During the recent message to the Federal Assembly, President of Russia V.V. Putin announced information on the development of a number of weapons models in our country, which today have no serial equivalents abroad. This statement, which caused a considerable rise in patriotic sentiments among a part of our country's population, made on the eve of the presidential election, certainly strengthened the position of the current head of state in the election campaign. But it will be possible to judge how the announced weapons models will increase our defense capability only after they complete the entire test cycle and begin to enter the troops in significant quantities. At the same time, it can be noted that the main part of the presented advanced weapons is intended for “strategic deterrence” of our main “probable partner”, into whose financial system we regularly make multibillion-dollar injections. It is clear that these samples are not applicable in armed regional conflicts, since their use is very likely to put the world on the brink of a nuclear missile catastrophe. At the same time, in the future, the scenario in which distant from the central part of the country areas may be subjected to aggression without the use of nuclear weapons is not completely excluded. weapons. First of all, it concerns the Kaliningrad region, which is an isolated Russian enclave and our sparsely populated Far Eastern territories, connected to the center by a narrow string of Trans-Siberian Railway.
As you know, at present the main striking force in a non-nuclear conflict is air attack weapons: long-range bombers, tactical and carrier-based attack aircraft aviation, combat helicopters, reconnaissance and strike unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles. As the experience of the use of military aircraft of Western countries in operations to "establish democracy" shows, not only troops, defense facilities, transport communications and communications centers are bombed, but also the infrastructure that ensures the livelihoods of the population. Due to its geographical location and climatic factors, the Russian Far East is particularly vulnerable in this regard. Winter in most of the Far Eastern Federal District begins early. So, in the Komsomolsk-on-Amur region, a stable snow cover is formed in late October - early November and lasts until mid-April. The middle course of the Amur is far from the northernmost part of the Far East, in Tynda or in New Urgal even colder. In the event of the destruction of energy facilities in winter, when outside the windows of apartments it is below -30 ° C, the bulk of the urban population will be put on the brink of survival. A few objects with autonomous heating and houses in the countryside simply can not accept all those in need. Those who visited the Far East north of Khabarovsk could not help but notice how rarely settlements are located, even along federal highways, and how few local residents there are.
Experts know that the objects of electricity and heat are very susceptible to various man-made accidents, they are even more vulnerable in the event of deliberate air strikes. So for the failure of the heat and power plant it is enough to “successfully” hit one cruise missile or a bombs caliber 250-500 kg. Damage to the generating capacity of one of the power plants will inevitably cause a failure in the entire system. And the destruction of transformer substations will lead to emergency shutdown of high-voltage power lines tied into a single power system. Transport rail hubs, oil and gas pumping stations and oil refineries in Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur, supplying the region with hydrocarbon fuels are no less vulnerable.
It cannot be said that the Russian Far East is deprived of anti-aircraft and air cover. But in comparison with the times of the USSR, it is a shadow of former power. The number of positions of anti-aircraft missile systems and the number of fighter-interceptors covering the Far Eastern military-industrial centers decreased several times. By the time of the collapse of the USSR, there were three corps (11, 8 and 23) and four air defense divisions in the 72-th Separate Air Defense Army with headquarters in Khabarovsk. Under the cover of the 11-th OA, the air defenses were part of Eastern Siberia and the entire Far Eastern region, including Chukotka, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai.
A separate Far Eastern Air Defense Army was created on 4 on April 1945 of the year. 24 March 1960 of the year issued an order to form the 11-th Separate army of air defense. And from April 30 1975, the 11-I Air Defense Army became the Red Banner. In the summer of 1998, due to the association of the Air Force and Air Defense, the name was changed to the 11-th separate Red Banner Army Air Force and Air Defense. Before 2015, the name of the operational connection was changed several times, as if the renames could increase the combat power.
In Soviet times, the headquarters of the 8 Air Defense Corps in Komsomolsk-on-Amur managed the actions of the anti-aircraft missile brigade and two anti-aircraft missile regiments. The air situation over the Khabarovsk Territory was controlled by two radio engineering brigades and two radio engineering regiments. The corps was subordinated to the 28-I Fighter Division.
