Manual for infantry action in battle [Pg., 1915. C. 5.] noted that the strength of the infantry is: "in the gun and machine-gun fire with a decisive movement forward and in a bayonet strike." And the Charter of the Field Service stated that “infantry rushes at bayonets, having shot the enemy from the closest distances with rifle and machine-gun fire” [Pg., 1915. C. 201.]. Life turned out to be more complicated than the installation of regulations and manuals - and the Russian infantry went to bayonets on the infantry, artillery and cavalry of the enemy, preparing an attack by fire or without such preparation. Qualifying for a bayonet attack was a determined throw with the aim of delivering a bayonet to the enemy. Circumstances could be varied.
Bayonet attacks were practiced in different settings — for example, during reconnaissance in force. Thus, 16 June 1916 of the 503 Infantry Chigirinsky Regiment of the 126 Infantry Division of the 45 Corps conducted enhanced reconnaissance to capture prisoners - in the direction of the count. Cowban The regiment battalion, taking advantage of the darkness, quietly approached the enemy trenches at Cowbani, perekolol garrison with bayonets and broke into the village. There was a panic. The Russians again rushed to the bayonets - and, more than 150 manned shots, captured 38 prisoners [From the combat past of the Russian army. Documents and materials about the exploits of Russian soldiers and officers. M., 1947. C. 349.]. And in another episode, a group of intelligence officers of the 201 Infantry Regiment of the Poti Regiment, at night crept up to the German outpost - and suddenly attacked the latter. The Germans were desperately defending themselves - but most of the garrison of the outpost was bayoneted, and the 50 man (including the officer) was captured. Moreover, another reconnaissance group, after knocking out the Germans from the village, seized several machine guns and prisoners. The next day, 77 Germans and 2 machine guns also became trophies of scouts.
We were interested in effective bayonet attacks during battles of various levels - attacks that helped to solve important tasks. We selected the 25 most, in our opinion effective and demonstrative bayonet attacks of the Russian infantry in the First World War - during which tasks of varying degrees of complexity were solved.
1. On the night of 20. 02. 1915, the battle for high. 85 at der. Male Dushe and Vysoka under Lomza hosted a bayonet attack by units of the Life Guard of the 3 Rifle Regiment.
In these battles, the Guards arrows defeated parts of the German 1-th Landwehr and 41-th Infantry Divisions. Summary Bids specifically noted this fact: “on the night of February 20, we knocked out the enemy from a commanding altitude west of the Staviski-Lomza highway, near the village of Karvovo, and captured 7 machine guns” [Year of war from 19 July 1914 g. To 19 July 1915 g. M., 1915. C. 272]. Guards arrows dislodged the enemy from his position, solving an important tactical task.
2. An outstanding military episode, when machine guns and prisoners became trophies of Russian guardsmen, occurred during the battle of 7 - 10 in July of 1915 (we wrote earlier about this fight - see Grenadier height).
The Life Guards Grenadier regiment of His Majesty's regiment withstood the hardest battles at der. Krupets - at a disadvantageous position reflecting the fierce attacks of superior enemy forces, supported by powerful artillery fire. The Germans attacked with alternating attacks of infantry. Key height 209 passed from hand to hand many times, and both sides suffered heavy losses. Guards grenadiers showed mass heroism. Finally, on July 10, the exsanguinated Russian battalions rose in a desperate bayonet attack.
They fought back the height the Germans had captured, advanced into the forest and, overcoming wire barriers, captured the 2 lines of the German trenches. The grenadiers, carrying the battalion, singing the regimental march, continued to lead the battalion's attack — until the next German bullet cut short his life.
Boris Ksaveryevich Sudravsky, holder of the Order of St. George 4 degree and Major General posthumously.
And the remnant of 2-th battalion was commanded by the corporal Rudenko - under his command and the second line of the enemy's trenches was captured. Fight, without exaggeration, was epic - Russian regiment 4 days to repel the attacks of four German regiments (!) - Guards Grenadier Regiment of 2-th Guards Division - 1-of Emperor Alexander, 2-of Emperor Franz, 3-of Queen Elizabeth and 4- th Queen Augusta.
4-multiple superiority in manpower and multiple superiority in artillery did not help the German guard - a bayonet counterattack of the Life Guards Grenadier Regiment allowed to keep a tactically important area on the flank of the division. In the battle of der. Krupets regiment lost killed and wounded to 80% of combat strength - 43 officer and 3000 grenadier (2 man survived in the 12 battalion). Life grenadier trophies - 800 of captured German guards and 10 machine guns.
