Military Review

"Remember that you are mortal!"

102
Already in ancient times, namely in the Paleolithic era, people formed three groups of mystical beliefs that were included in all the major religions of the world - animism, totemism and magic. “My soul is singing!” Is animism, the names Volkov, Sinitsyn, Kobylin are totemism, well, the well-known student “freebie come” is typical, albeit a very primitive magic. Well, ceremonial helped people to live in the complex world of spirits and gods. Holidays in honor of the gods and goddesses were to appease them. The victims, sometimes bloody - to feed. And, of course, all these ceremonies strongly acted on the “common people”, inspired him with obedience or, on the contrary, forced him to exult when it was required of those in power.




For historians, it is very important that in the era of the empire, Roman emperors not only arranged triumphs for themselves, but also began to build triumphal arches in honor of their victories and decorate them with bas-reliefs telling of these victories. For example, one such bas-relief from the triumphal arch of Emperor Constantine in Rome. It shows extremely accurately the equipment of the Roman soldiers of this time, including the trousers of the marriage. Of particular interest is the extreme left legionnaire. He is wearing a metal scale armor with a notched hem and for some reason is so short that he barely covers his “causal place”. One can clearly see his helmet, shield and sword in a sling on the right.

A special role was played by the ceremonies in the war. All oaths there on the sword, on blood, kissing banners and standards should symbolize a kind of “covenant” with both the patron gods and the commanding fathers, whose power over the souls and bodies of their soldiers was illuminated by divine authority. The more complicated a society is, the more difficult its ceremonies are, as a rule. In the Ancient World, the Roman ceremony connected with the celebration of victory reached its peak. Here the worship of the gods, who granted the victory to the Roman, merged into one arms, and the glorification of the warriors who obtained it, and the public reward to the commander for all that he did for the greatness of Rome.


Column of Constantine. It is fenced, and you can not get closer to it. Well, the upper bas-reliefs can only be removed with the help of a quadcopter.

All this was embodied in triumphs - festive processions dedicated to the victories of the Roman army upon his return home. At first, everything was pretty simple: upon entering the city, the soldiers went to the temple and brought thanks to the gods for giving them victory and sacrificing part of the captured booty to them. But then the triumphs turned into grand processions (and many centuries later, when Rome had long since fallen, into no less grand military parades with the passage of troops, tanks and rockets).

"Remember that you are mortal!"

Arch of Emperor Trajan in Benevento, Italy.

But if at the beginning of the holiday was the return of any troops to Rome. So over time, the triumph became a kind of difference and was allowed under the presence of a number of conditions. Triumph was considered the highest reward for the commander, which he could deserve only if he had a Senate baton - imperium (lat. - power), which gave him the broadest powers, and waged a war without submitting to the power of another commander. However, Roman democracy allowed rewarding with triumph and ordinary officials (consuls, praetors, proconsuls and propretors), the dictator and those who were granted the highest authority (imperium extraordinarium) could receive it by a special resolution of the national assembly. Usually, the senate decided to be or not to be triumphant. But sometimes, if he refused to the commander in triumph, he could get it by contacting the people's assembly. This happened, for example, in the case of Martius Rutil (the first of the plebeians, who became a dictator and won the triumph in Rome).


Arch of Emperor Trajan in Canosse.

Triumph was given to the commander only when the war was over (although, as always, there were exceptions). In addition, the victory in it itself was bound to be accompanied by a battle that would lead to great losses in the enemy troops. The rule was this: to give triumph only if no less than five thousand enemy soldiers are killed in it.

The commander, who wanted to get a triumph, had to send a "request" to the Senate and wait for his decision, being certainly outside the city limits, since the official, who did not lay down the imperium, was not allowed to enter the city. The senators also held a meeting on the Field of Mars, that is, outside the city limits, in the temple of the goddess Bellona or the god Apollo, where they considered the request of their commander to give him a triumph. On the day when the triumph was appointed, all its participants had to gather early in the morning on the Field of Mars, where a victor arrived in one of the public buildings (villa publica) dressed in luxurious clothes. Interestingly, in his attire, he resembled the figure of Jupiter Capitoline - a statue on Capitol Hill. This “costume” consisted of a tunica (tunica palmata), embroidered with palm branches, in the same purple-colored toga pieta. Kaligi boots, the type of soldier's shoes, were of red leather and finished with gold. In one hand he had to hold a bay branch, and in the other - an ivory scepter, the top of which was a golden eagle; the head of the victor has always been decorated with a laurel wreath.


Triumphal arch of Trajan in Timgad, Algeria.

He had to enter Rome on a round gilded chariot-quadriga, drawn by four white horses. When the victor Camille first appeared on a chariot drawn by white horses, the public greeted it with a murmur, since white horses were a symbol of the deity, but then they became an ordinary phenomenon. Sometimes horses were replaced by elephants, deer and other rare animals, connected, so to speak, to the place of victory of the victor. Thus it was the triumphal chariot that represented the center of the procession. However, its democratic nature was emphasized by the fact that senators and magistrates were ahead of it, and trumpeters who were blowing loudly into silver or gilded pipes were behind them.

Along the entire long road along which the procession moved, the inhabitants of the Eternal City crowded, eager for bread and circuses, in their best clothes, with wreaths of flowers on their heads and olive branches in their hands. Naturally, many sought to see their loved ones returning from the march, but that part of the audience in which the trophies they had seized followed the chariot of the victor were of particular interest.


Arch of Titus Flavius ​​Vespasian in Rome.

In ancient times, its stories Rome fought with its neighbors, people as poor as the Romans themselves. Therefore, they had the simplest trophies: weapons, cattle and prisoners. When Rome began to wage wars with the ancient and rich countries of the East, the winners began to bring so much prey from there that the triumph dragged on for two or three days, and Trajan’s triumph in 107 was so lush that it lasted 123 days. On special stretchers, carts and simply in the hands of warriors and slaves carried and carried captured weapons, banners, models of cities taken and fortresses, and statues of defeated deities, captured in the ruined temples. Together with the trophies, they carried tables with texts telling about the exploits of the Roman weapon or explaining what, in fact, are the objects carried to the public. Sometimes it could even be different unseen animals from conquered countries, and rare works of art. It is not surprising that a huge amount of artistic treasures, precious dishes, gold and silver coins in vessels and ingots of precious metals were exported from Greece, Macedonia and other countries of Hellenistic culture. They carried in the procession also golden wreaths that the victor received in different cities. So, during the triumph of Emilia Pavel, these wreaths were 400, and Julia Caesar was presented in honor of his victories over Gaul, Egypt, Pont and Africa ... around 3000! And this is not for all named victories, but for each of them!


