English fighter "Hurricane", supplied to the USSR under lend-lease. Then, in Pravda, they didn’t write about him at all what A. S. Yakovlev in his book "The Stories of the aircraft designer."
Moreover, even after the victory in the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet press tried to support the negative attitude of Soviet citizens towards the civilian population of Germany  and the soldiers of the German army, who, according to publications of Soviet newspapers, continued to rage, even being in captivity , they were “ morally corrupt ”!
Judging by the articles from our newspapers, all Germans, without exception, had such defects as stinginess and heartlessness. As an example, the essay of the famous Kukriniks "In Germany" , which painted a vivid picture of the heartlessness and greed of the Germans, who behaved while dividing abandoned repatriated property as a "pack of jackals": "A decent looking man in bowlers, with briefcases and with canes, curled and dressed in fashion frau eagerly attacked the abandoned rags of their former slaves and slaves. They attentively examined these cloths and, busily loading them with baby carriages, took them home. On a clear summer day, against the backdrop of neatly trimmed green trees, these scenes of vile German greed looked particularly disgusting. ” Meanwhile, there was no point in this. After all, we are now lined up with the "new Germany", and there was no point in writing like that.
As for materials about life in the countries of the warring Europe , in the first half of 1941, a picture familiar to the Soviet people took place there: “The lack of certain food products led to long lines in food stores in various parts of England. In the counties of Nottingham and Derby, one has to queue up to get cheese, eggs, fish or meat ”. In Italy, "the sale and consumption of cream is prohibited," in Hungary, "the norms of products that the peasants can keep in themselves are set", and in Oslo, "for several weeks already there is no meat." From materials of a similar nature, Soviet readers could learn that the civilian population and military personnel of Great Britain were put on the brink of survival , “the wives and children of South Welsh miners give most of their food rations to their husbands and fathers so that they can do your job ”. Judging by the publications of Soviet newspapers, social inequality in the UK was evident even during the construction of bomb shelters , while in America, as usual, there were cases of lynching of blacks .
Immediately printed materials and ardent anti-British orientation, for example, Hitler's speech , which said that “wherever England appears, we will beat it” . As for the United States, this country was almost on the verge of revolution .
But immediately after the start of hostilities on the territory of the USSR and the conclusion of an agreement between the USSR and Great Britain on joint actions against Hitler's Germany 12 in July 1941, as if by a wave of a magic wand, publications of this kind disappeared from the pages of Soviet newspapers, and Blacks in the US, they immediately stopped lynching. So the picture of the Western world, painted by the Soviet media, has changed dramatically once again - that is, everything, like J. Orwell: “Oceania always fought with Ostasia!” At the same time, for example, it turned out that “brutal German fascism is surrounded by great on the industrial front, he is confronted by the mighty defense industry of the Soviet Union, the military industry of Great Britain and the dominions, the rapidly growing power of the United States of America ”. Moreover, if in one place the power of the USA was called “growing”, then literally in a week it “grew” so that it deserved from Pravda an epithet “huge”, i.e. the newspaper wrote that “the great economic power of the United States is well known” . Soviet newspapers printed articles from which it was possible to find out that the people of Great Britain who had just starved themselves in the past unanimously supported the Soviet people in their struggle against the invaders, and here and there organized rallies . In honor of the victories of the Red Army and the conclusion of agreements between the USSR and Great Britain, the British deployed folk festivals . Pravda did not recall the famine that reigned in England. But the newspapers began to create a positive image of the British military  and constantly told that ordinary citizens of the United States and Great Britain are showing a keen interest in our country .
