In 1992, a civil war broke out in the republic. The militants-terrorists who broke their camps in Afghanistan added fuel to her fire. In fact, the Tajik-Afghan border at that time turned into a continuous front line. Not only Russian border guards, but also 201 soldiers of a motorized rifle division, pilots, paratroopers, special forces soldiers had to fight on it. So far many have heard the attack of bandits on the 12 frontier post of the Moscow border detachment 13 in July 1993 of the year.
Inside the republic, 201 troops of a motorized rifle division and special forces sent there from Russia, had to protect and defend military and critical industrial facilities located in the republic, repel constant attacks by militants on the locations of military units and institutions, liberate towns and villages captured by illegal gangs , provide the population with food.
The Russian servicemen did not have a specific enemy, he appeared unexpectedly on both sides of the civil war. In the course of these clashes, there were both dead and wounded; sometimes, without a single shot in response, they died: on the way home, when moving through the territory of the republic, etc.
During clashes with armed groups of border trespassers, performing peacekeeping tasks, as well as as a result of gangster attacks on locations of military units and institutions, terrorist acts and sabotage by illegal armed units, units and subunits of the Russian Army, Border Troops and security forces lost their lives dead and missing 302 person. Sanitary losses of military personnel and civilian personnel amounted to 1583 people, including the wounded, contused and injured - 384, sick - 1199 people.
In those years, no one doubted that the Motherland, as they say, would not forget its heroes. However, it turned out that the events in Tajikistan were in the shadow of the Chechen war. About them somehow forgotten. Therefore, the status of a war veteran was not available to citizens who were performing military duties in armed conflict.
In April 2011 of the year, the Government of the Russian Federation introduced the draft law “On Amendments to the Federal Law“ On Veterans ”(in terms of assigning military servicemen to military service under military conflict in the Republic of Tajikistan) as war veterans.
And now, finally, 7 November 2011, the President of the Russian Federation signed Federal Law No. XXUMX-FZ, according to which the Law "On Veterans" appeared a cherished line about Tajikistan, and from January 307, military personnel performing military duties under the armed conflict on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan in September-November 2012 of the year and from February 1992 of the year to December of 1993, acquire the status of a war veteran.
It would seem that justice prevailed. New year participants of those events met with joy. However, when yesterday's fighters began to apply for registration certificates of a veteran of hostilities, the illusions vanished. The relevant authorities began to demand confirmation of the fact of direct participation in the hostilities of a particular soldier.
It would seem, what problems?
In the Explanatory Note to the bill, voiced in the State Duma by the State Secretary, Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation Nikolai Alexandrovich Pankov, it is noted that during the performance of combat missions in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, the military personnel honorably fulfilled their military duty, showed courage, boldness and heroism , for which many of them were awarded state awards.
33,6 thousand troops (from the Russian Ministry of Defense 26,6 thousand people; from the FSB of Russia - 7 thousand people) were recruited for combat missions, of which 30% are participants in the hostilities in Afghanistan and the North Caucasus region. 23520 people do not have this status.
The adoption of this federal law will make it possible for participants in hostilities on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan to establish legal guarantees of social protection in the context of military conflict in order to create conditions that ensure them a decent life, vigorous activity, honor and respect in society.
But in 2012, it turned out that official information on participation in hostilities could not be found either in directives, or in orders, or in personal files, or in archives.
In those years, in all documents, including in the section “participation in hostilities”, the record was made “he took part in performing tasks in the zone of armed conflict in the Republic of Tajikistan, has the right to calculate the length of service for one year for three months”. Even in the Decrees of the President of the Russian Federation on awarding state awards, the wording “For courage and heroism shown in the performance of special tasks in conditions associated with a risk to life” is most common, and the Decrees, for the most part, have a number with the number “zero”.
Since December 2011, the archives of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the PS of the FSB of Russia are literally “overwhelmed” with requests to confirm the fact of participation in hostilities, which are considered for at least 3 months and mainly give answers to: information about injuries, contusions and actual participation in combat no action.
I will give a personal example. I'm in 1992-1994. He took direct part in the hostilities, including the combat operation to free Russian-speaking hostages in Rogun, 7000. About this there is an entry only in the historical form of the regiment. I have two mine-explosive wounds (15 March 1993 and 2 May 1994), was awarded the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 01294 of 6 May 1993, the order "For personal courage." But the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation cannot confirm the fact of my participation in hostilities, since they have neither the historical form of the regiment, nor information about the wounds I received, nor the award material (it has a “secret” signature stamp).
There are more paradoxical answers.
