Military Review

How to fix on samurai sashimono? (Part two)

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But there was a problem with the individual identification of the samurai. How to find out who of them is who, if they all, for example, fight under one nobori or ten, and the whole army goes under the banners of traditional khat-jirushi? The solution was found in the placement of the flag with the monomine behind the samurai! Such a flag represented a reduced copy of the nobori and received the name sashimono. The same sashimono with the emblem of the daimyo received asigaru-arquebusier, archers and spearmen detachments and immediately it became much easier to distinguish them on the battlefield, but the samurai had different sashimono emphasizing their status. Their units stood out only by Nobori, so that their number also began to grow!


How to fix on samurai sashimono? (Part two)

Nobori participants in the famous Battle of Sekigarakh - "traitors" and the commander of the army "Western".


Nobori participants in the famous Battle of Sekigarah - "traitors" and messengers Ieyasu Tokugawa.

Ashigaru Sashimono was very simple. For example, the ashigaru of the clan Yi has a simple red cloth.

Very soon, however, the usual flags were worn behind the back of the samurai ... "somehow not interesting." They needed to stand out at all costs, including their appearance. Therefore, their sashimono acquired a completely extravagant appearance. First of all, they became volumetric. But since such a sign could not be by definition, then they began to make them from paper, feathers and fur. It could be two or three fur balls on a bamboo rod of a different color, a pole, with prayer plates of ema or a figure of ... a bear or a crane hanging on them. Sashimono is known in the form of “rice pestle”, “anchor”, “lamp”, “umbrella”, “fan”, “skull”. That is, the fantasy of their creators was truly limitless. Moreover, very often the samurai mon was one, but the sashimono portrayed something completely different.


Standards clan Mori Nagatsugu (1610 - 1698)


Standards clan Hori Nayori


Modern reconstruction of Nobori Ishida Mitsunari

Daimyo, if they were to go into battle, often immediately removed Jinbaori and attached to the armor of Sashimono, since it was impossible to wear both at the same time. For example, daimyo Hirado had sasomono in the form of a golden disk on a black field.


Sasimono Takeda Singen. Reconstruction.

But with the emergence of such a huge number of flags, the problem of identifying the daimyo himself, his staff and his entourage, has become acute again. And by the beginning of the 17th century, it was possible to solve it with the beginning of the use of the so-called “big standard” and “small standard” - respectively - o-mind-jirushi and ko-mind jirushi. Very often these were flags similar to nobori, but only with a square-shaped panel. But more often, they also took the form of various objects - Buddhist bells, umbrellas, fans, solar disks.


Nobori participants in the siege of Osaka Castle. Ieyasu Tokugawa had a simple white cloth.

Some standards were very large and heavy. Carrying such a standard was trusted to the strongest commoners, and it was a great honor for them. Sometimes they were strengthened behind their backs, like sashimono, but the standard-bearer himself supported the shaft for a couple of stretch marks, and two more people held him by the stretch marks from the sides.


This is how fukinuks wore. Sometimes (an obvious relic of matriarchy) the banner of a samurai unit became ... a woman, usually a samurai mother, who took the vow of revenge. Picture from the magazine "Armor Modeling"

But the most difficult and difficult task was to wear a fukinuki - a long pennant, similar to the carp emblem at the Boys' Festival. The wind blew it like a huge stocking, and it was very beautiful, but it was really hard to keep it from falling.

The Japanese would not have been Japanese if they had not invented a lot of devices to wear sashimono and nobori and tried to give them a finished and elegant look.


In this picture we see all the basic details with which the sashimono was attached to the samurai's armor on his back.


The sashimono shaft was inserted into a pencil case, which could be both square and round in cross section, and which was called uke-zutsu. It was decided to varnish it, so although this affiliation was purely utilitarian, it had the appearance of a genuine work of art. Since there could be two or three flags, and even five flags behind them, the number of cases corresponded to their number.