The bas-relief from the arch of Titus Flavius ​​Vespasian, depicting a triumphal procession with trophies from the captured Jerusalem.

White sacrificial bulls with gilded horns, decorated with flower garlands accompanied by priests and young men in white tunics and also with wreaths on their heads, proceeded without fail in the procession. But perhaps the main decoration of triumph in the eyes of the Romans were not bulls and captured trophies, but ... noble captives: defeated kings and members of their families, as well as their entourage, and enemy commanders. Some of these captives were killed on the orders of the victor during the triumph in a special prison on the slope of the Capitol. In the early era of Roman history, the killing of prisoners was the most common occurrence and had the character of human sacrifice. However, later the Romans did not abandon this custom. That was how the king of Yugurta and the Gallic leader Vercingetorix were killed.


Titus Flavius ​​Vespasian on a quadriga during the triumph.

Demonstrating to all the power of the victor, in front of him were the lectors with fascias entwined with laurel branches; along the procession, the jesters and acrobats, making fun of the crowd, ran. And it is interesting that the victor in his chariot was not one, he was surrounded by specially recruited children and his relatives, who demonstrated the presence of close family ties, which were highly valued in Rome. It is also known that behind the triumphant there was always a state slave who held a golden wreath over his head and from time to time whispered in his ear: “Remember that you are mortal!” His main assistants, legates and military tribunes, and sometimes and Roman citizens released from enemy captivity. And only after all this, legionnaires in ceremonial gear and sultans on helmets entered the city, demonstrating their awards received in battles. They sang funny songs, in which they were allowed to ridicule the shortcomings of the victor, than they once more hinted to him that he was also a man, and not a god!


Another view of the same bas-relief.

Starting on the Champ de Mars, at the triumphal gates, the procession moved further through two circuses: the Flaminiev circus and the Maximus circus (“Big”), and then along the Sacred road and through the forum went up to Capitol Hill. Here, to the statue of Jupiter, the victor of the victor folded the laurels of his fascias, and he himself brought a magnificent sacrifice. Then there was a feast of magistrates and senators, and often also soldiers and even the entire assembled public, for which tables were set up along the streets, and bulls and rams were set right on the streets. The gladiator games were part of the “program”. Sometimes the commander handed out gifts to the public. Gifts to the soldiers were the rule and were sometimes very significant. For example, Caesar paid out some five thousand denarii to his soldiers. Those who were awarded the triumph were entitled to wear triumphal attire during the holidays, which was also one of their privileges.


Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.

In the era of the empire triumphs became the property of emperors alone. They did not want to share glory with anyone, sometimes allowing triumph except for their closest relatives. The commanders were allowed only to wear a triumphant attire (ornamenta, insignia triumphalia) and install their statues among the statues of previous victors. However, they could not complain. After all, officially the emperor was commander in chief and, therefore, the commander acted on his behalf and under his command.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech April 6 2018 05: 30
    +7
    With great interest I read an article by V. Shpakovsky.
    This was especially interesting ...
    They sang funny songs, in which it was possible to ridicule the shortcomings of the triumph, which hinted to him once again that he was also a man and not a god!

    All the same, the Romans were quite smart people who understood that it was human vices that destroy entire states ... which, incidentally, was confirmed by the death of the Roman and Byzantine empires.
    It would be nice to hint regularly to some of our powers that they, too, are not Gods, but just insignificant people in the hands of God's forces and those of Mother Nature.
    1. Artek
      Artek April 6 2018 08: 08
      0
      this emperor Septimius Severus had some strange name, the word _Septimius_ “means -Sever_, and the word _Sever_ is generally Russian words, what was the name of the imperator?
      1. sivuch
        sivuch April 6 2018 09: 08
        +10
        Septimius Severus - Seventh Severe
        1. Artek
          Artek April 6 2018 09: 11
          0
          Quote: sivuch
          Septimius Severus - Seventh Severe


          no, no, _sever_ exactly
          Etymology
          Comes from praslav. * sěver, from the cat. among other things occurred: dr. sѣvєr, old glory. sѣvєr (Ostrom., Supr.), Bulgarian north, serbohorv. sjȅvȇr, Slovensk. sẹ́ver, Czech, Slovak sever dr.-czech sěver. Related lit. šiaurỹs (vin. šiáurį), “north wind”, šiáurė “north”, šiaurùs “severe, piercing to the bones (wind)” (* ḱēur-), lat. caurus "northeast wind", gothic. skūra windis “hurricane”, dr.-v.-it. scûr "downpour". Used data dictionary M. Fasmer. See References.
          1. Luga
            Luga April 6 2018 10: 37
            +7
            Quote: Artek
            no, no, _sever_ exactly

            Another proof that the Roman emperors were Russian ... recourse
            Arguments that Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus) spoke Latin, as indeed all his surroundings, do not pass. It is equally useless to talk about what our ancestors were at the time they were at what stage of social development.
            By the way, Septimius Sevres on a new chronology - who?
            1. kalibr
              April 6 2018 11: 03
              +4
              Alexander Nevsky, of course, he is Batu Khan and Dmitry Donskoy in one person, is it really not clear? Born in Hyperborea, as his name indicates ...
              1. The comment was deleted.
                1. kalibr
                  April 6 2018 19: 00
                  +1
                  And here there is nothing to do, there is no one to answer, so why not laugh?
              2. Mikado
                Mikado April 6 2018 11: 15
                +5
                Born in Hyperborea, as his name indicates ...

                it turns out that Anton and I live in the middle of Hyperborea? belay
                I saw a church in Pereslavl-Zalessky, in which he was baptized. There is a sign that the prince-pope’s tower stood nearby. The town is unique in some ways, there is history all around. Starting from the "amusing flotilla", and ending with the narrow-gauge museum, which is held on golnoy enthusiasm. good
                Vyacheslav Olegovich, can I criticize the arches of Vespasian? laughing Primitive people were these Romans! wink All kinds of triumphs, trophies, soldiers were portrayed, and most importantly - forgot! request Because according to the actions of the Vespasianov, the cover of the sewer manhole should have been depicted in the center! fellow laughing
                1. Luga
                  Luga April 6 2018 14: 57
                  +3
                  Quote: Mikado
                  in the center there should have been a manhole cover!