If we talk about the nature of informing the Soviet population about life in the United States, here we can highlight the following pattern: the priority topic of most publications about this country in 1941 - 1945. was the buildup of the military power of the United States. Soviet central and regional newspapers regularly informed the population about the expansion of military production in the United States , while giving figures and details that amazed the Soviet readers with their accuracy. The population of the USSR regularly found out that “the US military industry released 2 more times more products in the past year than the military industry of all the Axis powers” . In order to convince Soviet readers of the invincible power of our allies, the newspapers used the following figures: “In 1943, 85 919 planes of all types were launched against 47 857 planes in 1942 ... There were 2 battleships in 45 000 last year, according to 11 15 tons of displacement each, 50 cruisers, 128 aircraft carriers, 36 convoy aircraft carriers, 56 destroyers, 23 convoy destroyers and 1945 submarines ”. Data on the combat power of the US military continued to be published in detail in the pages of Soviet newspapers in 167: “The US naval ministry reported that the United States fleet currently has 37 59 combat ships, about 878 thousand airplanes and 3 24 airborne and auxiliary vessels. The number of warships is now more than 25 times the number of ships at the beginning of the war ”. That is, Soviet newspapers informed Soviet citizens in detail about the development of the military sector of industry and the buildup of US forces. Another proof of this fact is the publication in the Soviet central  and regional newspapers [XNUMX] information about deliveries under Lend-Lease, which even reported the number of millions of pairs of shoes supplied from the United States, Britain and Canada, i.e. given a completely secret , by military concepts, information! However, why it happened in XNUMX year, it is quite understandable. The fact that victory was not far off was obvious, and Stalin, on the one hand, needed to show his people how much the Allies supply us, and on the other, the same to show our enemies. Like, do not try, you can not win us!
One of the articles in Pravda about the growing US military power.
At the same time, propaganda of the US military-technical achievements, as well as their American scientific potential, was truly comprehensive in the Soviet press and took place not only on the pages of central and local newspapers, but also on a variety of magazines, including such a popular magazine as "Technology Youth". There, reports on developments and scientific discoveries made in this country were printed practically from number to number. And it is interesting that the newspaper “Stalin's Banner” began to put photos of the newest American warships and, in particular, the battleship “Washington” before the United States was attacked by Japan and turned into a war veteran and ally of the USSR .
Moreover, such propaganda itself was also supplemented by the life experience of the citizens of the USSR themselves, as well as soldiers and officers who directly owned information on this issue, since during the war they were constantly confronted with equipment and weapons supplied from England and the USA. These were Tanks and artillery, the famous jeeps, doji and studebakers, more advanced than Soviet cars, planes, radio stations, wheeled-tracked armored personnel carriers (which the USSR industry did not produce), while the Moscow air defense was carried out by the English Spitfire fighters ". From the USA, high-quality was delivered to the USSR aviation gasoline and industrial diamonds, multi-ton presses, stamping towers of the best tank of the Second World War, the Soviet T-34, many types of valuable military raw materials and metal. All this confirmed in the minds of people information from newspapers and magazines that the USA is the most advanced country in all respects and that newspapers report on its achievements is absolutely true!
Thus, it was our Soviet press, along with the direct contacts of Soviet citizens with citizens of Western democracies with industrial products of Western countries, created around the same US a halo of technically powerful and highly developed power, which it also had to fight after the war during the period of the persecution of "low worship" before the West. " It was then that, in contrast to the "pernicious" influence of the West, the Soviet Union would begin a struggle for priorities in scientific and geographical discoveries, in technical inventions and cultural achievements. However, time will be largely lost. Moreover, without realizing it, the Soviet ideologists will go in this struggle along the already beaten path and begin to repeat the theses and arguments of the Slavophiles, supporters of a special, Russian path to stories. That is, all those whom they in 1920 and 1930 years mercilessly scourged as great-power nationalists and chauvinists, which also will not go unnoticed among fairly intelligent and educated people whose opinions should not be neglected.
During the war years, it was completely overlooked that the United States and Britain were still countries with a different social and economic system from the USSR, and that today's friend could become an enemy tomorrow, which very soon was confirmed. The slightest change in the political situation in this case would lead to the need now not to praise his yesterday’s ally, but to scold him, and this would require the destruction of the previously established information stereotype of the population of the country, which is always an extremely complex and costly task. However, the Soviet leaders apparently piously believed in the power of both their newspaper propaganda and repressive bodies, and believed that all the costs of inept informing the population with their help could be successfully overcome. Therefore, no "praise" for such a powerful ally in this regard is now not excessive. For example, in 1943, publications in the Soviet press, for example, appeared on the decade of establishing diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA, which were extremely optimistic in their content. In particular, they noted that “Soviet-American relations became more and more friendly throughout these 10 years, and“ Americans can rejoice in the friendship program with Russia that President Roosevelt began to conduct 10 years ago ”. Moreover, the Soviet press no longer wrote about any proletarian revolution, which was about to break out in the United States, as well as about the plight of blacks and Indians. This topic immediately became irrelevant. But that the prospects for friendship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar period are very favorable , in the newspapers were constantly reported. Moreover, in order to enhance sympathy for US citizens, they wrote that Americans are very interested in Soviet culture , admire the successes of Soviet medicine , and even began to celebrate memorable dates for citizens of the USSR . At the same time, no measure was respected either in those years when our press predicted to the United States a complete collapse and quick death, or at the time when, by force of circumstances, England and the United States became our allies in the anti-Hitler coalition!