One of the first production Su-27Ps currently installed not far from the headquarters of the 23-iap at the Dzyomgi airfield in Komsomolsk-on-Amur
The division included the 60 th Fighter Aviation Regiment, stationed at the Dzyomgi airfield, which by the end of the 80-x was the first to master the Su-27П interceptors, simultaneously operating the Su-15ТM. The MiG-10ML 23-iap and Su-301P 27-iap were based at the Kalinka airfield (216 section) near Khabarovsk. The ports of Sovetskaya Gavan and Vanino defended the 308-iap on MiG-21bis and MiG-23MLA interceptors, based on the Postova airfield near the village of Zaveta Ilyich.
The 23 KPVO with its headquarters in Vladivostok had an anti-aircraft missile brigade and an anti-aircraft missile regiment, a radio engineering brigade and a radio engineering regiment. The southern and central parts of Primorye were defended by the 22 th guards on the MiG-23MLD from the Central Corner airfield and the 47 ss on Su-27P based on the Zolotaya Dolina airfield. On the airfield "Sokolovka" not far from the village of Chuguyevka there were MiG-25PD / PDS and MiG-31 530-iap.
The headquarters of the 72 Corps was located in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. It consisted of a radio-technical and anti-aircraft missile brigade, whose main task was to defend the base of underwater strategic missile carriers in Avacha Bay. Around Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky were deployed: two C-200ВМ and eleven C-75 and C-125 air defense missile systems. At the end of 80, Kamchatka's air defense was reinforced by three C-300PS air defense divisions. At the airfield Yelizovo based 865 th iap on the MiG-31.
The air borders of the 5000 km stretch of the state border: from the coast along the Tatar Strait, Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands were the responsibility zone of the 40 Fighter Air Defense Fighter Division. In service with the 365-iap deployed at the Sokol airfield in 8 km south of the city of Dolinsk on Sakhalin, stood the MiG-31. On the eastern outskirts of the urban-type settlement Smirnykh, in 360 km from Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the 528 th Fighter Aviation Regiment was based, flying at Mig-23ML. At the Petrel airfield located on Iturup, 41-iap armed with MiG-23MLD was deployed.
The most northerly in the Far East was the 25-air defense division deployed in Chukotka with headquarters in the village of Coal Mines. The division included the 129 radio control brigade, the 762 th anti-aircraft missile regiment (three C-75 air defense missile systems) and the 171 ip on Su-15ТМ. The headquarters of the 29 division of the air defense was in Belogorsk. The division included anti-aircraft missile and radio engineering brigades. The 24 Division of the Air Defense Division, with its headquarters in Khomutovo (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), was in the area of responsibility for Sakhalin Island, which in 1990 was defended by two anti-aircraft missile regiments that included the X-NUMX C-9-75 and C-3-P radio and radio-technical regiment.
Starting position of the С-200ВМ
At the time of the collapse of the USSR, the Far Eastern frontiers guarded more than 60 anti-aircraft missile divisions C-75М2 / М2, С-125М / М1, С-200В / ВМ and С-300ПС. The anti-aircraft missile division is a subdivision capable, if necessary, to conduct combat operations independently for some time, apart from the main forces. The mixed-type anti-aircraft missile brigade could have from 2 to 6 target channels (zrdn) long-range air defense systems С-200, and 10-14 зрнн С-75 and С-125. The composition of the anti-aircraft missile regiments usually consisted of three to five medium-range C-75 or C-300PS. Also in the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces of the Far Eastern Military District there were numerous short-range air defense systems for the regimental level Strela-1, Strela-10 and ZSU-23-4 Shilka, divisional missile systems Osa-AK / AKM and Kub. and also the Krug-M / M1 air defense system of front or army submission.
Radar meter range 5H84A (Defense-14)
As of 1991, there was a continuous radar field over the entire territory of the Far East. Permanent radar posts were duplicated and blocked coverage areas. The radiotechnical units of the country's air defense forces were armed with radars: П-12М, П-14, ПНХНВХ, П-18, П-19М, П-35, П-37, 80Н5А, 84Ж19, 6XHHXXHHXXXHXXX22XXXHHXXHHXXXHXXX6XXXXXX44X as well as radio altimeters: PRV-6, PRV-68, PRV-11.
Radio Altitude PRV-11
Radio Altitude PRV-17
Not far from Lian, in the 30-km northeast of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, in the second half of the 80-s, the transmitting antenna of the Doug radar station began to function. The receiving antenna was located in 60 km south of, in the vicinity of the Bolshaya Kartel settlement. In addition to the early detection of launching ballistic missiles, the Duga radar-based ground defense missile system could detect airplanes flying at medium and high altitudes from the east.