                  She was, but her evil Vaticans kidnapped. In the photo with a general view of the arch on the left, even the trace as it was dragged is clearly visible - obviously towards the Vatican. laughing
                  Ask why? It is necessary ...
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 6 2018 15: 02
                    +4
                    She was, but her evil Vaticans abducted. In the photo with a general view of the arch on the left, even the trace of how it was dragged is clearly visible - clearly towards the Vatican. laughing

                    I will answer! For the Catholic Church, in its conspiracy to rule the world, planned to use human darkness and lack of culture, and for this it completely destroyed the ancient Roman culture of latrines. am Secondly, the ability to use the toilet in Europe brought Hyperborean Slavs in 1812. soldier Well, Michael, how did Samsonov come out of me? wink drinks
                    1. Luga
                      Luga April 6 2018 15: 40
                      +4
                      I put a solid "four plus". There is a shortage of Vedic fire Orthodoxy, a matrix, and perhaps the "Catholic Church" must also be replaced by the "masters of the West." Samsonov can retire. good laughing
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado April 6 2018 15: 48
                        +2
                        understood, accepted, I will fight with the shortcomings. soldier we will tear everyone! fellow You can arrange your own editorial board. I propose to elect Kurios, Marat and Anton there. You will be a scientific opponent, the alter ego. laughing drinks
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 6 2018 20: 34
                    +2
                    Nah, you don't know! The streets of Rome were driven by carts with the inscription "buy ferrum" drawn by half-dead gazelles driven by persons of Scythian-Sarmatian nationality .... this is how the hatch was made and rescued.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 7 2018 11: 58
                      +1
                      prospianial

                      I propose to introduce this word into the forum VO soldier
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2018 22: 33
                        0
                        For there is no word "condemned", there is a word "pro-Spasianil"
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 6 2018 20: 44
                    +2
                    After the word "must", three exclamation points must be put. Propaganda (bow towards V.O.), it is such, should be propaganda.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 6 2018 20: 16
                  +2
                  How to wake up in Hyperborea
                  All "storm" and "storm"
            2. The comment was deleted.
      2. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx April 6 2018 09: 12
        +1
        north, like from the Latin - sevEri, heavy.
        1. Serge Gorely
          Serge Gorely April 6 2018 10: 21
          0
          The commanders were only allowed to put on a triumphal robe (ornamenta, insignia triumphalia) and establish their statues among the statues of previous triumphs. However, they could not complain. After all, the emperor was officially the commander in chief and, therefore, the commander acted on his behalf and under his command.

          Well, nothing has changed for millennia. Vanya is a platoon on the front end, and they’re getting orders at the headquarters!
        2. Artek
          Artek April 6 2018 20: 31
          0
          Quote: rkkasa 81
          north, like from the Latin - sevEri, heavy.


          here is a picture of the inscription written
          _SEVERO_

          1. kalibr
            April 6 2018 20: 57
            +4
            Typically Slavic architecture of the year 862!
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 6 2018 07: 52
    +2
    The article is very informative, it makes you wonder, of course, but what happened at that time in the Slavic lands? Only in fiction was it touched by the region. I read Ivanov's "Primordial Russia", but this is the 5th century AD
    1. kalibr
      April 6 2018 07: 56
      +3
      It will be about this, but later. Come on in!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik April 6 2018 07: 58
    +3
    During the triumph, two people walked in front of the triumph, one spoke exclusively positively about the triumph, and the second about his shortcomings ... After the triumph, the one who "sang praises" was coated with honey, rolled in feathers and thrown into the Tiber, to be washed, the one who spoke about the flaws awarded gold ...
  4. Curious
    Curious April 6 2018 08: 01
    +6
    There was still such a form of triumph as ovation. It was awarded to commanders in cases where the victory came with "little blood" or the enemy was "unworthy," for example, slaves. One of the most famous applause was probably the one that Mark Licinius Crassus celebrated after defeating the Spartacus uprising - in particular, he was allowed to wear a laurel wreath instead of myrtle.
    A standing ovation walked into the city on foot, in the toga of the pretext, senators and soldiers did not accompany him.
    The award was also honorable. For all the time, only about thirty people received it.
    1. sivuch
      sivuch April 6 2018 09: 11
      +8
      I wanted to write about it myself. According to Plutarch, Crassus did not even want to give a standing ovation, it was painfully unpleasant to admit that they barely managed with the slaves.
      1. Weyland
        Weyland April 6 2018 15: 20
        +1
        Quote: sivuch
        According to Plutarch, Crassus did not even want to give a standing ovation, it was painfully unpleasant to admit that they barely managed with the slaves.

        I strongly advise you to read the historical study of Andrei Valentinov "Spartak" (Valentinov is known as a science fiction, but by his main profession he is an archaeologist). He believes that everything was more complicated, and Plutarch, being a Greek and not a Roman, could not know some of the subtleties of their cult. Here is a quote from this opus:
        "Rivers were awarded in Rome in different ways. For those who were especially loved, they could come up with something unimaginable. For example, a Roman admiral was ordered to constantly follow a flutist. There is an admiral down the street, and a flutist walks after him. And not just marching - a miniature honorary orchestra whistles on the flute, so to speak, I don’t envy the poor fellow admiral! They could and more simply - a statue at the Forum from precious metals, the right to an honorary place in the circus, finally.
        But in any case, the triumph relied on the winner.
        Triumph relied precisely on it, if only because it was a RELIGIOUS conclusion of the war. The triumphant on behalf of the Roman people thanked Jupiter of the Capitoline and sacrificed to him. So the triumph is not only a reward, but also “many thanks” to the heavenly Patron of the Eternal City, the Father of the gods. Honor to the winner - and honor to God. And you won’t pay the necessary honors, the next time you look, there will be no victory.
        The larger the victory, the more luxurious the triumph. Why is also understandable.
        The triumph himself should not have been particularly happy. That is, it is possible in the soul, but it was impossible to give a view. His face was made up with red paint, so that Jupiter did not notice how his cheeks were burning with a blush of pride. And next to the hero, on a triumphal chariot, someone was attached to whisper this hero in the ear. What to whisper? And the fact that he is a man, and not a god, means there is nothing to be particularly proud of, or else, you see, you understand yourself! .. And many, many interesting things were provided for. But the main thing is clear: the triumph is thanks to Jupiter. We love the winner, we do not love, the Father of the gods does not care. We should worry about it - what if we don’t thank you so much?
        For what exactly to thank, it was clearly defined as the status of the Order of Victory. First of all, of course, for success in a big war, such as Hannibalov. Everything is logical: the Fatherland got rid of trouble - and thanks Jupiter. And if the war is so-so, somewhere in the outskirts, and the victory of Rome is not very good? Also provided and developed a criterion. The criterion is simple - the number of prisoners. Captured five thousand adversaries - and forward to the Capitol. Thank you
        (...)
        Caesar decided to celebrate another triumph, but this time not over the external enemies, but over the sons of his already dead rival (and relative!) Gnei Pompey the Great, the legendary Roman commander. From the point of view of the Romans, this was frank blasphemy, and they talked about it already openly.
        Caesar did not count with conversations and thanked Jupiter for the death of his own relatives. This time, the Father of the Gods replied: Caesar was soon slaughtered in the walls of a house built by Pompey the Elder. He died at the foot of the statue of the one whose sons he killed.
        Let's consider all this a coincidence?
        And after many, many years Caesar’s full namesake, Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar, better known as Caligula, also decided to celebrate a triumph - this time certainly not what he deserved. Soon, Guy Julius had a dream, very, admittedly, unpleasant: Jupiter Capitol in anger throws him from heaven to earth. Caligula did not like the dream - and not in vain. The next day, Caesar’s namesake was killed. They stabbed him when he sent the password to the guard. The password that day was ... "Jupiter."
        This can be considered a coincidence, but in any case, the Romans and Jupiter Capitol tried not to joke. And that means with triumphs too. It should be - get it; if not, don’t try. It will be worse!
        Mark Crassus hung on crosses along the Appian Way six thousand captured Spartacists. For credibility, so to speak. Do not believe me - go, count. By the way, they counted - really six thousand, it will be enough for a triumph, even with a margin. That's really true: the view, of course, is very barbaric - but true!
        Marc Crassus saved Rome from an enemy equal to Hannibal. Mark Crassus showed the right number of prisoners. Mark Crassus, winner of Spartak, did not receive triumph. He was allowed to celebrate a standing ovation. This is also a triumph, but, so to speak, very small. Not on the Capitol, not on the chariot, the wreath on the head is not a laurel, but myrtle, to Jupiter - not a bull, but a sheep. In general, thanks too, but in a whisper. What a strange thing, huh?
        Aulus Gellius, a Roman philosopher, comments on all of this in the following way:

        “The following circumstances were the basis for a standing ovation, and not for triumph: if the war was not declared according to the rule, or if it was not waged with the real enemy, or if the name of the enemies was low and inappropriate, for example, the name of slaves or sea robbers, or if the victory was received as a result of the sudden surrender of the enemy ... "

        Plutarch clarifies:

        "Crassus did not even try to demand great triumph for the victory over the slaves, but even the triumph on foot, called the ovation, which he was given, was considered inappropriate and degrading this honorable distinction."

        So, the war with the slaves is a shame, and for the shame there is nothing to thank the Father of the Gods, at least in full voice. The war was, so to speak, not according to the rules, for such a triumph is not relied on. Earnestly?
        It would be convincing, but the same Plutarch elsewhere innocently says that:
        1. Gnei Pompey fought in Spain with Sertorius. He was considered a traitor, a traitor and a rebel, and all his supporters were considered as such. Pompey Sertorius defeated and received the right to triumph. How are rebels and traitors better than rebellious gladiators?
        2. Gnei Pompey fought with the pirates. And not only fought, but also made sure that his predecessor, who also fought with these captains Flints, did not receive triumph, although he had every right to do so. Plutarch fully recognizes such, and Pompey condemns for intrigue. Why are pirates better than gladiators? Incidentally, among the sea robbers, the runaway slaves were full.
        And here is another example, this time related to the "purely" slave war. In Sicily, another uprising of slaves began. The Roman commander Atzilius not only crushed the rebellion, but also killed the leader of the rebellious Athenion in a duel. For this, he received the rarest military award, which relied precisely on a personal victory over the enemy leader. This, of course, is not a triumph, but for some reason the slave Athenion was considered a worthy adversary, but the gladiator Spartak was not. Meanwhile, Athenion did not threaten Rome and did not collect the Eagles. "
    2. Weyland
      Weyland April 6 2018 15: 02
      +1
      Quote: Curious
      There was still such a form of triumph as ovation. It was awarded to commanders in cases where the victory came with "little blood" or the enemy was "unworthy," for example, slaves.

      Not so simple ... I highly recommend reading Andrei Valentinov’s historical study “Spartak” (Valentinov is known as a science fiction writer, but he is an archaeologist by his main profession). Triumph - Thanksgiving First to the gods for the victory, and the Valentines regarding Crassus have serious suspicions that, during the famous decimation of two legions, Crassus sacrificed the executed legionaries to the wrong gods, which is why he received a standing ovation instead of a triumph.
      1. Curious
        Curious April 6 2018 17: 53
        +3
        Do you attribute the Valentin "Spartacus" to historical literature? Is Lord of the Rings a historical literature?
        And decimation is not a sacrifice, but a punishment carried out in a strictly established manner. And Crassus could not decide which gods to sacrifice. In a word, this is not from that opera.
        1. Weyland
          Weyland April 6 2018 21: 46
          +1
          Quote: Curious
          Do you attribute the Valentin "Spartacus" to historical literature?

          this is the so-called crypto history genre. And what do you attribute it to - is it really fantasy? if you compare with the "Plasticine Sun" - in what part of the world and when did Sauron rule? wassat
          1. Curious
            Curious April 6 2018 22: 48
            +1
            Where Sauron ruled, Yeskov knows. He managed to turn Tolkienovskoe jam in "The Last Ringworm".
            As for the secret history, these secretaries never hid that their theories were nothing more than fiction, albeit artistic.
            1. Weyland
              Weyland April 7 2018 12: 05
              0
              How to know. Any version or hypothesis is, in fact, also fiction, until they could be confirmed. Valentinov, by the way, also has a highly artistic fiction on this subject - “Spartak Angel”. This is really cool fantasy, and his Spartak - well, not fantasy at all!
              By the way, google “The 7 Deadly Sins of the Science Fiction” - Tolkien is guilty of at least five of them, so Yeskov, of course, well done on this score!
  5. bober1982
    bober1982 April 6 2018 08: 18
    +1
    Remember that you are mortal too!
    That’s all said, in ancient times one of the kings had this custom - when, after a feast in the palace, the servant brought the king a dish, in the form of a human skull, the servant lifted the dish and said ...King, remember that you are mortal
    This king, being a pagan, well understood that death is not a way out of time, and that the human soul goes into a state of a new perception of time.
    Therefore, our holy Fathers teach the importance of mortal memory.
  6. XII Legion
    XII Legion April 6 2018 08: 59
    +18
    Interesting details
    As far as I know, according to the results of the Battle of Idistaviso in 16, Germanicus was appointed a full-fledged triumph (one of the last known cases of a triumph was not assigned to princeps - subsequently only so-called triumphal insignia were granted to victorious commanders).
    Germanicus and the commander was outstanding, and for Princeps not a stranger - the stepson of Tiberius.
    Sorry did not become emperor.
    1. Albatroz
      Albatroz April 6 2018 11: 55
      +2
      As far as I know, according to the results of the Battle of Idistaviso in 16, Germanicus was appointed a full-fledged triumph (one of the last known cases of a triumph was not assigned to princeps - subsequently only so-called triumphal insignia were granted to victorious commanders).

