I will write a sequel "Shove the non-shoved" fellow so who will Wagram arrange for me on the forum? Personally, I’ll ask you at least a little poop, but let me bald! laughing drinks
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 11 2018 21: 42
          +5
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, what the hell is that ?!
          1. kalibr
            April 11 2018 22: 22
            +2
            And what is wrong? Everyone has the right to think what he wants and whatever ... Has the right to do both smart and stupid things. To be in the mood and to be without it. Or did I also once impose my opinion in the last resort on you? It seems to be not ...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 11 2018 22: 41
              +3
              I definitely don’t. It's hard for me to impose an opinion. I’m too "poisoned by the pen" ... immunity, you know. Just, in this case, your remark was unpleasant, specifically for me.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 11 2018 23: 03
                +3
                forgot, fastened, tomorrow we don’t remember. drinks No one! soldier
                1. Amurets
                  Amurets April 12 2018 00: 26
                  +5
                  Quote: Mikado
                  forgot, fastened, tomorrow we don’t remember.

                  Right, namesake. How many people, so many opinions. It's just that sometimes it's better to laugh than quarrel once again.
              2. kalibr
                April 12 2018 06: 58
                +3
                Anton, and for all, only a smart and vile egoist is good, who is for everyone ... and who is precisely why he strives to be in the best relations with everyone. So the fact that I can still do something unpleasant to someone just speaks in my favor!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 12 2018 22: 07
                  +2
                  Vyacheslav Olegovich, Alexei criticized you more than once regarding your opinion on socialism. But, the vast majority of us are “born in the USSR” and everyone has their own opinion on the recent past. At such moments, I tried to support you, because fate and personal experience are different for everyone. But here’s how to "get stuck" on the topic of "long-past" barbecue-it must be able to! With all my misanthropy, I take off my hat!
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 12 2018 23: 08
                    +1
                    With all my misanthropy, I take off my hat!

                    misanthrope is good, for knowledge of the sea, and manners trained. wink And here is the Sailboat - I’ll write an article, we will call in chorus. fellow Pa-rus-nick! You-ho-di! And jumping at the same time! laughing
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 13 2018 20: 22
                      +1
                      Yes, yes, you still forgot to say that I have only two drawbacks: damn smart and terribly modest.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado April 13 2018 20: 45
                        +1
                        You, dear Anton, please be deeply mistaken. what There are three drawbacks, because it is also picturesque and beautiful! fellow drinks I think I saw you somewhere .. for sure, you are on the right! wink drinks
  11. Curious
    Curious April 11 2018 13: 36
    +6
    I propose to everyone discussing that the cycle is purposeful and to delve into the details independently, because the time and geographic scope of the process is very large and to describe everything in detail - these are volumes of books plus special knowledge that the author does not possess, which is not surprising. Therefore, we’ll forgive him “shish kebab”, since not everything that is grilled on a spit is called “shish kebab”. After all, the thermal processing of meat also has its own history, which moved from primitive roasting on a spit to processes such as stripping and tempering. Here, too, you can write a series of articles. Therefore, the cuisine and the meal of Henry II and Charles IX of Valois are two very big differences, although both are, no doubt, knights of the Middle Ages.

    Scene of cooking on a spit and hearth. Drawing in the manuscript. Netherlands, 1450.
  12. Vladimir 5
    Vladimir 5 April 11 2018 17: 43
    +3
    Food has always been the basis of life, and with wealth and opportunities, the sophistication of gluttony had no boundaries. Our knowledge is very superficial. And feasts with dozens of dishes took place at all times, the theme is endless. And the difference and the variety of dishes, as a rule, is already forgotten old, for so much has been created in this field ... True, there have been periods of great warrior and famine, but even then the number of gluttones decreased only temporarily ... Russia lived under the sign of the 20th century hunger, half starvation, and modest satiety. Now it’s as if an opportunity opens up to catch up, but again it’s not possible for everyone, but for a bunch at the trough of nation-wide goodness — here they have fun in Courchevel and with jamon, from oysters with exquisite natural champagne to ...
  13. Mikado
    Mikado April 11 2018 20: 16
    +4
    ruskih,
    Oh, how ... what and what can you say about the “Pechora salting”))) not only herring, nelma and whitefish, but also salmon)), this is also a fragrant delicacy. So it turns out Pomors are also perverts ?! wink
    Its essence lies in the fact that the fish laid in barrels is poured with a weak saline solution and under the influence of heat it does not deteriorate and does not grease to the end, but gradually turns sour, acquiring a pungent odor, and becomes slightly salted and acidic in taste. love