In the armament of the fighter air regiments of the USSR Air Defense Forces deployed in the Far East, without taking into account the Yak-28P, Su-15 and MiG-23 aircraft that were in storage, there were more than 300 interceptor fighters. After retraining to new equipment, the remaining types of fighters of the old types were often operated in parallel. So at the Dzemgi airfield, pilots of the 60-iap simultaneously with the development of the Su-27P flew the Su-15TM.
This color carried some interceptors Su-15TM curtain in his career
The old interceptors for several more years after the complete transition to the Su-27P were stored in caponiers in the northern part of the airfield. A large storage base for fighter-interceptor air defenses in Soviet times was located at the Khurba airfield, 30 km south of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Here, dozens of Su-90 and Yak-15П were on conservation until the beginning of 28-x. In addition to specialized air defense interceptor fighters, MiG-23ML / MLD and MiG-29 that were part of the 1 VA of the Far Eastern Military District could be involved in repelling enemy air strikes. In addition, the regiment pilots armed with Su-17 and MiG-27 fighter-bombers also practiced interception techniques and defensive air combat.
Thus, at the end of the 80, units and subunits of the 11-th Independent Air Defense Army were a formidable, well-organized force. The personnel of the anti-aircraft missile and radiotechnical troops who carried a constant combat duty had a sufficiently high qualification, and the equipment was maintained at a high degree of combat readiness. This was largely due to the fact that the anti-aircraft missile divisions and surveillance radars deployed on the coast were in the zone of increased attention of the US and Japanese basic patrol and reconnaissance aircraft. In the Far East, until the end of the 80-s, SR-71 Blackbird aircraft regularly flew. After the discovery of an approaching three-winged high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, all air defense units in the zone of which the Blackbird route ran were transferred to a state of high alert. Taking into account the fact that the exploitation of the SR-71 was too expensive for the American taxpayer, they didn’t fly so often at the curtain of their career. Much more concern to the radar operators and the calculations of the air defense system was the reconnaissance RC-135V / W Rivet Joint, the basic P-3 Orion patrol and the EP-3E Aries II electronic reconnaissance aircraft capable of hanging for hours on the border of our territorial waters. However, after the plane, which was inconsiderately approaching our air line, was taken on a radar accompaniment to highlight the C-200 SAM, or the Soviet interceptors flew in the direction of the air interceptors hastily retreated.
Radar of illumination of the purpose ZRK C-200B
At the end of the 80s, in the event of a conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States without the use of strategic nuclear weapons, faced only with the air defense missile forces of the USSR, American military aircraft would have suffered huge losses. After 1991, the rapid degradation of the air defense system began. Many remote radar posts were eliminated, which adversely affected the capabilities of timely notification of air defense units, especially in the sparsely populated northern territories. By the 1995, all the fighter regiments armed with MiG-23, MiG-25 and Su-15 fighters were disbanded in the Far East. Also in the middle of the 90-x almost all the C-75 and C-125 SAMs were decommissioned. Long-range S-200 lasted a little longer - until the beginning of the 21-century. In the course of several stages of “reorganization”, “reforming”, “optimization” and “giving a new look”, parts and formations underwent a landslide reduction, and the number of air defense forces decreased several times in comparison with Soviet times. At the same time, command posts, communications centers, and military camps were abandoned and destroyed. The number of operating military airfields has decreased several times, abandoned capital runways quickly declined, a significant part of the former military airfields can no longer be restored, since the runway concrete slabs were dismantled.
The fate of the aviation equipment of the disbanded Far Eastern fighter regiments was sad. For literally a couple of years, all the "obsolete" airplanes ruthlessly cut into scrap metal. It didn’t get any better with the anti-aircraft missile systems and radars that were removed from combat duty. Although the main part of the air defense system, the automated control system and the radar station was transferred to the storage bases, the equipment was usually not properly preserved. Cabs and hardware with sophisticated electronics were stored in the open air, often without proper security. Very soon, points of reception of radio components containing precious metals were opened near the storage bases and within a short period of time anti-aircraft missile systems, radars, communications and control equipment became absolutely unsuitable for further use.