In the upper part of the shell, uke-zutsu was held with a gattari bracket. It could consist of one and two parts, and also the Gattars from a wooden plate are known, again with one or several openings according to the number of flags. This detail was attached to the back of the armor on the hinges. This made it easy to disassemble the dorsal design with the sashimono mount and remove the armor itself for storage in a box, and with it put all its accessories into it.


At the level of the belt was fixed "heel" of the canister - Mati-uke (uketsudo). Usually this item was metal and varnished in the color of the armor.


This photo shows a case for sashimono fully assembled. For ashigaru a standard fixture made of wood in the shape of a triangle with rounded corners was provided. Wore it on ties like a backpack. At the same time, it did not require armor, which made it possible to impress the enemy with the number of its troops even in the case when most of them did not have any armor at all. (Tokyo National Museum)


Bracket Gattari.

There were several identification marks used by the Japanese in a combat situation. These are the field screens of the Maca or Ibaku, with which the command post was fenced in from all sides. As a rule, they depicted a very large mon commander. Near the command post was located a detachment of messengers - tsukai-ban, with which the commander gave orders. And here was his most important standard, visible from afar. It seems strange, but as he commanded at all, sitting behind curtains, but in general, the review in the direction of the enemy was left to him. But the main thing was that all the Japanese commanders perfectly knew how to read the map, had shinobi in the army of scouts, and most importantly, they could count on the unquestioning obedience of their commanders. That is, where they were put, indicating the location on the map, there they had to stand, and move back and forth only to an order, transferred by the messengers. Within the framework of all this, one could show his personal courage as much as he wanted, chop off as many heads as he wanted and collect them around the battlefield. But the order was to be executed immediately.


Good from Armor Modeling magazine. Sometimes it was well represented just amazing complexity of the design!

By the way, the messengers were identified by another very entertaining fixture - a good big bag of colored fabric, like a huge bubble. He had a base of flexible rods, so that with a jump even under the pressure of the wind, he did not lose his form. Horos wore not only the messengers, but also the soldiers of the bodyguard detachment. It was fastened in the same way as sashimono. For this, it had a pin inserted into uke-zutsu. But as always, there were originals, which alone was not very good. A sashimono tube or a Kosi-Sashi officers badge was attached to it. The form of "basket" could well be the most diverse. For example - to resemble a dome or ... European ladies' crinoline! Since the horror had a very large volume, which, by the way, is clearly seen in the figure from the Armor Modeling magazine shown here, the figure of the samurai with good on its shoulders acquired grotesque dimensions, which is considered to be a scarecrow of enemy horses!

Horizontally, they were usually sewn of bright-colored fabric, and besides, they also depicted mon daimyo, which allowed an instant identification of the messenger. But good could serve and for other purposes. So, in one of the Japanese manuscripts, it was stated that both horo and sashimono could serve to wrap the severed heads of their owners in them. "After removing the head from the warrior who wore horo, wrap her in a silk cape, and if it is the head of a simple warrior, wrap it in silk sashimono." These instructions tell us not only that silk was used as a fabric for sashimono and horosho, but also that the soldiers who wore nicely had a special status that was higher than that of others.

Interestingly, the Japanese rather rationally approached the manufacture of the same sashimono. And if for samurai they tried to do them, for simple asigaru they sometimes even felt an extra stick for a cross-piece, but simply bent a bamboo pole and put a narrow piece of cloth on it. The main role in this case was played ... its length!