Such materials were also complemented by literary works, and, in particular, A. Kazantsev's science fiction novel “The Arctic Bridge” published in the journal “Technika-Youth”. The main theme of which was based on the idea of Soviet-American cooperation, which began during the war, friendship and mutual understanding between our states . It should be borne in mind that in its power the artistic word far exceeds the publicistic genre. That is, it is necessary to note the variety of means used to convey to the Soviet population the idea of cooperation with the United States. Meanwhile, in real politics nothing of the kind was out of the question, and our leaders and propagandists should understand this and appropriately reflect this situation in the press, and not make it desirable.
Here, however, it should be noted that during the war years, as in the previous time, Soviet newspapers reacted very sensitively to the slightest inconsistencies that arose on the foreign policy arena and the appearance of any contradictions between the USSR and the USA, which immediately caused the appearance of critical content in Soviet newspapers. . So, in 1945, they again began to publish materials about the plight of American workers , and only because the positions of our countries did not coincide on the issues of the postwar world order. Then, on the pages of Pravda, there was a lively controversy about Walter Lippman’s book US Military Objectives, in which he put forward his ideas in this area. According to the material published in Pravda , “Lippman divides the world into several geographical centers, around which he draws orbits: one around the US and calls it the Atlantic Commonwealth of Nations, the other around the USSR and calls it the Russian sphere” , the third - around China; He foresees the creation of the fourth in the future in the region of India and Muslim countries. ” Since this viewpoint was at odds with the foreign policy objectives of the Soviet government, it was immediately subjected to sharp criticism. For example, a certain A. Georgiev wrote that "the Lippmann orbits are sheer fiction," since "any attempt to build a world without and against the participation of the Soviet Union is fraught with dire consequences for humanity." Then Pravda published the answer by Lippman, who, however, was also subjected to severe criticism . And in fact, by the way, in the end it happened. Lippman looked like in the water. But ... our leaders thought otherwise, therefore, in the newspapers he wasn’t only defamed then only by the most lazy journalist ...
Then in the Soviet newspapers began to appear critical materials about alleged anti-Soviet publications in the American and European press , the content of which was at odds with the image of our country as a democratic state and peacemaker created by the Soviet government in those years. For example, it was reported that “with persistence worthy of a better use, the American newspaper The New York Times has repeatedly stated that in Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary there are“ totalitarian regimes ”. Articles have been published about the anti-Soviet sentiments of a number of American and British politicians . However, at that time such articles appeared infrequently on the pages of Soviet newspapers and looked like a kind of “trial balloons”.
At the same time, on the pages of the Soviet press, the Soviet Union positioned itself as a certain point of intersection of all the world foreign policy interests of all countries, and caused either total hatred or the most unlimited love. There was simply no middle ground! And that's the sad thing. Now the same! What information portal you don’t look at, either we “pulled everyone”, or they offend and deceive us all. Very superficial, black and white vision of the world.
This was evidenced by such materials as the responses of the foreign press to events in the USSR, the vastness of which unwittingly made a strong impression on , and most importantly because these were the responses published in the press, they gave the full impression of their credibility, as well as the credibility of all other materials published in Soviet newspapers. First of all, it concerned those materials of foreign newspapers, which spoke about the success of our troops in military actions against the Nazis , and especially many of them appeared in 1941 - 1942. - and why exactly this period is also understandable. Of these, the Soviet people learned that "the Russians have millions of soldiers and enormous resources, their army is growing every day" , that "the Red Army is driving the Germans from their native land ... Russia is still the only front from which favorable information ». And its invincibility, judging by the materials of Soviet newspapers, was recognized even by the Japanese and the Romanians . And the technical and military equipment of our army at the very beginning of the war "exceeded all expectations"  of foreign journalists. It should be noted here that the materials of the foreign press with critical remarks about the conduct of hostilities by the Red Army never appeared on the pages of our newspapers. But in the period when our troops experienced military setbacks, no feedback from the foreign press on the course of the war was printed on our territory at all, as if they were completely absent!