    Gosha! belay Elena, good evening! love honestly, I didn’t know that the Pomors did this. It seems that northern cultures are often similar. hi
    1. ruskih
      ruskih April 11 2018 21: 00
      +6
      Not only was it salted in the north, because there is omul with a sweetheart))))
      Pechora salting still exists, but certainly not for everybody. I myself couldn’t make her try laughing but mom ate with pleasure and said it was very tasty. yes
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 11 2018 21: 17
        +2
        Well, here already, I suspect who is used to anything .. by the way, I have never tried whitefish! Once I was traveling from Podporozhye (near the border with the Arkhangelsk Region), I bought at the junction from Murmansk to Staraya Ladoga (there, in Yushkovo, a fish collapse) and .. presented! request although vendace (whitefish) was considered a royal fish. It was especially appreciated from Lake Pleshcheyev (in Pereyaslavl), served to the royal table. The town of Pereyaslavl is wonderful, where Alexander Nevsky was born, and Peter learned to command the "amusing flotilla". I was there for two days .. and I did not try the vendace either! That's not rushing for whitefish, and that's it! recourse
        1. Curious
          Curious April 11 2018 22: 06
          +4
          Fermentation is one of the first and ancient ways of conservation, the only one available for some peoples.
          The product was salted, placed in a suitable container and left to ferment for a certain time. At the same time, neither the specific taste nor the smell scared anyone.
          Fermented trout is prepared by the Norwegians, already mentioned in the comments of the Swedes and Icelanders, the stinky heads of Chinook salmon are a traditional dish of the inhabitants of southwestern parts of Alaska.
          This method was used by the Romans, the dish was called Garum. They soaked the blood and viscera of the fish in salt and left to sour in the sun for 1-3 months. The liquid formed during the fermentation on the surface was decanted into a vessel and used as a sauce.
          Will you be in the Philippines or Thailand - there fish sauces are still prepared like this.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado April 11 2018 22: 23
            +2
            This method was used by the Romans, the dish was called Garum. They soaked the blood and viscera of the fish in salt and left to sour in the sun for 1-3 months. The liquid formed during the fermentation on the surface was decanted into a vessel and used as a sauce.

            it was the first experience of moving enterprises outside the city. It’s just that the “cooking process” gave off such a wild aroma that in the city people would scatter. Secondly, the transfer of enterprises to the suburbs returned only in the 21st century. Fish sauce and my friend ordered. The question is how it is cooked. Previously, the Romans and Chinese completely suffered from tapeworms because of him. Now there is processing, I hope?
            1. Curious
              Curious April 11 2018 22: 31
              +3
              "Now there is processing, I hope?"
              Blessed is he who believes. It’s good if they don’t get water for cooking from the city canal, where people relieve themselves and need, and wash themselves in them, and brush their teeth.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 11 2018 22: 35
                +3
                Blessed is he who believes. It’s good if they don’t get water for cooking from the city canal, where people relieve themselves and need, and wash themselves in them, and brush their teeth.

                and drowns dead animals .... These are local artisanal sauces, everything is clear. But those that are packaged, with labels, and which each of us can order by mail?
                1. Curious
                  Curious April 11 2018 22: 56
                  +2
                  Is that all sorts of us? Honestly, I was not at the food industry enterprises. I was in the kitchen of a local restaurant, so I didn’t write about the water from the canal from the lantern. And the sauces ... I don’t know where they are being brought from. Knowing our fighters, I won’t be surprised if they are not made from anchovies in Jakarta, but from sprats in a garage in a suburb of Kaliningrad. But you do not worry. The worm fermentation process can not survive. So eat calmly.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 11 2018 23: 01
                    +5
                    The worm fermentation process can not survive. So eat calmly.