      So all the same triumphs for non-principles were held. Despite approval
      In the era of the empire, triumphs became the property of emperors alone.
      Perhaps it was necessary to distinguish between the era of principle and dominance
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 15: 08
        +15
        Perhaps it was necessary to distinguish between the era of principle and dominance

        No, I think this phrase
        In the era of the empire, triumphs became the property of emperors alone.
        means that the author has not fully worked out the topic
        1. Albatroz
          Albatroz April 7 2018 15: 22
          +1
          I will even say this - it means that the author does not own the topic.
          It is not surprising - with such a volume of articles under different names, you have to ride upstairs. How else?
          1. soldier
            soldier April 8 2018 20: 39
            +15
            I know at least one other triumph, not princeps.
            This is the grandfather of the future princeps Nero - Lucius Domitius Agenobarb, an outstanding military leader of the era of Emperor Augustus.
  7. alekc75
    alekc75 April 6 2018 10: 36
    +1
    pasta is not looking very well for these monuments = everything is in poor condition!
  8. An bo
    An bo April 6 2018 10: 39
    +3
    In the Arc de Triomphe at Remarque, the basic idea is similar: Remember that we are all mortal. Is not it?
  9. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote April 6 2018 14: 27
    +16
    Let's see what a triumph is.
    Triumph (lat. Triumphus) in Rome - the solemn entry into the capital of the victorious commander and his troops. The triumph developed gradually from the simple entry into the city of soldiers returning at the end of the war and from the custom of military leaders to give thanks to the gods who granted victory. Over time, Triumph began to be allowed only if there were a number of conditions.
    Namely: triumph was given only at the end of the war (there were exceptions), and moreover, one that was accompanied by a grave defeat of enemies. There was a rule to triumph only if at least five thousand enemies were killed. The commander, who sought triumph, was waiting for a solution to the question of whether he would be granted triumph, being outside the city line, due to the fact that the entry into the city of a magistrate who had not yet formed an imperium was not allowed. Therefore, the senate also gathered in this case outside the city, on the Field of Mars, usually in the temple of Bellona or Apollo, and there he listened to the commander. By virtue of a special law, triumphs received on the day of their triumph of imperium in the city.
    Triumph was considered the highest award to the commander, which could only be awarded to one who had empires and waged war as commander in chief, not submitting to the authority of another commander. Triumph could be received by ordinary magistrates (consuls, praetors, proconsuls and propreters), as well as dictators and people who received high command by virtue of a special popular decree (lat. Imperium extraordinarium). Triumph was determined by the senate, but sometimes, if the senate refused to triumph, the military commander was able to get it by virtue of a resolution of the national assembly.
    Passed as follows.
    On the day appointed for the triumph, those participating in it gathered early in the morning on the Field of Mars, where the triumph was at that time in a public building (lat. Villa publica). The latter put on a special luxurious costume, similar to the robe of the statue of Jupiter of Capitoline. He put on a tunic embroidered with palm branches (lat. Tunica palmata), purple toga decorated with gold stars (lat. Toga picta), gilded shoes, took a laurel branch in one hand, and in the other he held a richly decorated ivory scepter with an eagle on top; there was a laurel wreath on his head.
    The triumphant rode while standing on a round gilded chariot drawn by four horses. When Camille first harnessed during his triumph of white horses, it was met in public with a murmur, but subsequently white horses during the triumph became ordinary. Instead of horses, sometimes elephants, deer and other animals harnessed. The triumphal chariot was the center of the entire procession, which was opened by senators and magistrates. Behind were musicians (trumpeters). For the audience, crowded along the long procession in festive costumes, with wreaths of flowers and greenery in their hands, that part of the procession in which the winner tried to sparkle with the multiplicity and wealth of captured military booty was of particular interest.

    In the ancient era, while Rome was at war with its poor neighbors, production was simple: the main part of it was weapons, cattle and captives. But when Rome began to wage war in the rich cultural countries of the East, sometimes the victors brought so much booty that they had to stretch the triumph for two, three days. On special stretchers, on chariots, or simply in their hands, they carried and carried many weapons, enemy banners, subsequently also images of cities and fortresses taken and various symbolic statues, then tables bearing inscriptions indicating the victor's exploits or explaining the significance of the carried objects . Sometimes there were works of the conquered countries, rare animals, etc. Often they carried precious utensils, gold and silver coins in vessels and precious metals not in business, sometimes in huge quantities.