The 1 Company (His Majesty's Company) of the Life Guards Grenadier Regiment is in full dress. 1913
3. 20. 04. 1915 was distinguished by units of the 4 Army's Grenadier Corps. The enemy began to implement the Gorlitsky breakthrough, but, despite the disastrous fire of enemy artillery, the Russians stubbornly held out. Moreover, they counterattacked. Thus, on the left flank of the 75 Division, part of the 297 Infantry Kovel Regiment, the enemy knocked the enemy out of the trenches with bayonets - inflicting enormous casualties and capturing officers of 9 and above 400 of the lower ranks of the 31 Landowner Regiment [Collection of documents of the world imperialist war on the Russian front (1914 - 1917). Gorlitsky operation. M., 1941. C. 111].
4. During the Battle of Galicia 13. 08. 1914 The Austrian 2 Infantry Regiment of the 16 Division, attempting to cover the left flank of the Russian 121 Infantry Regiment of the 31 Division, received a flank attack from units of the Russian 122 Infantry Regiment. There was a fierce bayonet clash in forest conditions. With a swift attack, the Russians overthrew the Austrians and pursued them to the southern edge of the forest. Many prisoners were captured - including the wounded commander of the 2 regiment [Shafalovich F.P. Headsliding of the 10 Army Corps on the r. Golden Lime 26-29 August 1914 g. M., 1938. C. 49.].
5. And 08. 11. 1914, in the Lodz operation, the brigade of the 10 Infantry Division, during the battle of Tychov-Charnocin-Kalska Wola, managed to capture the 4 German machine gun. Of these, the 3 (operating) machine gun in the battle of the Yuleevsky forest captured the 149 th Infantry Black Sea Regiment of the 38 th division - during a bayonet attack [RGVIA. F. 16180. Op. 1. D. 63. L. 293]. Machine gun crews held to the end and died under the blows of Russian bayonets.
6. An important tactical importance was the bayonet attack during the Third Prasnysh operation - 3 July 1915. Part of the 21 th Turkestan rifle regiment distinguished themselves. His battalions, having formed 4 lines of chains, moved to a tactically important bridge. German cavalry rushed to the attack, trying to stop the Russian - and cut down one and a half companies, but could not stop the Turkestans. The attack was joined by companies of the 5 and 7 Siberian infantry regiments. The onslaught of the Russians was so successful that half of the German 42 Infantry Regiment was partly broken by bayonets, and partially drowned in the river. The Russians captured the bridge, and by 15, the bridgehead was in their hands. [Korolkov G. K. The Prasnysh Battle. July 1915, M.-L., 1928. C. 115.].
7. 28. 08. 1915, advancing north of Tarnopol (near the village of Hlubochek-Velky), the 92 Infantry Pechora regiment broke through enemy defenses. The 2 battalion of the regiment was led to the attack by Lieutenant Colonel F. N. Lebedev. Breaking through the enemy wire barriers, Pechortsevs broke into a German defensive position under enemy dagger fire, and, using bayonets, knocking the Germans out of the trenches, captured the prisoners and the 4 machine gun. Having repulsed the enemy counterattack, the Pechorki entrenched at the dominant height. The next day, the battalion captured the next height - at the village. Anastasovka (capturing another 2 machine gun). And in total, during the battles of 28-29 in August, 2 of German machine guns became trophies of the 92-th battalion of the 8-th regiment [Oleynikov A.V. Captured in battle. Trophies of the Russian army in the First World War. M., 2015. C. 153, 249.].
8. And on May 25, 1916, the second lieutenant of the 21 th Turkestan rifle regiment Shmargun, having accepted, after the failure of the commander, the 4 th battalion, led him to Yalovets. Yazlovets was taken during a bayonet battle. At der. Brovary, the enemy stubbornly resisted - the Turkestani went into his flank, shot down with a bayonet and turned into an irregular flight. The Shmargun battalion captured prisoners, 2 machine guns and bomb bombers [From the combat past. C. 328].
9. 15. 08. The 1914 was in the center of the Russian 4 Army, the Austrian 46-I Landward Infantry Division made a breakthrough - but the situation was restored by the bayonet counterattack of the corps reserve battalions, which forced the Austrians to retreat, losing prisoners to 9 [White A. Galicia battle. M.-L., 1929. C. 94].