Separately, I would like to say how justified was the hasty decommissioning of the first-generation anti-aircraft missile systems. In 1991, in addition to the latest at that time, the C-300PT / PS air defense system consisted of medium-range air defense systems C-75М2 / М3, С-125М / М1 and С-200А / В / Д. On the "seventy" and "dvuhsotki" used missiles with liquid-propellant engines working on toxic fuel and caustic and explosive oxidizer. The personnel of the technical divisions engaged in preparing anti-aircraft missiles for use had to refuel and drain the fuel with an oxidizer in insulating gas masks and special protective suits, working in extreme heat and in the winter cold. In fact, this was the main drawback of the C-75 and C-200 SAMs. At the same time, in Soviet times, the procedures for refueling, servicing and transporting liquid-propellant rockets were well developed, and it didn’t cause much difficulty in observing the established rules and regulations.
Transport-loading machine PR-11DA ЗРК С-75
By the beginning of the 90's, the single-channel C-75 family-to-air missile systems did not fully meet modern requirements. However, the latest C-75М3 / М4 air defense systems were built in the middle of 80-x with the estimated operating life of 25 years by the time of decommissioning, 10 years did not work either. These still not old complexes could easily serve in secondary directions or in rear areas before the beginning of the 21 century or they could be sold abroad. Even more controversial is the hasty refusal of the C-200ВМ / Д long-range complexes. And now 5B28 and 5B28M heavy anti-aircraft missiles are unsurpassed in range (up to 300 km) and height (40 km) of target destruction. In our anti-aircraft missile forces at the moment there are no serial missiles with similar or large indicators of range and height of destruction. Despite numerous promises, the new long-range missile 40H6, which is part of the C-400 ammunition, en masse, has not yet arrived to the troops. "Two hundred" latest versions with proper care, repairs and upgrades could still serve. Yes, it was quite a complex and expensive to operate complex, but some of the newest long-range air defense missile systems were quite realistic to preserve, which would certainly make our neighbors more sensitive to the inviolability of Russian air borders.
Launcher 5P73 ZRK C-125M, in the background, the station SNR-125 guidance and radar antenna P-18
At the moment, the problem of dealing with attack reconnaissance UAVs, cruise missiles, combat helicopters and airplanes flying at low altitude is very acute. It is no secret that modern C-300 / C-400 anti-aircraft systems are very expensive, and it is not rational to massively spend missiles on targets that are cheaper than the missiles themselves. In addition, if mobile artillery-missile systems Pantsir-S are designed to protect C-400 air defense systems from low-altitude attacks, the C-300P air defense missile systems from low altitude should be covered with MANPADS and anti-aircraft large-caliber machine guns.
This problem could be solved by using upgraded low-altitude air defense systems С-125М / М1, which could be deployed in secondary directions and to protect expensive long-range complexes. However, in our country they did not care about the safety of “one hundred and twenty-fives” and very successful low-altitude SAM systems with a large modernization potential for the most part turned into scrap metal.
Now the Russian Far East is being defended by the 11-I Red Banner Army of the Aerospace Forces (11-I A VKS) - the operational association of the VKS Russian Armed Forces as part of the Eastern Military District. Compared with Soviet times, the forces and assets of air defense troops have decreased by several times.
The 23 kPVO covering the Primorsky Territory was transformed into the 93 division of the air defense division (headquarters in Vladivostok). Ground-based air defense forces deployed in Primorye squeezed to 1533-th Guards anti-aircraft missile Red Banner Regiment, 589-th Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment and 344-th radio engineering regiment.
Satellite image Gооgle Еarth: ZRS C-300PS position in the vicinity of Shchitovaya village
The armament of the 1533-th SRP protecting Vladivostok consists of long-range missiles C-300PS. One anti-missile division is deployed on Russian island and not far from Shitovaya settlement. Another division, previously located on Popova Island, does not carry permanent combat duty, and periodically unfolds north-west of Vladivostok in the triangle between the settlements of Davydovka, Tavrichanka and Rybachy.
The 5H66М low-altitude detector assigned to the C-300PS division in the 40В6М tower
The positions of the C-300P family of anti-aircraft systems strongly unmask the low-altitude 5Н66М detector raised on the 25 m 40В6М tower. The abandoned and operating positions of anti-aircraft missile systems, the locations of radar stations and the airfields of fighter-interceptors are also clearly visible on satellite images of Goole Earth being freely available, and anyone can find them.