Here is the answer from the archives of the FSB of Russia, Major Andrei Anatolyevich Prikazchikov, which confirms his service in the Republic of Tajikistan from 12 May 1993 of the year to 28 of August 1997, that he was awarded:
Order "For Military Merit" - for the courage and heroism shown in the performance of a special task (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 1251 from 23.08.1996);
the medal "For Courage" - for the difference in the protection of the state border of the USSR (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on 28.03.1994);
the distinction "For service in Tajikistan" - for an exemplary service for the protection of the state border, high-quality performance of service and combat missions (Decree of the RF DFPS № 711 from 22.10.1996);
that in the presentation for the award of major Prikazchikov A.A. the medal "For Courage" recorded:
“13.07.1993 of the year during the breakthrough of the blockade of the 12 frontier post, captain A.A. while being directly in the battle formations of the head marching outpost, he personally discovered and destroyed under the enemy’s fire an ambush of IPV fighters and ISA mojaheds with an anti-tank grenade launcher. As a result, he provided the movement of the border detachment column. Further, under enemy fire, with a group of soldiers, he mastered two tactically advantageous heights, which he held until the main forces approached. During the battle, he personally destroyed the sniper and machine gun crew of the enemy.
Performing an operational task, with the risk to life, he received proactive information about the enemy’s movement and firing points, which made it possible to correct artillery fire and successfully accomplish the combat mission.
For courage and bravery shown in the protection of the state border, the captain of the ORGANIZER A.A. worthy of awarding the medal "For Courage".
Foundation: personal business, f.1324, op. 28, d.124, l.1,3,6,7,9,12.
And now, as if summing up a line under the above facts from the combat biography of Major Prikazchikov AA, the employees of the FSB Archive conclude:
There is no information about injuries and contusions, actual participation in hostilities on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan in the personal file of Major Prikazchikov Andrey Anatolyevich.
But the head marching outpost is not a single captain of the Prikazchikov AA, behind her are the main forces of the Moscow Frontier Detachment and the 201 division of the motorized rifle division that went to the rescue of the border guards. This is only one episode of the war, and even after him hundreds of human destinies.
It is not difficult to guess what answers are given to those who were not presented to the awards.
Such a response from the FSB archive to Mikhail Zadornov would have been read from the stage, so the viewer would have laughed. But those who sacrificed their lives for the sake of the Motherland are no laughing matter.
The problem is that bullets did not issue certificates. They either killed, or wounded, or flew by. Those who were not hit by the bullets, as it now turns out, were terribly unlucky - according to the inquiries, they did not fight, which means, according to officials, “they cannot be veterans of military operations”.
Most likely, military personnel who received injuries, contusions, state awards will be able to receive certificates of war veterans, but this is no more than 1000, but what about the rest of 22000?
As of April 25, only a few have been issued certificates, the majority of requests have not been reviewed. Almost all border guards are denied.
So it turns out the law was adopted, and it has already been a month in 4.
All in all, it was necessary in November-December 2011 of the two Ministries (Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the FSB) to amend the existing orders defining the procedure for issuing certificates:
in the order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation dated 2 on November 2009, No. 1177;
in the order of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation from 4 December 2008, No. 588.
The instructions approved by these orders should be clearly stated:
for persons performing military duties in armed conflict on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan in September-November 1992 and from February 1993 to December 1997, the documents confirming their participation in hostilities include: an extract from the personal file, a record in a military card, an order (an extract from an order), a certificate from a military unit, a certificate from an archival institution, giving the right to be credited to one year of service for three months. certificates of injuries, award materials and other documents confirming his actual participation in the performance of these tasks.
After all, it is not the serviceman’s fault that at that time the state was silent about the fact of the participation of Russian servicemen in the war on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan and called it the fulfillment of tasks in the state of emergency and armed conflict.
And in fact, the lack of information confirming the fact of direct participation in the military operations of a specific soldier from a legal point of view cannot be a reason for refusing to receive a certificate of a veteran of military operations, since the draft law considered the issue of giving military officers the status of a military veteran performing tasks in armed conditions conflict. The facts confirming their participation in an armed conflict are the guarantees and compensations applied to them in that period: an increased amount of money (two to one) and the crediting of their service life (one month for three).
Ask why this all happens?
Here are a few, in my opinion, answers.
The easiest: they wanted the best, but it turned out as always. Agencies entitled to issue certificates use instructions 2000, 2008 and 2009, which de jure cannot be used for participants in an armed conflict in the Republic of Tajikistan in 1992-1997.
More complicated: the state allocated from the federal budget for the implementation of the adopted Law in 2012, 719,1 million rubles, that is, about 60 million rubles per month. As of 1 March 2012, none of the 23 thousands of participants in the armed conflict in the Republic of Tajikistan received a war veteran certificate. The question is: what are 240 million rubles spent on, and what will the rest be spent on?