Military Review

Cathedral where geese live

23
When I taught children history of the Middle Ages in the cover-Berezovsky school of the Kondolsky district of the Penza region (and it was in 1977 - 1980), I really wanted to see ... a gothic cathedral with my own eyes. These spiers aspiring to the sky, stone “rose”, gargoyles on the corners — in a word, everything that I told the guys about. But ... then it was almost impossible. Not like now. But the fate of it ... so - you want the classics, and she gives you modernity, you want to see Notre Dame de Paris, and you find yourself in front of the cathedral of the Catalan city of Barcelona. However, although it differs from the pictures in school textbooks, it is still Gothic, although Spanish, that is, a little different from that in France or Germany ... We have already told here about the churches of Cyprus. Now it is the turn of the cathedrals of Barcelona.



Cathedral of sv. Eulalia in the center of Barcelona. The cathedral is squeezed with houses from all sides, therefore it is almost impossible to consider it entirely. But what can be seen is quite enough to make sure that in front of you is a real masterpiece of medieval architecture.

And it was like that, even in the IV. on a small hill Mons Taber, where the Roman colony was located, was already a church. Two centuries later, it turned into the Cathedral, where the Church Council was held in 559 - an event of that time that is truly significant. But the Moors of al-Mansur in 985 destroyed it and had to count Ramon Berenger I about a thousandth year to start at the old place the construction of a new cathedral in the Romanesque style traditional for that era. And then King Jacob II of Aragon decided that this temple was small, and ordered to build a grandiose cathedral in its place, which we see today in the very center of Barcelona and its popular Gothic Quarter.


Here they are - his wonderful gothic vaults!


And this…


And this too ...

It began to be built in 1298 and it was built exactly 150 for years, having finished construction in 1448 according to all the canons of the traditional Catalan Gothic. The Cathedral was dedicated to St. Eulalia, a young girl who lived in the IV. and, of course, was subjected to savage torture and martyred for the faith. As it happens very often, the building was rebuilt many times. For example, its main facade in its modern form was renewed at the end of the last century and still raises criticism, although it is believed that the architects who worked on it used the original 1408 drawings. The Spire of the cathedral was completely erected only in 1913. But in principle for those who are inside this temple, all this does not really matter. It has a completely different meaning - a huge ceiling stretching to inconceivable height from Gothic arches and the stained glass windows of huge windows made in the 15th century. and illuminating at once three naves.


And this is one of these windows.

This cathedral, like Ali Baba’s cave, is half-gloom, and the more you walk on it, the more treasures are revealed to you. And no wonder, because in it 26 chapels and sacristy, a crypt with a sarcophagus of St.. Eulalia, a wonderful cloister - you can’t look at it all, just your eyes are running up!


From the abundance of sculptures and gilding just dazzled.


Not really, though, it is clear who many of these sculptures depict, since most of the inscriptions are made in Spanish, and those made in English are not enough. But it is clear that all of them are saints revered here, therefore, they did not spare the gold on them!

And look inside this cathedral does not revise everything! Immediately near the main entrance is the Baptistery Chapel with marble baptismal fonts, the work of Onofre Julia circa 1443. Accordingly, from the opposite side is the Chapel of St. Oligaria with a beautiful wrought iron grate of 1405. Next is the chapel and altar of Bishop Oligaria, over which you can see a unique wooden Crucifix, which Don Juan of Austria (the late son of the Spanish King Philip II) took to the Christian squadron flagship fleet in the battle with the Turks at Lepanto. Following the Chapel of St. Oligaria is the Chapel of St. Clement with the Gothic sarcophagus of Doña Sansa Simenis de Cabrera and the altar of the XNUMXth century. Behind the transept is the Chapel Major (Main Chapel) of the cathedral. Well, and in the numerous chapels that encircle the choirs of the gallery, there are also numerous other altars of the XIV and XV centuries, which are considered unsurpassed examples of Catalan art. In the Chapel of St. Miguel preserved altar of the XIV century. with the canvas on the plot “Visit”, in the Chapel del Patrosini (Chapel of the Holy Patrons) one of the masterpieces of Bernat Martorell is presented - the altar image “Transfiguration”, in the apse of the Chapel del Santissima Sacramento (Holy Communion) is the altar of the XIV century. with the image of the Archangel Gabriel. The sixth chapel in the altar depicts St. Martin and St. Ambrose, in the seventh (XV century) - St. Clara and St. Catherine. In the chapel of St. Inocentia is the Gothic tombstone of Bishop Ramón de Escales. To the right of the Main Altar there are two unique gravestones belonging to the founders of the cathedral: Count Ramon Berengerv I and his wife Almodis. To the left of the transept, you can get to Carrer dels Compes through Porta de Sant Iu, the oldest part of the cathedral, whose architecture has preserved Romanesque features.