Satellite image of Google Earth: C-300PS position on the island of Russkiy
The 589 Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment consists of: one C-300PS anti-aircraft missile system and two new C-400 anti-aircraft missile system. Divisions 589-th RPG protect the ports of Nakhodka and Vostochny, as well as the airfield of naval aviation near the village of Nikolaevka, where Ka-27 anti-submarine helicopters and Il-38 anti-submarine patrol aircraft are based. One C-400 division is located on the positions south of Nakhodka, on the cape separating the Tungus and Popova bays. Another two divisions deployed in the vicinity of the airport "Golden Valley".
Satellite image of Google Earth: C-400 ground-to-ground missile system position at the Golden Valley airfield
Until 2007, on the hill not far from Kozmina Bay, the position of the ZRS 300PS was available. However, after the deployment of the C-400 ZRS with the 48Н6 anti-aircraft missiles capable of hitting aerodynamic targets at a distance of up to 250 km, the outdated C-300PS was removed from this area. The range of destruction of the air targets of the C-300PS air defense missile system with the 5В55РМ SAM is 90 km At present, a stationary radar post within the 300H5А (Defense-84) radar and low-altitude stations is still operating near the former C-14PS position. Also on the position there are radio-transparent spherical shelters designed to protect radars from wind and precipitation.
Radiolucent domes and radar of the standby mode of the 5H84А meter range not far from the oil terminal "Kozmino" (author photo)
Detection of air targets and the issuance of target designation to interceptors and anti-aircraft missile systems in the Primorsky Territory is carried out by the radar posts of the 344 radio regiment, headquartered in the city of Artyom.
Satellite image of Google Earth: radar station in 5 km east of Trudovoe village
In Soviet times, platforms dominating the terrain were equipped with radio-transparent domes protecting radar equipment from the effects of meteorological factors. Along with the soviet day -GE ") and 18Л19" Gamma-С37 ". In total, on the territory of Primorsky Krai there are 5 permanent radar stations.
55ЖХ6 radar ("Sky")
Three-coordinate radar of the standby mode of the “Sky” meter range, intended for detecting and issuing coordinates (range, azimuth, height) of air targets when operating as part of an air defense system or autonomously.
59H6-E (Opponent-GE) radar
Mobile three-coordinate radar decimeter-range “Oppnik-GE”, designed to detect and track aerodynamic, ballistic air objects and provide radar information for fighter aircraft, anti-aircraft missile systems, and ensure aviation safety.
Radar 64Л6 "Gamma-С1"
Three-coordinate survey radar centimeter range "Gamma C1", designed to replace the P-37 radar and is designed for use in the AMS of the Air Force and Air Defense, as well as for air traffic control.
The Caste-2E mobile three-coordinate radar of the decimeter range of circular view, designed to replace the mobile radar P-19, is used to monitor the airspace, determine the range, azimuth, flight altitude level and route characteristics of air objects, including those flying at small and extreme low altitudes.
The air cover of the central and southern part of the Primorsky Territory is provided by the 22 th Fighter Aviation Khalkhingol Red Banner Regiment, based near Vladivostok at the Central Corner airfield.
The MiG-23MLD fighter installed as a monument near the Central Corner aerodrome checkpoint
Unlike many other aviation units, this fighter regiment in the past armed with single-engine MiG-23MLD was not disbanded, and its pilots were retrained for heavy Su-27 fighters. In 2009, the regiment included equipment and personnel of the 530 th Fighter Aviation Regiment, which was previously based in Sokolovka.
Satellite image Gооgle Еarth: 22 fighter fighters from the Iap at the Central Corner aerodrome
At present, the 22-iap has two squadrons of mixed Su-27CM, Su-30М2 and Su-35С and one squadron of heavy interceptors MiG-31 and MiG-31BM - a total of more than forty machines. In addition to the fighters that are in the flying state at the Central Corner aerodrome, there is a number of Su-27Ps with a developed resource and MiG-31s waiting for their turn for refurbishment and modernization.
Satellite image of Google Earth: exterminated Su-27CM, Su-30М2 and MiG-31 at the airfield "Sokolovka"
After repairing the runway, life returned to the Sokolovka airfield. Since the summer of 2016, it has been used as a backup airfield by 22 fighter Iap fighters. Restoration of infrastructure and the runway of the airfield in the vicinity of the village of Chuguevka, allowed the squadron of the Khalkhingol Red Banner Regiment to be dispersed and reduce their vulnerability on the ground in the event of the outbreak of hostilities.