10. 27. 08. During the Riga operation, 1917 was distinguished by the “death” battalion of the 38 Infantry Division, along with other units, taking possession of the Yudash manor. 5 machine guns and 61 prisoners (from the German 59 and 79 reserve regiments) were captured. Drummers implemented an effective bayonet attack - and the enemy (according to the testimony of prisoners) suffered heavy losses - up to 300 killed [Fomin M. Death Battalion of the 38 Infantry Division // Military Story. 1996. No.8 (137). C. 30].
11. 24. 06. 1915 in the battle of der. Beans proved themselves fighters 3-grenadier Pernovsky regiment. In carrying out the order of the commander N. M. Kiselevsky, the grenadiers had to parry the enemy's breakthrough. Ignoring the superior forces of the enemy, they attacked - and after a fierce bayonet battle, they captured the German trenches. After a few more attacks and repelling violent counterattacks, Pernovtsy defeated the enemy. It is interesting that the Germans deceived (and several times) the Russians by throwing out the white flag and raising their hands, and then shooting the approaching Russian soldiers and officers. As a result, the prisoners were not taken, and almost all of them were from der. Beans Germans in the number of 1200 people were punctured with bayonets. An eyewitness noted 1200 of German corpses and only three prisoners - soldiers of the 217 and 2 soldiers of the 220 of the reserve regiments of the 47 of the reserve division. Most of those killed were pinned down with bayonets. Loss grenadier - about xnumx man (Details about this fight - in one of the nearest articles on HE).
12. 24. 07. 1915 during the defense of the Osovets fortress 3 of the company 226 of the Zemlyansky infantry regiment launched a counterattack - “attack of the dead”. The 13-i company, having emerged from the chemical cloud, overturned the Germans during the bayonet attack, with the support of the 8-th company, having mastered the previously lost 1-m and 2-m combat sectors (mWe wrote earlier about this fight - see 10 facts about "Attack of the Dead").
13. During the Battle of Galicia 20. 08. 1914, under der. Vladislav distinguished himself from His Majesty's Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment of the 1 Guards Infantry Division. Transfigurations attacked the 2-th infantry and 37-th driven infantry divisions of the enemy. In fierce battles for the heights of 106 and 119, bayonet battles took place. Moreover, in the course of the battle, the advanced battalions of the Transfiguration, which suffered great losses and reflected the enemy’s counterattack, were rescued by the 4 Battalion - the latter knocked down the Austrians with a bayonet attack. The battle is unique in that the Transfigurations did in this battle without the support of artillery (!), Writing a new page in the glorious history shelf. Under Vladislav, the Preobrazhensky regiment lost 17 officers (including 5 dead) and more than 600 lower ranks (200 of them died). Trophies - 1500 captives and 21 machine gun (we wrote earlier about this fight - see Transfiguration attack without artillery!).
Fight of the Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment under Vladislav 20. 08. 1914
In the course of effective bayonet attacks, the Russian infantry captured not only prisoners and machine guns, but also guns and even whole batteries.
14. Indicative is the battle of the company 52 of the Siberian rifle regiment 14. 05. 1915 at the village of Duplice Duzhe. Under the command of Ensign Maslennikov, a company attacked the enemy’s position, surrounded by 3-rows of wire obstacles and, hitting the bayonets, knocked over cover, seizing 4 heavy guns [RGVIA. F. 16180. Op. 1. D. 63. L. 288-288 v.].
15. 28. 05. 1916 The company of the 10 Zaamursky Border Regiment seized heavy weapons. Combat, noticing the current enemy battery, summoned the son of ensign and ordered to destroy the enemy. Gunners and infantry cover the battery tried to escape - but the people of Zaumur were hit with bayonets, seizing four 150-millimeter guns with calculations, as well as 150 of the infantry company of the cover company (we previously wrote about this episode - see Ensign of the Southwestern Front).
16. 01. 06. 1915 in the battle on the Dniester near the village. Roguzno distinguished 64 th Kazan Infantry Regiment [RGVIA. F. 16180. Op. 1. D. 63. L. 112-113.]. Having attacked the German positions under the strongest fire of all kinds weapons, Kazan bayonets knocked the enemy out of the trenches and captured the 3 machine gun. In the village the bayonet battle again turned around - as a result, the Prussian guardsmen could not withstand the onslaught of the Kazan men and ran. On the shoulders of the Germans, the Russian fighters reached the shooters to the last German battery, which was captured. Were crushed and the reserves of the enemy. 4 guns, 6 machine guns, as well as 14 officers and 508 lower ranks of the Germans became trophies of Kazan.