    Cultural countries, especially Greece, Macedonia and other places where Hellenistic education was established, gave a lot of artistic treasures, statues, paintings, etc. Gold wreaths were brought to the victor from different cities. During the triumph of Emilia Paul, there were about 400 of them, and during the triumphs of Julius Caesar over Gaul, Egypt, Pontus and Africa - about 3000. Priests and young men accompanied white sacrificial bulls with gilded horns decorated with garlands. A particularly valuable adornment of triumph was in the eyes of the Roman generals noble captives: the defeated kings, their families and assistants, enemy military commanders. Some of the captives were killed during the triumph, on the orders of the triumph, in a special prison lying on the slope of the Capitol. In the ancient era, such a beating of prisoners was common and probably originally had the character of a human sacrifice, but examples from the later era can also be pointed out: this is how Yugurta and Caesar's opponent in Gaul Vercingetorix died. Before the triumphant there were lictors with fascia entwined with laurel; buffoons amused the crowd.
    The triumph was surrounded by children and other relatives, behind them stood a state slave holding a golden wreath over his head. From time to time, the slave reminded the triumph that he was only mortal (memento mori), and he should not be too proud. Behind the triumph, his assistants, legates and military stands rode on horseback; sometimes they were followed by citizens freed from triumph from captivity, soldiers marched in full decoration, with all the awards they had. They exclaimed “io triumphe” and sang impromptu songs, which sometimes ridiculed the shortcomings of the triumph. Starting on the Champ de Mars, near the triumphal gates, the procession passed through two circuses filled with people (Flaminiev and Bolshoi, Maximus), then via Via Sacra climbed through the forum to the Capitol. There, the triumphant dedicated the Fascia Lavra to Jupiter and made a magnificent sacrifice. Then came the treats of magistrates and senators, often soldiers and even the whole public; for the latter, more circus games were arranged. Sometimes the commander gave the public gifts. Gifts to soldiers were a general rule and sometimes reached significant amounts (for example, Caesar's soldiers received five thousand denarii each).
    Persons who received triumph had the right to wear triumphal robes later on during the holidays. In the imperial period, triumphs became the exclusive possession of the emperors themselves, which was explained both by the reluctance of the latter to give their subjects this highest honor, and by the fact that the emperor was considered the commander in chief of all the military forces of the empire, and, therefore, the military leaders of this period lacked one of the main conditions for obtaining triumph - the right to wage war "suis auspiciis". Having kept the triumph only for themselves and sometimes for their closest relatives, the emperors began to give other commanders, instead of the triumph, only the right to put on a triumphal robe (lat.ornamenta, insignia triumphalia) and put the statues of the victors among the statues of the triumphs. A less important and solemn form of triumph was the so-called “standing ovation”.
    In fact - a triumph of the distant ancestor of the Victory Parade.
    Reproduction of triumph is carried out in a number of films. Most of all I like Julius Caesar of 2002 and the series Rome 2005-2007. Recommend.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 6 2018 14: 41
      +1
      mmm ... dear (now dear) Compote .. belay what is it with you? wink We are used to concise comments, but this is just an unexpected masterpiece! good thanks, informative! With respect, Nicholai hi
      1. Curious
        Curious April 6 2018 14: 53
        +1
        Yes, Wikipedia is in full volume and in all its glory. It was also necessary to copy the illustrations - there are beautiful.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 6 2018 15: 03
          +2
          I wouldn’t get to Wikipedia either. request And what he posted - I think, worthy! hi
          1. Some kind of compote
            Some kind of compote April 6 2018 17: 05
            +16
            Respected Mikado decided for a change
            Especially an example to follow before my eyes: my friend Curious. I watched him insert large copy-paste.
            I decided to try it too. Of course, mainly from the Internet. But something is personally mine.
            An interesting parallel to the Victory Parade? They also carried and threw banners)
            If something is wrong - call.
            Thanks for your kind words hi
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 6 2018 18: 45
              0
              the parallel is really interesting! People do not change.
              From time to time, the slave reminded the triumph that he was only mortal (memento mori), and he should not be too proud.

              I hope then the triumph did not beat him at night wink
              If something is wrong - call.

              only one wish - more such comments! good drinks and do not be offended by Viktor Nikolaevich. drinks
              “What did he say to you?” Napoleon asked.
              “Massena snorts ... as always,” Chernyshev answered.
              (V.S. Pikul, "To Each His Own").
              VN grumbles .. often grumbles .. and this is its uniqueness and value for all of us! good And after this comment, he will beat me with intelligence below the baseboard wink drinks you will see! He is such a! laughing
            2. Curious
              Curious April 6 2018 19: 54
              +2
              "Especially a role model before my eyes: my friend Curious. I watched him insert large copy-paste."
              Did Wikipedia insert articles? I’ll print it and eat it, so as not to do it anymore.
              1. Some kind of compote
                Some kind of compote April 6 2018 19: 59
                +16
                Well, the pieces from the Internet are like b
                And with wikis or not with wikis - these are the details
                You don’t need to eat, but how the package will work out in the film) True, there the wax seal worked))
                1. Curious
                  Curious April 6 2018 20: 35
                  +1
                  Well, there is no problem with sealing wax. Stock somewhere else in Soviet times. So print in the best possible way.
                  1. Some kind of compote
                    Some kind of compote April 6 2018 20: 42
                    +16
                    Do you print the printouts?)
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 6 2018 21: 17
                +2
                Victor Nikolaevich, not worth it! Public eating of cellulose rolls only with the presidents of a small but proud mountainous country, and even if it is advertised in advance.
                1. Curious
                  Curious April 6 2018 21: 23
                  +1
                  We have a creative discussion on how to use the Internet. Naturally, everyone uses the network. Sometimes it’s easier to quickly copy fragments of the necessary material for folding the mosaic than half an hour to poke two fingers into the keyboard, or even one into the tablet. But still, I am opposed to Wiki articles as posts.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 6 2018 21: 42
                    +2
                    Oh yeah! Creative discussion is holy!
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 7 2018 01: 09
                      +3
                      creativity is generally sacred, even for professional miserables. hi What is more important: the snickering unproductive major with the three highest, or the smartest person "out of the people"? I think .. it's worth considering! wink by the way .. in April 2016, he was sitting in a restaurant in Repino. The majors gathered at the next table (the region is the most "elite", no matter what). I listened to them rotten "bazaar" ... do not believe it, even got sick! But I wanted to give a tambourine! Damn, really, another planet .... New, her mother, "ilita" .... unproductive, self-confident, tongue-tied, utilitarian-consumer "golden youth" .... No, Anton, I understand the laws of society. Everything is clear, "new to know." Director General himself. But .. I served, I am a former police captain! I have my own ideas about honor, conscience, dignity. And this .. if IT seizes power, but it seizes, I get scared .... request
  10. Weyland
    Weyland April 6 2018 14: 50
    +1
    After all, the emperor was officially the commander in chief

    As a matter of fact, in the Republic of Ingushetia of that era, the head of state was officially titled "princeps" = "superior" (in the Senate). And part-time princes took up the posts of the pontiff (high priest) and emperor (supreme commander) But since RI fought almost constantly (throughout its history there were only 7 short periods of absence of wars, the last peace period was under Vespasian (69-79)), it is not surprising that the title “emperor” was more “heard”
    1. Town Hall
      Town Hall April 6 2018 15: 14
      0
      Quote: Weyland
      it is not surprising that the title "emperor" was more "by ear"



      Not augusto and caesar?
  11. Luga
    Luga April 6 2018 16: 57
    +2
    Mikado,
    Quote: Mikado
    I understood, I accepted, I will struggle with shortcomings. we tear everyone! It will be possible to arrange your own editorial board. I propose to elect there the same Kurios, Marat and Anton. You will be a scientific opponent, "alter-ego."