The Khabarovsk Territory and the Jewish Autonomous Region are in the area of responsibility of the 25 Air Defense Division, created on the basis of the 8 Air Defense Corps and headquartered in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The air defense 25 division is a powerful enough unit, consisting of three anti-aircraft missile and two radio regiments. However, the territory that the 25 Division must protect is also very extensive. Based on the number of deployed C-300PS divisions, in the Khabarovsk Territory the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, which is the most important defense-industrial center, is best covered. In the city of Yunosti there are large enterprises of aviation and shipbuilding, a refinery, an enterprise of ferrous metallurgy. In its vicinity there are mining mining facilities, as well as factories for the production of ammunition and processing of explosives. Responsibility for the defense of Komsomolsk-on-Amur from air attack means was assigned to the 1530 th anti-aircraft missile regiment, whose headquarters until recently was in the Closed Lian. This regiment was reequipped with the first generation air defense systems on the C-300PS air defense systems in the early 90-x. There were a total of five anti-aircraft divisions in the 1530 regiment until 2015, while their usual number in the other regiments was two or three. At the same time, two divisions of permanent combat duty were not carried; their personnel, equipment and weapons were in the place of permanent deployment in the Closed Lian.
Satellite image of GooEle Earth: the position of the ZRS-300PS aerial defense system near the village of Verkhnyaya Ekon
Until recently, the anti-aircraft divisions were deployed around the villages of Lian (40 km north of Komsomolsk), Bolshaya Kartel (30 km east of the city), and Verkhnyaya Ekon (in 20 km south of the city embankment). In addition to the city, under the "umbrella" of the last two are the airfields "Khurba" and "Dzemgi". The anti-aircraft missile battalion equipment in the vicinity of the Bolshaya Kartel settlement is located on the site where the Duga antenna antenna was located on the site until 1997. At present, the 1530 regiment is in the process of reorganization, and it is likely that we should expect that the heavily worn and outdated C-300PS will be replaced by new equipment. In 2017, the media published information that the anti-aircraft systems that had previously been in combat duty in the Khabarovsk Territory were transferred to Allies in the CSTO after reconditioning.
Near Khabarovsk, in the area of the Knyaze-Volkonskoye village, the 1529-th Guards anti-aircraft missile regiment is stationed. Before 2016, it included three anti-aircraft divisions C-300PS. Two anti-aircraft missile divisions are currently deployed in positions where, before the start of the 90s, the long-range air defense systems C-200ВМ were on duty. At the end of 80 for two C-300PS divisions, positions were set up near the Kalinka airfield, the villages of Nagornoye and Kazakeechevo. For the personnel there were built capital barracks and office space, warehouses and boxes for equipment. Currently, these buildings are abandoned, and everything built for the most part turned into ruins.
The 25 air defense division has a 1724 air defense missile regiment of two divisions deployed near Birobidzhan in the Jewish Autonomous Region. This is the only ZRP in the Khabarovsk Territory equipped with a C-300В. The permanent location of the anti-aircraft missile regiment is located in 5 km south-east of the center of Birobidzhan. The anti-aircraft missile divisions are on combat duty alternately, at a position at 1 km south of the main technical fleet.
Beginning with 2006, the anti-aircraft missile brigades of the ground forces, in which the long-range C-300B and medium-range air defense missile systems were armed, were transferred to the Air Force. On the basis of the brigades, anti-aircraft missile regiments were formed, which attracted combat duty. This was due to the fact that, as part of the combined command of the Air Force and Air Defense, 20 years after the collapse of the USSR, a deficit of medium and long-range anti-aircraft systems began to form. As you know, after the next decade, 1994 didn’t install a single C-300P family in the air defense forces of the country, and the construction of new anti-aircraft missiles was carried out in very modest amounts. In the 21 century, the resource of equipment built in the USSR at the end of 70-s - the middle of 80-s began to come to an end, and they decided to strengthen the air defense object of large administrative and industrial centers and defense centers by weakening the military air defense. This measure is of course compulsory, military complexes and systems on tracked chassis, have better ground passability, but destroy public roads, their speed on the highway is less than that of C-300P wheeled vehicles. In addition, C-300Bs with good capabilities to counter tactical and operational-tactical ballistic missiles have lower fire performance than C-300P and C-400 and much longer replenishment of ammunition. As for the Buk air defense missile system, this, of course, a very successful complex is not very suitable for long-term combat duty.