17. 11. 10. 1914 during the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation of the 94 Infantry Regiment of the Yenisei 24 Infantry Division of the 1 Corps during a bayonet attack at Kazimierz seized 8 guns and 4 German guns [Collection of documents of the world imperialist war on the Russian front (1914 — 1917). Warsaw-Ivangorod operation. M., 1938. C. 288.]. The 93 Infantry Regiment of Irkutsk regiment seized 6 guns and 2 machine guns [RGVIA. F. 16180. Op. 1. D. 63. L. 106]. The bitterness of the bayonet battle, during which the Germans tried to defend three of their batteries, is evidenced by the defeat of 2's regimental commanders — the commander of the 93 regiment was seriously wounded and the commander of the 94 was injured of the first regiment Colonel Zavarzin.
18. Also in the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation in the morning 20. 10. 1914 d. 18-Infantry Division during a successful bayonet attack at Vlosotov-Lipnik captured 3 guns and 1 machine gun [Collection of documents. Warsaw-Ivangorod operation. C. 415.].
19. During the Battle of Galicia 15. 08. 1914. The 169 Infantry Regiment of the Novo-Troksky Regiment of the 43 Division after a bayonet attack captured 2 howitzers and 4 guns [RGVIA. F. 16180. D. 63. L. 75.].
20. And 26. 08. 1914, the enemy batteries at Wojciechova captured Guards Rifle Brigade. One was captured by the arrows of the Life Guard 1 Infantry Regiment of His Majesty. Headquarters captain A. A. Ragozin became a knight of the Order of St. George 4 degree for having knocked out the enemy from his trenches, he swiftly attacked the 4's gun battery, which was behind the trenches and captured it - the gunmen who had fired until the last calculations were overloaded with bayonets [Annals of the 1914 War - 15's. No. 44 of. C. 85.]. And the 6 gun howitzer battery was captured (by removing the guns and keeping them until the main forces approached) the soldiers of the lieutenant of the Life Guards of the 2 Infantry Regiment of Tsarskoye Selo B. Ya. Dobrovolsky. The calculations were destroyed by bayonets. In total this day the Guards rifle brigade captured 20 guns and 2 machine guns [Oleynikov A.V. Captured in battle. C. 214.].
21. At the very beginning of the Lublin-Kholmsk defensive operation - 09. 07. During the battle of Maydan-Khut, the 1915 Infantry Regiment of the Gori 202 Division, 51 managed to achieve outstanding combat success by destroying the German batteries at once during the bayonet attack of 2 (we wrote about this earlier - see Guns taken on a bayonet).
The chains of the gorytsevs were moving under strong rifle, machine-gun and artillery fire. Russian captured der. Maidan-Khut, but suffered significant losses. And the enemy's artillery fire increased - heavy joined the light battery. Having overcome the fire and knocked down the Germans from the edge of the grove, the Gorians stubbornly moved forward. The 4 Company attacked a German company, entrenched on the eastern edge of the forest and firing fire on the battle formations of the 1 Battalion. The German company was partially slaughtered with bayonets, partially captured, and partially fled. The 1 and 3 battalions dislodged the enemy from the dugouts of the main defensive position - most of the German soldiers were captured. Entering the regimental reserve into battle allowed the enemy to break the resistance - after a cross-bayonet strike, the resistance of the Germans in the former Russian trenches ceased. The enemy soldiers who survived the bayonet fled to Wojslavice, pursued by fire.
At that moment, German batteries, which were located on the sides of the road on Voyslavitsa, fell under the bayonet attack of the Gorytsevs. Most of the calculations were destroyed, and the harnesses and guns captured.
The Maidan-Khut Gori regiment lost 667 people (100 killed and 567 wounded). German casualties - more than 1000 people (including over 500 corpses left on the battlefield). Russian trophies - 6 guns, 3 machine guns, a car and about 200 prisoners (from the 35 th and 25 th reserve, as well as the 4 th infantry divisions of the Beskyd corps).
Surpassing the attacking Russians by more than 4 times in manpower, supported by powerful artillery fire (while Russian artillery was silent due to a shortage of shells), the Germans were utterly defeated - and suffered heavy losses. The indecisive actions of the neighbors did not allow this remarkable tactical success to be developed, striking Voyslawitz - it was there that the surviving German soldiers fled in panic.