                    yeah, he was worried in Rome! fellow even in the mummy of some Chinese empress they found a mummy of a tapeworm! No. no, I’m better somehow more traditionally hyperborean, as Samsonov bequeathed laughing and that’s all - let them eat, we are alien. stop
                    1. Curious
                      Curious April 11 2018 23: 11
                      +3
                      You are somehow very intense and suspicious of worms. How did you decide to go to the Dominican Republic? They have helmitosis very common, as well as gastric infections. It is not recommended to drink raw water and drinks with ice, because they prepare it from the same unboiled water. It is advisable to use only bottled water, pasteurized milk, vegetables, meat and fish that have undergone heat treatment.
                      So do not hide from the worms, they will overtake everywhere.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado April 11 2018 23: 23
                        +3
                        So do not hide from the worms, they will overtake everywhere.

                        Viktor Nikolaevich, I always knew about your generous kindness and that you will charge me with a positive! wink I used ice there as part of those drinks that should sanitize it laughing
  14. kalibr
    April 11 2018 21: 18
    +4
    Quote: Mikado
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I am deeply grateful to you for the articles. hi Well, and the forum .. Each participant is valuable! request Otherwise, discussion is not discussion. It is enough to look at some other branches, where they are not so much discussing as they are throwing slogans at each other. No. Thank God, we communicate with each other and discuss, and good people gathered! drinks

    The fact that each person is valuable in his own way is certain.
  15. Curious
    Curious April 11 2018 23: 27
    +3
    Mikado,
    Anything can happen. A piece of ice has not completely dissolved, you swallowed it ...
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 11 2018 23: 32
      +3
      Anything can happen. A piece of ice has not completely dissolved, you swallowed it ...

      if you are right, I will send you half by mail! belay I will share, so to speak, joy with a dear person! fellow oh good man! good you will not say anything! How am I going to sleep today ???? hi I will dream of this "piece of ice"! belay I’ll go and become internally and intra-mobile! drinks
      1. Curious
        Curious April 11 2018 23: 52
        +4
        Maybe an article on scoleciphobia in a cycle should be ordered to Vyacheslav Olegovich. Type of seasoning for the main dish. Imagine some sort of Lancelot chopping a tapeworm with the Sword of Fate!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 12 2018 11: 28
          +1
          why not, really. In any case, it will expand our understanding of the Ancient World and the Middle Ages. hi although you could write it yourself!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 12 2018 22: 16
            +1
            Already afraid to put forward the assumption regarding George the Victorious and the serpent. wassat
            1. Curious
              Curious April 12 2018 22: 56
              +1
              Do not mix cryptozoology and helminthology.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 13 2018 06: 47
                +2
                I learned about both of them at a very tender age. So it was superimposed, apparently. I live now with this childhood trauma. It is difficult, of course, but psychotherapy and auto-training allow you to level, well, at least cosmetically, deviations in the psyche.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 13 2018 20: 54
                  +2
                  I learned about both of them at a very tender age. So it was superimposed, apparently. I live now with this childhood trauma.

                  all survived. we all live with this trauma. Only Viktor Nikolayevich at a preschool age crushed his worms with intellect, which is why they laid hands on themselves because of a fatal decrease in self-esteem due to deep frustrationfellow drinks By the way, the Good Doctor said that in some county representatives of small nationalities live quietly with worms in complete agreement, and absolutely do not worry! request good
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 13 2018 21: 35
                    +2
                    Viktor Nikolayevich is still a “seasoned human being” (alas, I don’t remember who the quote is from), you can take an example for a “young man thinking about life” (this is Mayakovsky). As for the "inner world" of a person, yes, this topic was already raised in the comments and the Doctor enlightened that each nation has its own authentic "cockroaches" and treat them - "only spoil my father"
                    "When I got cockroaches, I was advised the crayon" Mashenka. Now it’s quiet in my head! They sit, draw ... "
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 13 2018 22: 35
                      +1
                      Viktor Nikolayevich is also a "seasoned human being"

                      I would add - and the most modest and the kindest at the same time! laughing one of his messages with worms is worth drinks
  16. kalibr
    April 12 2018 06: 54
    +2
    Quote: Curious
    Honestly, I was not at the food industry enterprises.