Speaking about the nature of the presentation of materials of foreign press in the pages of Soviet newspapers, it is necessary to pay attention to the specifics of creating the image of Stalin as the head of the country, drawn in these messages. Although some researchers have noted a decrease in the number of praises addressed to the national leader during the war years , from the responses of the foreign press appearing on the pages of our newspapers, this is not completely visible. According to Soviet newspapers, it was characteristic of foreign media to enthusiastically respond to the role of Stalin in the management of hostilities , the military skill of the Soviet leader was known even in Mexico, as evidenced, for example, from numerous publications in Todo . Soviet readers could once again be convinced that they had nothing to fear, because "Stalin's genius enlightened the world" . It turned out that foreign journalists admired the personality of Stalin in the same way as the entire Soviet people. For example, it was reported that “radio commentator Henle said that Stalin’s comment on the important contribution of the USA and England to the war shows that Stalin is a great political leader and realist” , i.e. in other words, the foreign press was characterized by the same manner of presenting materials about the Soviet realities as the Soviet, although in reality this was far from being the case!
Sadly, the tendency of the Soviet media to consider everything happening in the world through the prism of domestic political events and their own view of life was not only ridiculous, but most importantly, it did not bring any benefit to the Soviet propaganda system in conducting campaign campaigns aimed at the enemy troops during the war years. On the contrary, it prevented her from achieving her goals. This is evidenced, for example, in his work F. Vergasov , who analyzed the methods and techniques of our propaganda against soldiers of the German army during the war years. In his opinion, in this regard, they were completely ineffective. Field Marshal F. Paulus also spoke about the ineffectiveness of Soviet propaganda against the soldiers of the German army: “In the first months of the war, your propaganda addressed in its leaflets to German workers and peasants dressed in soldier overcoats and urged them to fold weapon and run to the Red Army. I read your flyers. How many are transferred to you? Just a bunch of deserters. Traitors are in every army, including yours. It says nothing and proves nothing. And if you want to know who supports Hitler most of all, it is our workers and peasants. It was they who brought him to power and proclaimed the leader of the nation. It was with him that the people from the outlying lanes, the parvenya, became the new gentlemen. It’s clear that your theory of class struggle doesn’t always meet ends ”.
Interestingly, in 1945, Soviet newspapers very sparingly wrote about the nuclear bombardment of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki only because the coverage of these events was contrary to the foreign policy of the Soviet government of that time. In addition, publications about these events could destroy the image of the United States as a peacemaker created by Soviet newspapers if the Soviet people knew about the real consequences of these bombings. In particular, the central press did not post on its pages any materials relating to this topic, and, accordingly, the regional newspapers did not write about this either.
Sadly, but the fact that, along with numerous distortions of reality and absurdities, Soviet newspapers (naturally, following instructions from above), as in 30-s, went down to the most blatant lies and suppression of truly glaring facts, which, meanwhile, just should be used for anti-fascist propaganda.
For example, the Soviet press reported nothing about the terrorist attack on Stalingrad 23 August 1942. As by the number of aircraft participating in this operation, and by the weight of the bombs dropped on the city, this was the most massive German air raid on Soviet territory since the beginning of the war. The English historian A. Clark later wrote that some crews managed to make three sorties, and more than half of the bombs dropped on the city were incendiary . Due to the fact that the summer was very hot and dry, the use of just such bombs to create massive fires was very effective. Almost 42 thousand buildings or 85% of the housing stock of Stalingrad were destroyed or burned, and how many people died in the process is impossible to count, because the city was overcrowded with evacuees and refugees.
“Tortured everything that could burn: houses, fences, trams, steamboats,” leads historian D. B. Khazanov  memoirs of the front-line writer A.V. Ivankina. - Burned oil spilled on the Volga. The fire roared, devouring everything and taking the remaining oxygen from the air, which, mixed with smoke, became unsuitable for breathing. Those who did not burn or did not receive severe burns, died of suffocation in the basements and rubble of burned houses. Fire trucks could not pass through some burning streets: they were so hot that there were instances of a gas tank explosion. ”
Meanwhile, what could these days learn from the reports of the Soviet Information Bureau? Yes, only that 23 August fights in the area of Kotelnikovo, as well as south of Krasnodar continued, that the prisoner Erich Weykheld  reported that only a few people remained from his company and ... everything! And neither in the morning, nor in the evening reports from August 25 about the bombing of Stalingrad were reported! The most impressive was the letter from Enrico Kalluci to Milan on the battlefield, where he wrote that the Cossacks had attacked them ... a 200 man had died, and that the position of his unit was awful . But again, the battles at Stalingrad were said very sparingly - the battles at Kotelnikovo and at the stanitsa of Kletskaya.