In many chapels are statues. Next to the inscription in Spanish, but who is who to disassemble with the habit is complicated. For example, I really liked the sculpture of this saint in armor. But who is he - of sv. George, sv. Lucas or st. Sebastian, I still did not fully understand.


Under the main altar there is a staircase that leads to the Crypt, where in the sarcophagus of alabaster (1327 - 1339, the work of one of the disciples of Nikola Pisano, but it is not known exactly who it was) remains of St. Eulalia.


Often in medieval cathedrals you can meet knight effigy, and I, frankly, very much hoped that here I will get at least one. But no! There were no such people in the cathedral of Barcelona. But he managed to photograph a beautiful sarcophagus of alabaster with effigiy on the lid, which belonged to some bishop, very fine work.

In the central part of the main nave you can see the Renaissance fence of a large choir. Work on it began as early as 1390, when Ramon de Escales was Barcelona's bishop: his coat of arms (three staircases) can be seen on the walls of the choir. This fence is interesting because it is decorated with marble bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the life of St.. Eulalia, works by sculptors Ordonez and Vilara (1517) Behind the fence there is also something to see: there are famous wooden armchairs that adorn the multicolored gilded emblems of the Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, which the Emperor Charles V and the Archduke convened in this Cathedral in 1519. Maximilian of Austria. The chairs and the episcopal chair are the work of Sa-Anglades, and the pinnacles that adorn them are carved spiers similar to those crowned by the roofs of the cathedral — the work of the German master Lochner (completed at the end of the 15th century). In the corner, to the right of the Main Chapel, is the Sacristia, where the catholic Treasury is kept, representing the most valuable collection of religious objects and church art, among which is a 15th century reliquary, decorated with the Golden Rune order chain, personally owned by Charles V, the gilded chair of Aragon's Martin I and the 1390 tabernacle made of gold and silver. That is, things from a cultural and historical point of view are absolutely priceless.


One of the side entrances to the cathedral.


And this is his "rose". You don't even know which one is the main one or this entrance is more beautiful ...

In Kluatr (inner courtyard) you can get through the southern gate of the temple, from the Santa Lucia Chapel, located to the right of the main entrance to the cathedral, and through the beautiful portal of St. Eulalia in the style of "flaming" Gothic, XV century. Here you can see the covered Gothic gallery, and a charming garden with magnolias, medlar and palm trees, a small active fountain, as well as the cathedral museum, which houses a 11th-century font, ancient tapestries and various church utensils. But the most interesting thing in this courtyard is white geese. Yes, yes, here behind the bars, and from time immemorial, live white geese, exactly 13 pieces - and for some reason it is believed that they guard the rest of the townspeople who are buried near the cathedral. These geese are very important and well-fed, downright Christmas, but they gladly accept food from the hands of tourists. Probably, if they could talk, they would have long ago expressed themselves not only in Spanish, but also in French, and in Italian, and even in Russian, since our compatriots here are also missing.


Here is the gallery ...


And here are these famous geese ...


The courtyard inside.

We in the churches decided to put candles. And here too there were plenty of candles, but instead of live fire there were light bulbs in them. It is interesting that around each altar there was made something like a frame of light bulbs, and at its base there is a coin acceptor at the level of the hand. My granddaughter really wanted to put a coin in there, and I gave her a one-cent coin. Click! And in front of the altar one light bulb caught fire. Shone a little and went out. From two cents two bulbs caught fire already. Then my granddaughter got a taste and demanded one euro. And she did not have time to lower it, as a hundred light bulbs lit up immediately around the altar. Burning, they, however, not very long, but it was very beautiful. And by the way, everything is fair - you pay money - it burns. It is not necessary to watch, as we have, that a candle put by you at once is some kind of ... “strange woman in black” will not extinguish and put it in the box under the altar. Not always and not always, but ... it happens!

Coming out of the cathedral, you will certainly want to get around it from all sides. Do not forget that the entrance to the "Gothic Quarter" is to the right of the cathedral, if you face it and you can wander there for a very, very long time.


Entrance to the streets of the "Gothic Quarter".


So there you can wander for a very long time ...


But there are a lot of interesting things too ... Here, for example, what a fancy street balcony.