    Gang, sect, now, here, the editorial board ... laughing
    The idea of ​​creating a certain association, apparently, is in the air ...
    If the intelligentsia is trying to start organizing itself in militant groups, raising its banners, this means that the situation is close to revolutionary. smile
    Two intellectuals, feeling the need to unite, buy a bottle.
    Three intellectuals go to the tavern.
    Four - make a revolution.
    Five - anyway, they will immediately distort themselves. smile
    We would not overdo it ... what
    1. Curious
      Curious April 6 2018 18: 04
      +3
      Michael, here you giggled over the fact that the Slavs built Rome. Do you know Comrade Sebastian Champi from Italy? And comrade. Tadeusz Wolanski from Poland? Here read them, and you will not be laughing. Even Italians and Poles recognize that the Slavs founded the Roman Empire. Maybe even Ukrainians. Kotlyarevsky “Eneyndu” did not write from scratch.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 6 2018 18: 53
        +3
        Even Italians and Poles recognize that the Slavs founded the Roman Empire. Maybe even Ukrainians.

        Viktor Nikolaevich ... mmm .. and what is the matter with you? belay As recently as a year ago, I suggested signing on the Chinese wall and recognizing the value of Alaska! Have you decided yet? laughing drinks
      2. Luga
        Luga April 6 2018 18: 57
        +2
        Quote: Curious
        Michael, here you giggled about the fact that Rome was built by the Slavs.

        Viktor Nikolaevich, why do you need this? It is clear that I, the frivolous idiot, who, due to his youthful spirit and entertainment, arranges dancing in a nude form here, allow himself such opuses. I read, giggle and forget. smile But you are a serious adult, your word can and should be the last, decisive argument, finally pressing down stupidity and ignorance to the ground, so that he does not have to rise. Tombstone with the corresponding inscription.
        I fight here, sword at opponents with the arrows of my wit, hit them with my sword of erudition, stun your head with a club of logic and common sense, and that's when it seems that the enemy is defeated, morally destroyed, you appear and instead of mercifully finish off the smelly fetid pseudo-historical nonsense ignorant, give them a helping hand ...
        laughing laughing laughing
        Sorry, I can't be serious this evening. smile
        The authors will certainly take an interest. I can't promise more yet. smile
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 6 2018 19: 13
          +2
          I understand, a frivolous gibberish, who, due to his youthful spirit and entertainment, arranges naked dances here, I allow myself such opuses.

          class! good I respect entertainers! everything in our regiment - kamikaze fellow now, I’ll put on hatimaki with the Vodokanal logo only .. wait a second .. wink siseido oppai washi-washi! Banzaaaaa! fellow "Ziiimniyee evening in Soreyento!" fellow (as I sang naked on the balcony in the Dominican Republic) wink drinks
          They will read me, giggle and forget

          yeah, forget it .... what
        2. Curious
          Curious April 6 2018 19: 52
          +2
          I can not help myself! I want fame. Is it bad to be a descendant of the founders of Rome !? Or even the FOUNDER, than this one is not joking, who will not be remembered by night. Now I’m thinking how to promote the law on restitution in relation to the Etruscans. In theory, their descendants have the right to property of their ancestors. I already looked at the beach in Fort dei Marmi. And decent neighbors - Prada, Armani.
          1. Luga
            Luga April 6 2018 20: 26
            +2
            Quote: Curious
            Glory want.

            Quote: Curious
            I already looked at the beach in Forte dei Marmi.

            I did not understand, fame, or is it a little beach?
            Here you need to decide - either you are a proud and disinterested hero who is happy for the people's good, who is entitled to a page in the history textbook, a medal, honor and pension, or a mercenary messenger who does not choose the means to satisfy his lust, who is ready to redraw for the sake of some "little beach" world history ... smile
            1. Curious
              Curious April 6 2018 20: 36
              +2
              I am a proud and disinterested hero, glad for the people's good, who is entitled to a page in the history textbook, a medal, honor, pension and a beach in Forte dei Marmi.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 6 2018 20: 52
                +1
                I am a proud and disinterested hero, glad for the people's good, who is entitled to a page in the history textbook, a medal, honor, pension and a beach in Forte dei Marmi.

                the most important thing - modest person! laughing
                1. Curious
                  Curious April 6 2018 20: 56
                  +2
                  Well, I’m not pretending to shop in Ponte Vecchio.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 6 2018 22: 35
                    +1
                    I will support on all points except one. I like Costa Bravo more. House, boat, Land Rover Defender, dog, rifle with good optics - what else does a person need to adequately meet old age?
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 6 2018 22: 41
                      +2
                      yeah, miserable is called .... what Estet s! But a quiet lake in the vast Leningrad region, fishing rod, vodka, salsa with black bread - isn’t it? wink
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2018 06: 06
                        +1
                        And ... defender to get to this pastoral. For there are no quiet lakes in the accessibility of our cars in the Leningrad region.
                    2. Curious
                      Curious April 6 2018 23: 11
                      +2
                      The Etruscans did not live there, we do not need someone else's. And I'm sorry for the animals. Seriously. How can I shoot a deer? I killed a boar as it was necessary, and it was a pity.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado April 7 2018 00: 31
                        +1
                        I killed a boar as it was necessary, and it was a pity.

                        You tried to prove him wrong, with links to sources, but he did not listen .... recourse Poor animal ... I would not want to be in his place .... laughing drinks I would get more. fellow I know you, dear man! laughing drinks Yes, tomorrow I'll go buy fat what thanks for reminding drinks
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2018 05: 56
                        +2
                        Did I even say a word about hunting? request
  12. Operator
    Operator April 6 2018 18: 00
    +3
    The bas-relief from the triumphal arch of Titus Flavius ​​Vespasian depicts the famous Ark of the Covenant (the place of storage of written records of God's commandments received by Moses verbally on Mount Sinai) with a menorah, taken by the Romans as trophies in the Jerusalem Temple and then melted into coins

    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 6 2018 19: 16
      +1
      taken by the Romans as trophies in the Temple of Jerusalem and then melted into coins

      it would be better to melt into the sewers. Judging by the way they were stolen in the 90s, they were melted down! laughing drinks
      1. Curious
        Curious April 6 2018 21: 46
        +2
        By the way, you, as a professional, could write an article on the topic. For example, "The Role of Maxim's Cesspool in Ensuring the Sanitary Condition of Rome."
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 6 2018 21: 59
          +2
          I was not in Rome, but in the Dominican Republic I did not look into the hatches, only topless German saw grandmothers. I can write on the topic "The influence of one of the well-known gas station chains on my visit to the city of Yama-Yamgorod-Yamburg-Kingisepp, and writing an article on it." request
          1. Curious
            Curious April 6 2018 22: 34
            +2
            Shpakovsky also did not participate in triumphs, but he wrote the article. And Samsonov did not see the "masters of the West" in his eyes, but writes about them as if he had lunch with them every day.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 6 2018 22: 42
              +2
              Because the masters of the West made every possible and impossible effort to corrupt the Russian-Hyperborean culture ....
              1. Curious
                Curious April 6 2018 23: 15
                +1
                Then I propose an article in the style of the famous tribune "Drive the hosts of the West into Maxim’s cesspool!"
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 7 2018 00: 19
                  +1
                  "We drive the masters of the West into the cesspool of Maxim!"