    What a pity, Viktor Nikolaevich! In pig slaughtering factories, blood stands on the floor in an even layer and ... worms crawl !!! Washers in overalls with the help of special machines foam walls by 1.5 m. Then there is a commission removes smears from both the floor and walls and checks for the presence of intestinal odor. But in the beginning, before cleaning everything looks very nasty!
    1. Curious
      Curious April 12 2018 07: 39
      +2
      Meant, Vyacheslav Olegovich, the Indonesian enterprises of the food industry. I’ve been to ours, including meat processing plants. The sight is unappetizing. At the confectionery factories and at the distillery it is much more interesting.
  17. tank66
    tank66 April 12 2018 17: 21
    +2
    I apologize in advance for the number of letters.
    Well, it so happened that I read the last book of our Pokhlebkin by William. "The Kitchen of the Century." And in one place my eye scratched a paragraph that says that:
    1. Even Pokhlebkin was sometimes mistaken.
    2. The fact of reverence for the product is amusingly confirmed, depending on its availability / as in Gaidai’s comedy about "overseas eggplant caviar" /
    Actually, what am I talking about:
    ... Lunch of King Edward VII of England. On August 4, 1909, on a Victoria and Albert yacht in Cause, a resort town on the Isle of Wight, during a regatta. The Kauska Regatta, or Kauska Week, was considered a major social event at the end of the London Sea Season, which ended on August 15. Menu:
    1. Turtle soup (broth)
    2. White fish naturally and devilishly
    3. Chauffroy de valay in Russian
    4. Saddle of a lamb a la Shivri
    5. Roast turkey and quail
    6. Artichokes in hollandaise sauce
    7. Fruit mousse with Gran Marnier wine
    8. Ham crutons a la Windsor
    9. Ice cream in the Circassian style .......
    Deciphering concepts / I will stop at the 2nd position / :
    2. "White fish" (Blanche or Weissfish, in Russian - dace), a fish of the cyprinid family that looks like a chub and lived only in small, extremely clean forest rivers, with a sandy bottom, without mud. It was the most "environmentally friendly" fish in the XVIII and XIX centuries. In Russia, it was found in all rivers of the middle and northern forest strip. Now - completely disappeared [14]. Could live only in very running water, while carp lives even in pits and puddles. It was prepared simply: boiled or fried, and then devilishly peppered!
    I can’t wait right away when the ice comes down and I catch this dace with a couple of kg, before that I used it only as live bait.
    Well, and to the heap, a couple of facts:
    1. In pre-revolutionary times, pike caviar was much more expensive than black caviar.
    2. During the construction of St. Petersburg, concluding a contract, experienced builders prescribed a point so that when feeding SEMGU they were given no more than 3 times a week - so it was cheap and "not prestigious."
  18. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 13 2018 21: 16
    +2
    Mikado,
    So it is, here, exactly me, a quarter century ago! Predatory, brutal, cute! True, there were still glasses, but by 30 they began to add charm. I take it off - they confuse me with Russell Crowe, I put it on - Shevchuk spilled. And what is this girl next to me? I don’t remember, apparently he was drunk ...
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 13 2018 22: 43
      +1
      I take it off - they confuse me with Russell Crowe, I put it on - Shevchuk spilled.

      It’s clear that it’s useless to fight him, what fellow
      And what is this girl next to me? I don’t remember, apparently he was drunk ...

      no idea. But the Miserables prefer the brown-haired woman! LLC very preferred! love drinks
  19. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 23 May 2018 16: 44
    0
    Yes, great. Especially considering that before the 18th century, the nobles didn’t eat up here either. Starvation mortality was high. The main food is rye, mushrooms, wild berries, and turnips with cabbage. All buckwheat, but the Slavs brought borscht only in the 17th century, and even then nothing grew north of Moscow. And some people ask why we do not live in Europe.