Cathedral where geese live

On the walls of the cathedral you can see such a gargoyle ...


... and now such an elephant - "rain spillway" ...


... and very interesting reliefs. For example, such, dated 1300 year. It, as you can see, depicts a warrior in podsospeshnoy clothing, chain mail with patch plates on his hands, and a helmet like "iron pan". But the most interesting is the armor on his feet. Exactly the same as the effect of Count Tranqualel from the castle of Carcassonne! That is, for Spain, it was quite normal for the time protective equipment.


On this bas-relief is a famous scene - "Samson is tearing apart the lion's mouth." But I wonder how he tried to beat the Spanish sculptor: he armed Samson with a dagger!


If after all this you really want to drink, then at your service here is such, and a very old, urban drinking bowl of the 18th century, which nevertheless still works.
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23 comments
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  1. Vard
    Vard April 7 2018 06: 13
    +3
    What can I say ... Beautiful ... But it presses ... On the psyche ...
    1. Hoc vince
      Hoc vince April 7 2018 10: 19
      +2
      To whom it is ... The house of God on earth, directed to Heaven ...
      Many thanks to the author, there is a mood, style, illustrations - WONDERFUL ...
  2. Amurets
    Amurets April 7 2018 06: 42
    +4
    My granddaughter really wanted to drop a coin there, and I gave her a cent. Click! And in front of the altar one light came on. Illuminated a little and went out. Two cents already lit from two cents. Then my granddaughter got a taste and demanded one euro. And before she had time to lower it, a hundred light bulbs lit immediately around the altar. They burned, though they didn’t last very long, but it was very beautiful. And by the way, everything is fair - you pay money - it burns. You don’t have to follow, as we have, that any candle you put right there ... "a strange woman in black" will not pay off and will not put it in a box under the altar. Not everywhere and not always it happens, but ... it happens!

    I already wrote in my comments that any church is a business project that should bring and brings income. Here's how Lisa Kleipasodna and American churches are described. “Almost immediately, it became clear that the Eternal Truth resembled an empire rather than a church. Actually, the Houston Chronicle spoke of it as a“ giant church ”, which owned a small fleet of private jets, a runway and real estate including mansions, sports fields, and my own editorial company. I was amazed when I learned that Eternal Truth has its own oil and gas field, which is managed by a subsidiary of Eternity Petrol Incorporated. Five hundred people worked in the church, and Board of Directors composed of twelve people. " Let the faithful forgive me, but it really is. And the article is really interesting and there are a lot of good photos.
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2018 07: 14
    +4
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! As if he was back in Barcelona, ​​an amazing city! And the night Gothic quarter is a separate fairy tale!
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2018 07: 20
      +2
      Glad you liked it. We didn’t go on an excursion to the “night” - night, it’s night in Africa too, but during the day we were there for a long time and it was impressive.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2018 21: 26
        +1
        Here let me disagree. The night beyond the Arctic Circle is very different from the Ukrainian night (I wasn’t in Africa - I won’t lie). And the night of a certain city - even more so! Sounds, smells, light, movement - everything is different! In principle, I am a solar creature, but this gamut of sensations is fascinating!
        1. kalibr
          April 7 2018 21: 35
          +1
          Here a lot depends on the time and place right here and now. Once he arrived with his wife and daughter at night in Gurzuf and the night was ... magical. They put her daughter to sleep on a bench at the bus station and went for a walk ...
          Then also in our time we arrived in Alupka. It was also fun to run around at 11.00 to look for an apartment. But ... the service is super - found excellent. And every time this running around the night resort towns was ... something special!
        2. Mikado
          Mikado April 8 2018 11: 00
          +1
          (I wasn’t in Africa - I won’t lie).

          Viktor Nikolaevich was on the other hand, he beat the monkeys angry My friends, all a happy holiday! Christ is Risen! Happiness and health to you and your families! drinks
  4. vitvit123
    vitvit123 April 7 2018 09: 04
    +1
    You don’t have to follow, as we have, that any candle you put right there ... "a strange woman in black" will not pay off and will not put it in a box under the altar. Not everywhere and not always it happens, but ... it happens! [Quote] [/ quote]
    Try not to follow (not notice) - it may be easier.
  5. Brutan
    Brutan April 7 2018 09: 18
    +3
    What's the beautiful
    Mesmerizing
  6. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 11: 53
    +5