What or who was afraid of our government, secret this information, or rather drove it to the level of rumors and speculations? Of course, his people and the loss of credibility on his part. Meanwhile, in a similar situation - a terrorist raid on Coventry - Winston Churchill used his propaganda effect to the maximum. He not only addressed England, and his government organized comprehensive assistance to the inhabitants of the ruined city, but literally the whole country under his order was hung with posters with the inscription: “Remember Coventry!” In a similar way, we could do the same British, declare a national day of help to Stalingrad, start a fundraiser for its post-war reconstruction, install billboards on the roads with the inscription: “Remember Stalingrad!” That was the reason to instill confidence that “victory will be ours”, but ... nothing for it was not the kind was done. The newspapers were silent. Billboards did not appear.
And it can hardly be justified by talking about the fact that, “in the time of disaster, all means are good, if only they would raise the spirits of the masses and thereby bring victory closer”. No, not all! Not all, because after the war comes peacetime, people start to look around, remember, think and ... gradually, they completely no longer trust the "party press", and with it the government itself, to which it belongs! Needless to say, any paradoxes in modern mass media is a dangerous thing and those who are responsible for these same funds in the country need to know this and don’t forget about it!
To be continued ...
1. V. Shilkin. In Germany // Stalin's Banner. 28 February 1945. No.41. C.1
2. B. Field. In German homes // True. 16 March 1945. No.64. C.3
3. "May lilies" and weeds // True. 18 July 1945. No.170. C.4; Relations of German industrialists with American firms // Stalin Banner. 2 August 1945. No.153. C.2
4. Investigation of the question of the behavior of German prisoners of war in the United States // Pravda. 16 February 1945. No.40. C.4
5. True. 6 July 1945. No.160. C.3
6. Economic difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 10 January 1941. No.8. C.2; Economic difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 19 January 1941. No.16. C.2; Economic difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 26 January 1941. No.21. C.2; Food difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 8 February 1941. No.32. C.2; Food difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 6 May 1941. No.105. C.2
7. Food difficulties in Europe // Izvestia. 17 January 1941. No.14. C.2
8. Lack of meat in England // Stalin Banner. January 5, 1941. No. 4. C.4; Reducing food rations in the English army. // Stalin Banner. March 5, 1941. No. 53. C.4; Reduced product delivery standards for naval teams and employees fleet England // Stalin Banner. March 6, 1941. No. 54. C.4
9. The position of the British miners // Stalin Banner. 15 March 1941. No. 62. C.4
10. American correspondents on the situation in England // Izvestia. 3 January 1941. No.2. C.2
11. Lynching of Negroes // News. 7 January 1941. No.5.C.2
12. Hitler's speech // Stalin Banner. 26 February 1941. No. 47. C.4
13. Hitler's speech // Stalin Banner. 1 February 1941. No. 26. C.4;
14. The strike movement in the US // Izvestia. 25 January 1941. No.20. C.2; Strike at a military factory // Izvestia. 2 February 1941. No.27. C.2; Strikes in the USA // Izvestia. 5 February 1941. No.29. C.2; The strike movement in the US // Izvestia. 23 March1941. No.69. C.2; The strike movement in the US // Izvestia. 28 March1941. No.73. C.2; Fighting the strike movement in the USA // Izvestia. 2 April1941. No.77. C.2; The strike movement in the US // Izvestia. 10 April 1941. No.84. C.2; Strike movement in the USA. // News. 13 April 1941. No.87. C.2; Police struggle with striking workers in the USA // Stalin Banner. 16 January 1941. No.13. C.4; Strike movement in the United States // Stalin Banner. 26 January 1941. No.21. C.4; The strike movement in the United States. // Stalin's Banner. 4 March 1941. No.52. C.4; Bus strike in New York // Stalin's Banner. 12 March 1941. No.59. C.4
15. The bottlenecks of the German industry // Izvestia. 16 August 1941. No.193. C.2
16. US Industry Resources // Izvestia. 24 August 1941. No.200. C.2
