Military Review

From the history of the navigator service of the Russian Air Force

84
The navigator service of the Air Force (VKS) of Russia today, March 24, celebrates its 102 birthday. On this day at the height of the First World War (March 24 1916), on the basis of the order of the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commander (at that time, the General from Infantry Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseev), the so-called ZANS was created. We are talking about the Central Aeronautical Station, which can be considered the "great-grandmother" of the modern navigator service of the Air Force as part of the Russian Federation Air Force.


It was 24 of March that was chosen as the date for the professional holiday of military navigators of the Russian Air Force in 2000. Since then, this holiday in the calendar of military dates - officially.

What was the range of tasks of the Central Air Navigation Service during the First World War? In fact, there were a lot of tasks. This includes checking and installing instruments of high accuracy for those days, conducting upper-air observations to analyze the state of the free atmosphere, and working with aerial cameras. Due to the fact that the airplanes were equipped with special instruments, an absolutely new military profession of an observer-pilot appeared.

They became observer pilots, either military personnel who graduated from military schools in this military direction, or those who had unsuccessful flight experience on the aircraft that had then been in the imperial army aircraft fleet. Of course, both were particularly welcome.

At that moment, special attention was attached to observer pilots with aerial photography skills. The ability to capture enemy positions from the air for subsequent strikes and their correction meant a lot more than a century ago.

By the way, the first school of observers in our country is considered to be an educational institution opened in January 1916 in Kiev. This decision was made by the Military Council at the end of 1915. As can be seen, the educational institution for the preparation of those whom it is customary to call navigators today opened even before the official date of birth of the navigator service in the Russian Empire. The duration of training in the Kiev specialized military school of observers was six months. It was designed for training military 50. And it was, it is necessary to pay tribute, intensive training, including not only classes “on the floor”, but also field exits.

Listeners Kiev aviation school. General photo (1916 year):

From the history of the navigator service of the Russian Air Force


Students at the school during aerial photography classes (analysis of the footage):



What photographic equipment was used in training in aerial photography, as well as directly above the combat zones? First of all, we are talking about Pott's aerial camera, which was by no means a compact structure with a crown, a 13x18 film cassette cm, designed for a maximum of 50 images, a drive and an alarm for rewinding, a stopwatch and a battery.



For reference: Vladimir Filippovich Pott was born in Samara in 1866, in the family of a military topographer. During training in the infantry school, he became interested in the theory of photography, as a result of which he developed his own camera for military needs. It was used to determine the distances and deviations of projectiles when firing from naval artillery guns.

Learning how to handle such an aerial camera, according to many students of the military school, was one of the most difficult, but at the same time, exciting activities.

The shutter release of the camera VF Potte was performed using a special rubber bulb connected by a tube with a so-called rubber souffle, which was expanded by a pear and activating the shutter under air injection. The lens had a focal length 210 mm and a relative aperture 1: 4,5. The insertion of the cassette with the film was made in a special hole, closed by a door. The total weight of the device was about 9 kg.

This camera from a different angle:



They experienced this miracle of technology, which in those times was really a miracle, at the airfield near Petrograd. It is noteworthy that the technological groundwork of the Photomotor camera (AFA) was very impressive, and therefore after the fall of the Russian Empire for a long time (before the beginning of the 30-s) it was used in the Soviet Union to create topographic maps. Many of those cards subsequently played an invaluable role during the Great Patriotic War, as well as, of course, military navigators.

Work with altimeter in the Kiev school:


Due to the fact that one of the skills of an observer-pilot at that time was the skill of targeted bombing, taking into account weather conditions and speed of an airplane, the profession was eventually renamed “pilot-scorer”.

And this is the navigation equipment of the First World War, used by Russian navigators:


Today, more than 2 thousand navigators of various kinds are serving in associations, formations and units of the Aerospace Forces (VKS) aviation. The main task of the navigational service today is to ensure high accuracy and reliability of air navigation, as well as the effectiveness of the combat use of all types of aircraft weapons, aerial reconnaissance and electronic warfare.

Congratulations to the air force navigators (VKS) and service veterans on their professional holiday!
Photos used:
Wikipedia, https://humus.livejournal.com
84 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. AntiFREEZ
    AntiFREEZ 24 March 2018 05: 50
    +15
    All involved - a happy holiday! drinks
    Although with a "beard", but in the subject wink
    A little girl approaches a plane, where a pilot with a navigator is sitting in an open cockpit, and asks:
    - Uncles, uncles, and you are pilots?
    Pilot Navigator:
    “Hey navigator, are we pilots?”
    - Pilots.
    - Yes, girl, we are pilots.
    - Uncles pilots, but how many will be twice two?
    “Hey navigator, how many will be two and two?” The navigator, counting something on the navigator’s line, answers: five.
    - Listen, girl, five it will be.
    - Like five, and the teacher told us that four.
    - Navigator, what are you, the teacher told her that four!
    “Well then, I'm adjusted for the wind.”


    1. AntiFREEZ
      AntiFREEZ 24 March 2018 05: 52
      +14
      And one more:
      - Navigator, where are we?
      - In the detox, commander.
      - Why do I need such accuracy, name the city ...
      1. Tatyana
        Tatyana 24 March 2018 13: 53
        +3
        Happy holiday to you, navigators of the Air Force (VKS) and all involved in them! love
        I wish you all success in the service and a good rest!
        And also to all of you excellent health, happiness, long life and all prosperity!