Trophy German guns.
22. A unique case occurred on the night of 18. 09. 1915. The 26 Infantry Regiment of the Mogilev Regiment of the 7 Division of the 5 Corps forced the r. Naroch, and during the bayonet attack from the rear captured 14 German guns. Moreover, part of the captured guns was immediately used against the enemy [Oleynikov A.V. Captured in battle. C. 248].
Finally, bayonet attacks were also of paramount operational importance - reflecting on the fate of entire operations.
23. Thus, in the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation of 4, October 1914, part of the 2-th army, in the stubborn battles of Prutkov and Rakitno conducted a series of bayonet attacks. Reflecting the blow of the Germans, the Russians moved forward - knocking the Germans out of their positions with bayonets. The most important task was solved - the necessary space was won for the deployment of the 5 Army which was forwarded through the Vistula [Collection of documents. Warsaw-Ivangorod operation. C. 276.].
24. And in the course of the Vilna strategic defensive operation, the battle for Vileika was a turning point. Only 14 Corps 10 September 1915 g. 20 captured enemy guns. The participant of these fights D.V. Balanin, describing the Russian trophies, explained the relatively small number of prisoners captured in Vileyka proper (about 200 people) by the bitterness of the bayonet street fight - the mass of Germans was jabbed with bayonets [Balanin D.V. Vileyka. (Fight 10 September 1915 of the year) // Military collection. 1916. No. 10. C. 51.].
The capture of Vileyka laid a solid foundation for the liquidation of the Sventsiansky breakthrough - on which the Germans had placed such great hopes.
25. And, finally, the most ambitious result - the result of the famous bayonet attack from Tarnavka.
26. 08. 1914, after dark, the Moscow Life Guards regiment, attacking the heights at Tarnavka, overthrew the Germans and Austrians. With the support of the Guards grenadiers and Caucasians, he solved the most important task. German military escort and gun crews were destroyed during a bayonet attack. Moreover, the calculations of the guns and machine guns of the enemy, defended to the last, were jabbed. Despite the counterattacks of the Germans, the enemy was unable to restore the situation and return the strategically important position - the Russians not only repulsed the attacks, but also counterattacked. The German 4-Land Landing Division of the Silesian Land Guard Corps remained without artillery.
The breakthrough at Tarnavka provided the Russian 4 Army with the most important advantage and opportunity for success. And the 4-I landver division, which suffered major losses, began to retreat in disarray.
The 26-27 of August, the Life Guards Moscow Regiment lost more than 3200, and the Life Guards Grenadier Regiment lost more than 2500 people.
N. M. Kiselevsky reports that more than 1200 people were captured only in his combat area [The retinues of His Majesty, Major General Kiselevsky. Relation of the commander of the 1-th brigade of the 2-th Guards Infantry Division about the battles of 25, 26 and 27 of August 1915, // Tarnavka. Bulletin of the Moscow Life Regiment Life Guards. 1964. C. 11.]. According to the August 26 rates, 3000 were captured, and on August 27, even more 500 people were captured [Year of war from July 19 1914 to July 19 1915 G. 75 C.].
Trophies - 42 Austro-German guns (only the 6-gun 1-th battery of the German 11-th artillery regiment left) - all guns were safely evacuated. Several machine guns were captured.
Germans acknowledge the loss of 26 guns, reporting that only 4 was saved [Bulletin with. 26.]. Part of the captured guns - Austrian (confirms this and the fact that the 2 captured guns were mountain) - from the 5 corps.
The breakthrough of the Austro-German front at Tarnavka had the most important operational and strategic consequences - the right flank of the Austrian 1 Army and the German corps were defeated, starting a withdrawal. He escalated into a retreat along the entire front of the Russian 4 Army.
In total, during these battles, the Russians captured up to 5000 prisoners [White A. Galicia battle. C. 311.] - Up to half of them are Germans. The Silesian Landwer Corps lost more than 3 people during 8000 days (incl. To 7000 people in the 4-nd Landwork Division defeated at Tarnavka) [Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 - 1918. Bd 2. Berlin, 1925. S. 334].
Thus, we see that during the First World War, the Russian infantry managed to achieve serious tactical (and even operational) results during the bayonet attacks and capture large-scale trophies.