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How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part one
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  1. Vard
    Vard April 4 2018 05: 15
    +3
    Yes ... Samurai entertainers were still those ...
  2. Cxnumx
    Cxnumx April 4 2018 05: 58
    +3
    confusion is amazing))) attention to detail is certainly good, but when a simple thing turns into a set of puzzle devices - it's an amateur) country of perfectionists)))
  3. parusnik
    parusnik April 4 2018 08: 53
    +3
    A very interesting topic ... Thank you, we are waiting for the continuation ...
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2018 09: 02
      +2
      There will be another article on this subject ...
  4. Luga
    Luga April 4 2018 09: 02
    +4
    Compared to Japanese samurai, European knights, who in their quest for individuality, sometimes seemed like clowns to me, are simply dull ascetics ... Only surcoe of the corresponding color, coat of arms on the shield and the standard over his head. Well, sometimes there is still a badge on the shoulder with the emblem of the leader ...
    It is strange that the Japanese did not launch any kites before the battle. When I read the article I caught myself thinking that I was about to wait for something like that. Or maybe it was launched and this is the topic of the next article? smile
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2018 09: 09
      +4
      Dear Michael! They just launched it, and although this is not the topic of the next article, I’ll just say ... This question is being studied. Because the devil knows what is invented. That the ninjas flew on snakes and shot arrows down, that in this way they climbed into castles and crossed rivers ... Already somehow he wrote about who invented it and when he wrote it. But ... continue to exaggerate this topic. However, if there was a small snake, then to come up with a large one is not difficult!
      1. Luga
        Luga April 4 2018 18: 40
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        Because the devil knows what is invented.

        No, Vyacheslav Olegovich, as you wish, but I refuse to believe that you can use the snake differently than to give a signal. Well, maximum, for the transfer of correspondence to the besieged fortress as we in the childhood parachutists launched.
        Although it would be tempting to present a horse attack of samurai against the wind with kites over their shoulders. Beautiful ... And then suddenly a squall raids and all the horsemen ... fly away, cursing, waving their arms. Isn't the expression “blown away by the wind” from here? smile
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 5 2018 13: 10
          +1
          And then a flurry suddenly flies up and all the riders ... fly away, swearing, waving their hands. Is this the expression "how the wind blew away"?

          I suspect the expression "kamikaze" occurred in exactly the same situation. Only there the riders blew right with the ships fellow
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 5 2018 21: 54
            +1
            In this sense, the creators of the Russian mini-car joked evil at the people, calling their brainchild “Oka,” and the government strengthened the effect by offering this miracle to the disabled.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 6 2018 09: 50
              0
              In this sense, the creators of the Russian minicar have joked evil at the people, calling their brainchild - "Oka"

              if the Americans had done such a thing, they would have immediately called "Buck" laughing By the way, our books 60-70 are exactly what this projectile is called.
  5. Curious
    Curious April 4 2018 10: 54
    +2
    “In addition, the old hut-dzirushi, the cloths of which were often twisted by the wind and became tangled, which made it difficult to examine them, replaced the new nobori flags with L-shaped shafts, on which the cloth was stretched between the shaft and the vertical crosspiece. But here There was already a problem with the individual identification of the samurai.How to find out which of them is who, for example, if they all fight under one nobor or ten, and the whole army goes under the banners of traditional hata-jirushi? th samurai! This flag was a small copy of Nobori and was called sashimono. "
    Unfortunately I can’t find the source in which the appearance of Nobori and Sashimono was attributed to the end of the XNUMXth century, when there was a split in the Hatakeyama clan, which later turned into the “Onin War”. Using only the clan emblem, the opponents could not distinguish each other. As a result, one of the sides changed the appearance of the hut-dzirushi: the upper transverse bar began to be attached to the pole at one end. Such a banner, reminiscent of the letter "G", began to be called Nobori. Maybe Turnbull.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado April 4 2018 11: 02
      +3
      Viktor Nikolaevich, and what clothes did the Emperor of all Japan and the other Kuriles rely on? wink Just .. really want a hat-ebosi! good
    2. Curious
      Curious April 4 2018 12: 06
      +2
      No, not Turnbull.
      1. Curious
        Curious April 4 2018 12: 17
        +2
        I can not find a source of information. And make a hat yourself. Paper, persimmon juice, Japanese varnish - and the thing is in the hat.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 4 2018 13: 35
          +2
          no, I won’t do it myself, my hands are growing out of the wrong place, and busy with another - the end of the block. fellow The last two days there was even no time to enter the site. request necessarily persimmons? I have only tangerines at home. what and is it really (ebosi) made of paper? drinks if out of paper, then what for me then ebosi, it’s easier to fold Bonaparte’s cocked hat from a newspaper! soldier
          1. Curious
            Curious April 4 2018 13: 56
            +2
            So Japanese paper - Washi called. This is not our traditional paper at all. They even made balloons from it, which they launched from Japan to the USA.
            By the way, what kind of work do you have, then the end of the month, then the end of the quarter. Are you in the public sector?
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 4 2018 14: 03
              +2
              So Japanese paper - Washi called.