The coverage of the air situation over the Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin is carried out by the 343-th and 39-th radio regiments. In total, in the area of responsibility of the 25 Air Defense Division, there are 17 constantly deployed radar posts. Somewhere from 2012, a large-scale upgrade of the radio engineering equipment of the 25 air defense division began. So, on the Amurstalevsky hill, north of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the Soviet-made radar Oboron-14 and the PRV-13 radio altimeter were added to the modern stations Oppnik-GE and Gamma-1.
The air defense of Komsomolsk-on-Amur is carried out by the fighters of the 23 th Tallinn Fighter Regiment. 23-iap was formed in August 2000 by merging 60-iap and 404-iap before the Orlovka airfield of the Amur Region at the Dyomga airfield. According to the official version, this was done in order to improve the combat effectiveness and efficiency of management. In fact, in two shelves, the number of serviceable aircraft did not satisfy the standard strength. In addition, the runway and infrastructure of the Orlovka airfield needed repairs. After the 404 th air regiment left the airfield in the Amur Region, it fell into complete decay and is now abandoned. The Dzyomgi airfield, due to the fact that it was used by an aircraft factory together with the fighter regiment, was maintained in good condition.
Su-27SM fighter at the Dzemgi aerodrome (author photo)
The 23-iap was the first to begin the delivery of the upgraded Su-27CM and the Su-35С serial fighters. This is largely due to the proximity of the manufacturer. When basing in walking distance, it is possible to promptly treat the inevitable "childhood sores." However, this did not help much with the development of the new rocket armament of the Su-35C fighter. For a number of reasons, until the end of December 2015, it was not possible to bring to the mind the armament of the new fighter, and in its ammunition there were no medium-range missiles. In fact, the aircraft that was in trial operation for about 5 years was of limited combat capability and could only conduct close combat with the use of 30-mm air cannon and P-73 melee missiles.
Su-35S at the Dzyomgi airdrome (author photo)
According to the information provided by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation to the beginning of 2016, the 23 of the iap had 24 Su-35С, 16 Su-27СМ and 3 Su-30М2. Sparky Su-30М2 replaced combat training Su-27UB designed mainly for pilot training.
Satellite image of Google Earth: 23-iap airplanes at Dyomgi airfield
Fighters of the Tallinn Aviation Regiment are frequent guests at the Khurba airbase, where the Su-24M and Su-34 277 th Mlavsky Bomber Regiment are also based. In 2015, the Su-35С and Su-30М2 from the 23-th IAP were relocated to the Yelizovo airfield in Kamchatka, where they participated in major exercises.
According to data published in open sources, the 11-I Mukden Air Defense Division (headquarters in the city of Chita) is part of the 26 and VC. To say that this compound has great combat power is impossible. There are no fixed positions of long-range anti-aircraft missile systems C-300P and C-400 in the territory from Birobidzhan to Irkutsk. In addition, the north of Eastern Siberia has a very weak radar coverage, the main part of the stationary radar posts in this area was eliminated in the 90-s. The forces of the only 342 radio regiment are simply not able to cover a huge territory. The 26 ADP has one 1723 th SRC on the Buk medium range air defense system (Dzhida village, Buryatia).
Satellite image of Google Earth: MiG-29 and Su-30М2 fighters at Domna airdrome
At the 27 airbase km south-west of the city of Chita, the 120 th separate mixed aviation regiment is based. The regiment is armed with MiG-29 and Su-30CM fighters, as well as Su-25 attack aircraft.
MiG-29 fighter at the Domna airfield
Currently, light fighters of the MiG-29 120-based air regiment have exhausted their resources and are to be written off. After a number of accidents and catastrophes, the operation of the MiG-29 in the Chita region was stopped, but the fighters are still on the airfield. The first multifunctional Su-2013CM multi-role fighters arrived from the Irkutsk Aviation Plant in the 30 of the year. At least 120 of such vehicles are included in the 24 air regiment ..
Su-30SM at the airport "Domna"
To combat duty in the "Domna" on the Su-30CM started in 2014 year. Since September 2015, the personnel and equipment of the 12 air regiment have been used in combat operations on the territory of Syria.