                  And we will take indemnity from them, as Vespasian prescribed! am so much so that they remained completely naked, sirloin flaunted the whole honest Hyperborean people for fun! fellow
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 7 2018 06: 27
                  +2
                  We do not need Simpson in the stands! We have, in Hyperborea, surrounded by Caesar the Simpsons and so on.
  13. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 00: 39
    +1
    Mikado,
    This boar was trying to prove that eating vodka in glasses before hunting is very unhealthy. And I would prove it. I’m thinking right now, maybe I should have shot past?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 7 2018 00: 50
      +1
      I am not a hunter. I didn’t hold the weapon since 2009 (it seems that the PM last held it. Before that I held the TT - it’s inconvenient. The handle is not that!). Amateur fisherman sometimes. Therefore, I can’t appreciate it. In addition, excessive drinking is harmful to health and family relationships. But .. it does not threaten you. I’ll buy lard! drinks
      1. Curious
        Curious April 7 2018 01: 35
        +1
        When the TTs were designed, nobody thought about military ergonomics. Yes, and the cartridge is long. It is difficult to make the handle comfortable. That’s all together.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 7 2018 01: 57
          +1
          happened. hi But keeping TT after PM is inconvenient. The handle is at right angles. With “Makarov” - more familiar.
  14. kalibr
    April 7 2018 07: 27
    +1
    Quote: Mikado
    New, her mother, "ilita" .... unproductive, self-confident, tongue-tied, utilitarian-consumer "golden youth" ...

    There are others !!!!! Among these ... We teach her, educate, cook ... Read ... More.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 7 2018 12: 11
      0
      Yes, I myself was practically one of them, they just raised them, and their brains work differently. Yesterday I drove past the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which I myself finished - how many beautiful girls in uniform! And after all, they want to enter this particular university ... Prestige, apparently, in youthful eyes.
      The elite will be, one way or another. People do not change, from the time of Rome to the present, Gumilev is right, society and nation have their own laws. I would like geniuses to be born, not dynastic parasitic bribe takers. Wait and see! While the "elite" is unproductive, fact. Dads stole-licked-made their way, the descendants will be let into the wind. hi
  15. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 09: 36
    +2
    3x3zsave,
    And why a rifle with optics? Birds to consider?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 7 2018 12: 02
      +1
      And why a rifle with optics? Birds to consider?

      Yes! Professional pacifism! Just in case. You’ll go mushrooms through the forest - anyway, take a knife with you. So away from sin.
      1. Curious
        Curious April 7 2018 12: 04
        +1
        A rifle with good optics is a special case. Just in case, there are other devices, more universal.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 7 2018 12: 15
          0
          what if a bear from the bushes? fellow more universal fixture fight back, cowards in poop brush off? laughing Oh yes. You don’t need to take anything, you will prove the bear in two minutes. Its inferiority with reference to sources good drinks (a friendly compliment emphasizing talent!) love
          1. Curious
            Curious April 7 2018 12: 52
            +1
            If the bear is from the bushes - then optics only interfere. For bears from the bushes, I recommend something like this.

            Smith & Wesson 500. Caliber - 12,7 mm. Compact. Will convince any bear.
            1. Golovan Jack
              Golovan Jack April 7 2018 13: 01
              +7
              Quote: Curious
              Will convince any bear

              If it doesn’t fly in the forehead during a shot. Arrow, not a bear.
            2. Mikado
              Mikado April 7 2018 13: 12
              0
              If the bear is from the bushes - then optics only interfere. For bears from the bushes, I recommend something like this.

              banned in Russia! request We do not live in the Wild West .... Please note that the picture was taken with a touch of creativity, the size of the cartridge is shown by chance. hi
              1. Curious
                Curious April 7 2018 13: 23
                +1
                Well, a lot of things are kind of forbidden. However, when the "wedmedia" from the bushes are brought down, it is very difficult to operate with prohibitions. They don't respond to them. But the "argument", as in the photo, has a very serious gift of persuasion. Even the "weddad".
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 7 2018 13: 35
                  0
                  last year we went for a walk through the woods near a sanatorium in Belarus. The copper snake crawled along the road, now it is nature! We walked about three kilometers along the road, the soil is sandy loam, creaking underfoot. About fifty meters in front of us something siganul in the bushes. Like a deer. We return back, and in front of the barrier at the entrance, the local grandfather sells pickles and his other preparations (mushrooms, dried fish). I told him: “Well, they say, do you have deer? It seems that they saw a deer,” and described what happened. And he smiled sarcastically: "Mauger, deer .. Mauger, moose .. And Mauger, and myadzvedz!" wink The women who stood nearby depicted a mock fear laughing By the way, they have a beer - a class! good I, as promised, bought lard and brisket, and I’ll go cook the kulesh. drinks garlic at the end of a little throw .. drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 7 2018 22: 19
                    +1
                    "Boy, do you want to eat kulesh with us?"
                    “A lone sail whitens” (V. Kataev)
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2018 22: 03
      +1
      Why, then, birds, our smaller brothers. Who suddenly imagined that someone had missed something for them and they claim to be good only by birthright. A very popular idea now in Europe. Well, in the Third Rome -analogo. But, as always here - "silent glanders." Here I am such a humanist, God forgive me!
  16. Mikado
    Mikado April 7 2018 12: 31
    0
    3x3zsave,
    And ... defender to get to this pastoral. For there are no quiet lakes in the accessibility of our cars in the Leningrad region.

    on the Karelian Isthmus is, I think. Where not yet built cottages .... what
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2018 22: 24
      0
      That's where the cottages are built up, I'm not nervous, and then ... I have "viburnum" and not "shishiga"
      1. Curious
        Curious April 7 2018 22: 31
        +2
        The steeper the jeep, the farther into the village to go behind the tractor.
  17. sxfRipper
    sxfRipper April 14 2018 23: 49
    0
    The article is a brief retelling of fragments from numerous historical novels about Ancient Rome.
    And thanks for the photos!