    "On it, as you see, a warrior is depicted ..."
    The main thing here is not a warrior - the main thing is the sword! This is the Sword of Vilardell, with which Solera de Vilardell kills the dragon. For the Catalans, this is probably much more than for the British the Sword of King Arthur. - Escalibur.
    This dragon terrorized the entire district of Sant Seloni, until the owner of the small castle of Vilardell was given the "miraculous sword" with which he slaughtered the dragon. True, he himself was poisoned by his blood and died.
    There is one very significant difference between Escalibur and the Sword of Vilardell. If Escalibur is a legendary sword, then the sword of Vilardell - with a high probability - is real, but overgrown with legends.
    Why I speak about a share of probability - two swords argue for this title. The first - "Espasa Vilardella" is kept in the Museum de l'Armée in Paris. The second is "Tisó" at the Museu de l'exèrcit in Toledo. Each has a lot of literature and for each you can write a very voluminous article.
    As for the knight's armor. they are described in great detail by Martí de Riquer i Morera in L'arnès del cavaller: armes i armadures catalanes medievals (Knight's outfit: Catalan medieval armor and weapons).
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 7 2018 12: 22
      +1
      father came and distributed: to all sisters - earrings, to all brothers in the balls. Joke! Thanks to the author for the article, to you, Viktor Nikolaevich - for the addition. It’s nice to read such topics. I want excursions. hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2018 21: 30
        +2
        laughing Here is such an Easter joke.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 7 2018 21: 47
          +1
          in relation to Viktor Nikolaevich - this is the true truth. Give it all away! good
    2. kalibr
      April 7 2018 12: 40
      +3
      Wonderful addition!
    3. Monarchist
      Monarchist April 7 2018 14: 49
      +4
      V. N. Well, as usual, an encyclopedic supplement. Like Mikado, I like sensible additions.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 7 2018 20: 28
        +3
        Personally, I am inclined to consider Viktor Nikolayevich a valuable participant in the discussion. hi Each is valuable in its opinion. Everyone is different, and the comments are different, but Viktor Nikolaevich really took his rightful, unique niche! good
  7. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 12: 40
    +3
    “There is a famous scene on this bas-relief -“ Samson tore the mouth of a lion. ”But I wonder how the Spanish sculptor tried to beat her: he armed Samson with a dagger!”
    Here, Spanish-speaking sources are cautious, using "apparently", "maybe", "should be", i.e. There is no categorical statement.
    In some sources there is a variant of St. George and the serpent. Indeed, according to legend, St. George killed the serpent with a sword.

    George kills a snake in front of the townspeople (Vittore Carpaccio, 1502-1507)
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist April 7 2018 15: 07
      +3
      V. N, in my opinion the legend says that St. George stabbed a snake and therefore traditionally it is customary for the Orthodox to portray George with a spear in his hands. At least I heard it on the radio and the father told me that the spear should be canonical.
      Somewhere I read or heard that in medieval Russia they considered: a spear or a sword, etc., a "noble" weapon, and a knife - a "mean" weapon
      1. Curious
        Curious April 7 2018 17: 49
        +1

        Russian icon of the late XV century.
        In Orthodox iconography, they rely on "iconographic originals" - manuals for icon painters containing a collection of samples defining all the details of canonical images of various persons and events reproduced on the icons.
        "The miracle of St. George, how to save the damsel from the serpent, is written like this: the holy martyr George sits on a white horse, holding a spear in his hand and pricked the serpent into the larynx; and in another country there’s a mountain, and on a cut of Jezer there is a damsel, a royal daughter, the robe of the tsar’s royal great dress, holds the serpent with his belt and leads the serpent's belt into the city, and the other girl closes the city’s gates; the castle is surrounded by a fence and a tower from the tower the tsar is looking, in the image of a Rus, the brad is small and the queen is with him, and behind them is a bolier , warriors and people with axes and replicas. "
        At the same time, according to the main versions of the miracles of St. George, he “tamed” the serpent with a spear, then killed with the sword. Therefore, on icons, he meets with a sword.
        You can see in detail http://www.pravenc.ru/text/162188.html
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 7 2018 15: 18
    +5
    Comrades, all respecting Russian culture and history, I congratulate you on the Annunciation. Among us there are Orthodox and Catholics, Muslims and Gentiles (now such are possible), but we all must respect historical culture. Happy Holiday Once Again
  9. NF68
    NF68 April 7 2018 15: 58
    +4
    Interesting article.
  10. serge siberian
    serge siberian April 7 2018 17: 22
    +1
    I thank the author for the informative, albeit brief, article and photo. I liked it very much.
    Friends, let's also write translations of your excerpts into Russian. We are on a Russian-language website, please do not forget this.