17. News. 3 July 1941. No.155. C.1; British workers express solidarity with the Soviet Union // News. 15 July 1941. No.165. C.4; Powerful movement of solidarity with the Soviet Union // News. 24 July 1941. No.173. C.4
18. Popular festivities in England, dedicated to the Anglo - Soviet cooperation. // News. 5 August 1941. No.174. C.1; Meetings in England on the 27 anniversary of the Red Army // Pravda. 4 March 1945. No.54. C.4
19. OK, Britain! // True. 16 January 1942. No.16. C.2; English soldier returns home / / True. 16 March 1945. No.64. C.3
20. Teaching workshops in England to familiarize with the USSR // Pravda. 13 March 1942. No.72. C.4; Interest in the United States to the Soviet Union // True. 28 March 1942. No.87. C.4; Conference of research workers in London. // True. 6 February 1943. No.37. C.4; Interest in the United States to the Soviet culture / / True. 31 May 1943. No.138. C.4
21. Military production in the United States // True. 18 January 1942. No.18. C.4; The pace of arms production in the United States // True. 26 January 1942. No.26. C.4; Production of weapons in the United States // True. 16 January 1943. No.16. C.4; Launching the new American aircraft carrier // Pravda. 25 January 1943. No.25. C.4; Construction of cargo ships in the United States // True. 8 March 1943. No.66. C.4; The growth of sea power of England and the United States // True. 13 May 1943. No.122. C.4; The growth of US forces // True. 16 June 1943. No.151. C.4; Allocations for the army and navy in the United States // Pravda. 20 June 1943. No.155. C.4; Construction of cargo flying boats in the USA // Pravda. 7 January 1944. No.6. C.4; US military spending // True. 15 January 1944. No.13. C.4; Construction of new powerful warships in the United States // Pravda. 27 January 1944. No.23. C.4; Successes of the American aircraft industry // True. 18 February 1944. No.42. C.4; US arms production in January // True. 27 February 1944. No.50. C.4; US military production in February // True. 31 March 1944. No.78. C.4; Building amphibious ships in the United States // True. 2 April 1944. No.80. C.4; Allocations for US naval needs // Pravda. 14 April 1944. No.90. C.4; US economy in the first half of 1944. // True. 9 August 1944. No.190. C.4; Production of weapons in the United States // True. 5 January 1945. No.4. C.4; Expansion of the US naval construction program // Pravda. 10 March 1945. No.59. C.4; Production of new super-power bombers in the USA // Pravda. 21 March 1945. No.68. C.4
22. Arms production in the USA in 1943 year // Pravda. 5 January 1944. No.4. C.4
23. Production of weapons in the United States // True. 30 January 1944. No.26. C.4
24. US Navy // True. 4 January 1945. No.3. C.4
25. On the supply of weapons, strategic raw materials, industrial equipment and foodstuffs to the Soviet Union by the United States, Great Britain and Canada // Pravda. 11 June 1944. No.140. C.1; On the supply of weapons, strategic raw materials, industrial equipment and foodstuffs to the Soviet Union by the United States, Great Britain and Canada // News. 11 June 1944. No.138. C.1
26. On the supply of weapons, strategic raw materials, industrial equipment and foodstuffs to the Soviet Union by the United States of America, Great Britain and Canada // Stalin's Banner. 13 June 1944. No.116. C.1-2
27. Stalin's Banner. 29 October 1941. No.255. C.2
28. Decade of establishing diplomatic relations between the United States and the USSR // Pravda. 17 November 1943. No.283. C.1
29. Prospects for the American-Soviet trade // Pravda. 13 February 1944. No.38. C.4; Meeting of the American-Soviet friendship // True. 28 January 1945. No.24. C.4
30. The growth of American-Soviet cultural ties // Pravda. 22 October 1944. No.254. C.4
31. American newspaper on the success of Soviet military medicine // Pravda. 19 February 1944. No.43. C.4
32. Celebration of the 25 anniversary of the Red Army in the USA // Pravda. 25 February 1943. No.56. C.4; Preparation in the USA for the Day of the Red Army // Pravda. 20 February 1944. No.44. C.4; Meeting in New York in honor of the Red Army // Truth. 24 February 1944. No.46. C.4; Celebration of the 27 anniversary of the Red Army in the USA // Pravda. 24 February 1945. No.47. C.4; Meeting in the USA in honor of International Women's Day // International Review // Pravda. 8 July 1945. No.162. C.4
33. See youth engineering. No.9.1943. C.15-25