Layout of C-300PS and C-400 positions in Kamchatka
At the moment, the most northern Far Eastern anti-aircraft missile units are the C-400 and C-300PS air defense divisions deployed in Kamchatka. In 2015, the rearmament of the 1532 anti-aircraft missile regiment began from C-300PS to C-400. Anti-aircraft positions protect the submarine base in Krasheninnikov Bay, the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and the Yelizovo airfield. According to the information sounded by the Russian MO in the composition of the 1532-th RPM there should be three C-400 divisions. However, as of 2017, two C-400 and one old C-300PS carried combat duty.
Satellite image of GooEle Earth: the position of the ZRS-400 SRS to the south of the Yelizovo airfield
Airborne illumination, interceptor guidance and target designation to anti-aircraft missile divisions are entrusted to the radar posts of the 60 radio regiment. Ten radar stations equipped with radars: 35Д6, П-18, П-19, П-37, 5Н84А, 22Ж6 and 55Ж6 are scattered not only in the Kamchatka Peninsula, but also on the Chukotka, and also, and to have the way to be at the line, and you will have the way to get to the object and not, and you will have to put the device on the line, which is on the line, and you will have the way to go, and you will have, as a line, you will be
The layout of the radar posts in Kamchatka
Due to the harsh climatic conditions and strong winds, about half of the existing radars are located in stationary radio-transparent shelters built during the Soviet era. As a rule, such shelters were built on dominant elevations above the terrain.
Satellite image of Google Earth: a fixed radar station on the bank of Avachinsky Bay
Contrary to the assertions of some "experts" about the presence of "missile defense" in the Kuril Islands, there are no permanent positions of anti-aircraft missile systems and medium-range and long-range complexes. There were no them in the Kuriles and in Soviet times. Several years ago, rumors were circulating in the Russian media that the Buk-М1 medium-range air defense systems would be placed on the islands, which, incidentally, turned out to be a “duck”. It is possible that there were such plans in the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation, but as a result, in 2015, the 18 th machine gun and artillery division's air defense was reinforced by the short-range air defense missile division Tor-MXNXU (2 units). Prior to that, the 8 and 46 machine-gun artillery regiments had been deployed in the anti-aircraft missile and artillery division (49 and Strela-6 and 10 ZSU-6-23 Shilka). But of course, it’s impossible to rank Arrows and Torahs as anti-missile systems.
Control of the air situation over the southern part of the Kuril ridge is carried out by several mobile radars of the P-18 meter range. Soviet-built stations operate on a permanent basis at the Petrel airfield located on Iturup Island. Another radar station operates at the northern tip of Simushir Island, the 22-X6 radar is deployed here and possibly the P-37 radar.
At the Yelizovo airport, 12 km west of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, MiG-31 interceptors of the 865th IAP are based. July 1, 1998, the regiment was transferred from the 11th Air Defense Army to the Pacific Air Force fleet. The task of the regiment is to provide fighter cover for the deployment of submarine forces of the Pacific Fleet, to cover the places of basing in Kamchatka from air strikes, to carry out combat missions to protect Russia's air border in the north-east direction. However, the number of interceptors capable of performing a combat mission at Yelizovo clearly does not correspond to the nominal strength of the fighter regiment, since a maximum of one and a half dozen MiG-31s are in flight condition.
Satellite image of Google Earth: MiG-31 interceptors at Yelizovo aerodrome
Currently, the air defense forces stationed in Kamchatka are organizationally consolidated into the 53 th air defense division. In December 2017 of the year in the Russian media, with reference to the Russian Defense Ministry, information was published that in 2018, the formation of another air defense army would begin. This structure will include aviation units, missile and radio engineering units of the 53 th PDHV. The area of responsibility of the new formation will include Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Satellite image of GooEle Earth: the position of the Z-300В ЗРС in the Khomutovo area
There are also plans to restore the Sakhalin Island anti-aircraft cover. In 1991, the Sakhalin Oblast had 9 positions C-75 and C-300PS and a medium-range army complex “Krug-М1”. However, in the course of “reforming” and “optimizing” the armed forces, all of them were eliminated. The longest, until the 2005, the brigade, armed with the Krug-М1 air defense system, covered Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk from the south. Now on this place deployed division C-300В. The media announced plans to build a garrison for equipment and personnel of the newly created anti-aircraft missile regiment in the area of the Khomutovo airfield.
PS: All the information presented in this publication is obtained in open and public sources, a list of which is given.
Продолжение следует ...
The Military Balance 2017