              Siseido - Vasya Vasya! fellow (and made a squeezing motion) wink drinks
              They even made balloons from it, which they launched from Japan to the USA.

              this would be an interesting topic for the article. Unfortunately, I myself lack knowledge.
              Are you in the public sector?

              the main thing is not where to work, but the level of responsibility. And it is enough. soldier
              1. Curious
                Curious April 4 2018 14: 08
                +3
                It's just that your level of responsibility is unevenly distributed on the calendar. Very reminiscent of the budget sphere and the schedule of students. Why did I ask a question.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 4 2018 16: 18
                  +2
                  It's just that your level of responsibility is unevenly distributed on the calendar. Very reminiscent of the budget sphere and the schedule of students. Why did I ask a question.

                  I will answer you! drinks Because the work begins when customers "leave" after the New Year binge hi when "penises" appear and orders. Somewhere by mid-March, this is happening. Plus, this year it was a little spoiled by the fact that winter did not want to leave for a long time - there are a number of points related to the temperature regime in the specifics. request
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2018 21: 00
                  +3
                  Nikolai doesn’t work in the budget sphere, but the business features are such that the supervisory organization is the sovereign people (no, not his former colleagues and their "older brothers). And any contact with the budget organization in the Russian Federation has a lot of nuances that in a nutshell do not explain.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 4 2018 20: 39
            +2
            Ha, "tangerines" !!! It's not gonna go!
            "Sand is not an important substitute for oats ..." "Chief of the Redskins" (O'Henry) tongue
            1. Mikado
              Mikado April 4 2018 21: 08
              +2
              "Sand is not an important substitute for oats ..." "Chief of the Redskins" (O'Henry)

              So I went to cook buckwheat! drinks
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 4 2018 21: 18
                +2
                This is not sports! What buckwheat?!?!? Only rice! It is necessary to comply with the declared image! laughing
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 4 2018 21: 36
                  +2
                  bliiiin .... I'm the wrong Mikado .. recourse buckwheat is closer to me. Though not according to the prescription of the dear Viktor Nikolaevich wink buckwheat, sausage - what else is needed ?! In food, I am a ossified miserable! wink drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 4 2018 22: 12
                    +2
                    “In essence, Watson, my needs are not so great. A clean collar, a fresh Times.” laughing
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 4 2018 21: 22
              +1
              By the way, how did the Japanese feed horses?
              1. Curious
                Curious April 4 2018 22: 17
                +2
                If we take the indigenous Japanese breeds - misaki, tokara, miyako, hokkaido horse, nome horse, yonaguni and others, they grazed free all year round. Once a year they were driven away for examination and veterinary treatment, as well as castration of stallions. Actually, the surviving breeds contain this even now.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2018 22: 27
                  +1
                  That is, no meldonium, in the sense of cereal seeds?
                  1. Curious
                    Curious April 4 2018 23: 00
                    +2
                    As for the stall in the samurai stables I will not say for sure. However, in Japan there is such a dish - natto - fermented (rotten) soybeans. These beans used to be fed horses, and legend says that the dish appeared when the army of one of the samurai was cut off in the mountains. The food was all over, and even the horse food was rotten. And then the samurai ordered his people to eat rotten beans. So that cereals could be in the diet.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 5 2018 21: 59
                      +2
                      I somehow did not think about soy.