34. Strike in the USA // Pravda.28 July 1945. No.232. C.4; Strike Movement in the USA // Pravda.1 Nov. 1945. No.261. C.4; Strike Movement in the USA // Pravda.5 Nov. 1945. No.265. C.4; Strike movement in the United States // Stalin Banner. 17 October 1945. No. 206.C.2; The struggle of American trade unions for salary increase // Stalin Banner. 17 October 1945. No.206. C.2
35. A. Georgiev. About the book by Walter Lippman, "US Military Purposes" // Pravda. 16 March 1945. No.64. C.4
36. About the book by Walter Lippman, "US Military Purposes" // Pravda. 20 April 1945. No.94. C.4
37. International Review // Pravda. 8 July 1945. No.162. C.4; Competition of slanderers // Truth. 16 July 1945. No.169. C.4; International Review // Pravda. 30 September 1945. No.234. C.4
38. International Review // Pravda. 9 September 1945. No.216. C.4
39. Hysterical Mrs. Claire Luce // True. 14 July 1945. No.167. C.4; Welles article on the policy in relation to Germany // Pravda. 25 July 1945. No.178. C.4
40. Latin American seal of the military successes of the Soviet troops // Pravda. 20 January 1943. No.20. C.4; Australian newspaper about the successes of the Soviet troops // Pravda. 21 January 1943. No.21. C.4; Iranian press about the victory of the Red Army at Stalingrad // Pravda. 8 February 1943. No.39. C.4; The Syrian press about the offensive of the Red Army // Truth. 16 February 1943. No.47. C.4; Responses abroad to Comrade Stalin's May Day order // Pravda. 5 May 1943. No.115. C.4; Canadian press on the decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR // Pravda. 4 February 1944. No.30. C.4; Comments newspaper "France" to the decisions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR // Pravda. 5 February 1944. No.31. C.4; Swiss newspaper on the victories of the Red Army // Truth. 23 February 1944. No.46. C.4; "Times" about the success of the Red Army / / True. 28 February 1944. No.51. C.4; Mexican press about the success of the Red Army // Pravda. 11 March 1944. No.61. C.4; Responses abroad to the decisions of the Crimea Conference of the leaders of the three Allied Powers // Pravda. 15 February 1945. No.39. C.3
41. English military observer about the great successes of the Red Army // News. 26 July 1941. No.175. C.4; Foreign press notes the valor and military art of the Red Army // News. 27 July 1941. No.176. C.4; Foreign press on the combat operations of the Red Army // Pravda. 7 January 1942. No.7. C.4; Foreign press on the combat operations of the Red Army // Pravda. 9 January 1942. No.9. C.4; The successful offensive of the Red Army in the evaluation of the foreign press // Pravda. 19 January 1942. No.19. C.4; Yugoslav newspaper on the 27 anniversary of the Red Army // Stalin Banner. 24 February 1945. No.38. C.2
42. Foreign press about new victories of the Red Army // Pravda. 5 January 1942. No.5. C.4
43. Foreign press about our successes at the front // Pravda. 16 January 1942. No.16. C.4
44. News. 6 July 1941. No.158. C.1; News. 26 August 1941. No.201. C.1
45. Canadian press about the success of the Red Army // Pravda. 6 January 1942. No.6. C.4
46. Lomovtsev A.I. The media and their impact on the mass consciousness in the years of the Second World War: Diss ... Cand. ist sciences. Penza. 2002.C.130
47. True. 7 February 1943. No.38. C.4; Responses abroad to the report of the Chairman of the State Defense Committee of Comrade I.V. Stalin // Pravda. 8 November 1944. No.269. C.4
48. Articles about Comrade Stalin in the Mexican magazine // Pravda. 25 March 1944. No.73. C.4
49. True. 14 January 1945. No.115. C.3
50. Responses of foreign press and radio to the May Day order of the Supreme Commander Marshal of the Soviet Union, Comrade I.V. Stalin // Pravda. 5 May 1944. No.108. C.4
51. Vergasov F. Russia and the West. The formation of foreign policy stereotypes in the minds of Russian society in the first half of the twentieth century // Chapter IV. The image of the West in the context of world wars. Www.pseudology.org
52. Blank A., Khavkin B. The Second Life of Field Marshal Paulus. M.1990.C.173
53. Clark A. "Barbarossa". The Russian-German Conflict 1941-1945. London, 1965. P.225.
54. Khazanov D.B. Stalingrad: August 23 1942 of the Year // Military History Journal. 2009 .. No. 12. C.14.
55. Stalin's Banner. 25 August 1942. No.200. C.2.
56. Ibid. 26 August 1942. No.201. C.2.
To be continued ...