    2. 210ox
      210ox 24 March 2018 07: 07
      +9
      I join in the congratulations .. I will not tell you a bearded joke about flying through a pack of Belomora .. wink hi drinksThank you for the historical photos. That's because people .. flew along the speedometer, altimeter, sextant and some other stray in the photo ..
      Quote: AntiFREEZ
      All involved - a happy holiday! drinks
      Although with a "beard", but in the subject wink
      A little girl approaches a plane, where a pilot with a navigator is sitting in an open cockpit, and asks:
      - Uncles, uncles, and you are pilots?
      Pilot Navigator:
      “Hey navigator, are we pilots?”
      - Pilots.
      - Yes, girl, we are pilots.
      - Uncles pilots, but how many will be twice two?
      “Hey navigator, how many will be two and two?” The navigator, counting something on the navigator’s line, answers: five.
      - Listen, girl, five it will be.
      - Like five, and the teacher told us that four.
      - Navigator, what are you, the teacher told her that four!
      “Well then, I'm adjusted for the wind.”
  2. Mefodi5124
    Mefodi5124 24 March 2018 09: 11
    +5
    Happy holiday guys! drinks
  3. midshipman
    midshipman 24 March 2018 09: 12
    +12
    Happy Holidays to you, navigators. JSC "RIRV" (NII-93, LNIRTI), JSC "VNIIRA" (NII-33), MKB "Compass" (JSC "KOMPAS") were part of the 1988 Main Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry until 6. They created radio navigation systems for the air force of our country and were subordinate to me. Then in our country and far beyond the borders of the country there was a single radio navigation field, now this field was created using the GLONASS SRNS.
    Scientists of these research institutes have published monographs and textbooks on radio navigation. Personally, I began to engage in radio navigation since 1963. The school in Gatchina even found work, where NII-33 had a training ground and a squadron was stationed. In 1972, Zenit cameras were installed on the MiG-25R. So shooting the positions of the Israeli army made it possible to distinguish from 29000 meters of people. Once the pilot brought a photo of the Golda Mayr car with a clear view of the number.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 24 March 2018 10: 55
      +3
      Midshipman, in this case, you are involved in the navigational service, which means you on a holiday!
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 24 March 2018 09: 21
    +5
    Air Force Navigation Service
    It is of general interest
    It causes a lot of respect,
    Navigators, congratulations!

    drinks
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 March 2018 10: 48
    +6
    Quote: AntiFREEZ
    All involved - a happy holiday! drinks
    Although with a "beard", but in the subject wink
    A little girl approaches a plane, where a pilot with a navigator is sitting in an open cockpit, and asks:
    - Uncles, uncles, and you are pilots?
    Pilot Navigator:
    “Hey navigator, are we pilots?”
    - Pilots.
    - Yes, girl, we are pilots.
    - Uncles pilots, but how many will be twice two?
    “Hey navigator, how many will be two and two?” The navigator, counting something on the navigator’s line, answers: five.
    - Listen, girl, five it will be.
    - Like five, and the teacher told us that four.
    - Navigator, what are you, the teacher told her that four!
    “Well then, I'm adjusted for the wind.”

    Thanks for having fun. Regarding the "beard" - this is which side to look at, for example, they are fresh to me, which means that the beard is false.
  6. NN52
    NN52 24 March 2018 12: 23
    +5
    Happy Holidays!
  7. shuravi
    shuravi 24 March 2018 12: 46
    +11
    But once upon a time, without any PSI and GLONASS:

    1. bober1982
      bober1982 24 March 2018 13: 46
      +2
      Quote: shuravi
      But once upon a time, without any PSI and GLONASS:
    2. bober1982
      bober1982 24 March 2018 13: 48
      +6

      The first time it didn’t work (insert photo), I apologize.
  8. Pete mitchell
    Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 13: 18
    +14
    All aviation specialists who catch the difference between true and track, magnetic and conditional, navigation and meteorological, sine and tangent, orthodromy and loxodrome;
    Everyone who knows that the “train” is not a train, the “far” one is not light (like the nearest one), but the “circle” is a rectangle (or frequency, or call sign, but never a circle);
    Those who understand why LZP is direct, and LFP is “like a bull pissed,” as well as all those who say “lower than the lower minimum” does not baffle
    CONGRATULATIONS ON THE DAY OF THE STORMAN SERVICE!
    Sinful, pure plagiarism, but sincere congratulations
    1. shuravi
      shuravi 24 March 2018 13: 28
      +7
      Quote: Pete Mitchell
      as well as all those whom the phrase: "below the bottom for the minimum" does not baffle


      You only congratulate helicopter pilots. bully
      1. Pete mitchell
        Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 14: 37
        +6
        fellow of course everyone. I’m saying plagiarism, but congratulations
        1. Svarog51
          Svarog51 24 March 2018 17: 19
          +1
          Vigilance and vigilance again! As far as I remember, your tailed friend all the time strives to try from your dishes. wink
      2. Avis-bis
        Avis-bis 24 March 2018 21: 16
        +5
        Quote: shuravi
        You only congratulate helicopter pilots

        An-2 and private traders quite a fly below the bottom, if necessary. Not only helicopter pilots.
    2. NN52
      NN52 24 March 2018 14: 41
      +2
      Pete Mitchell, Tramp!

      Happy holiday to you !!!

      Not celebrating yet? Or will we start later? drinks
      1. Pete mitchell
        Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 14: 49
        +4
        And you dear, knock over drinks
        1. Svarog51
          Svarog51 24 March 2018 16: 49
          +3
          Tramp, Half a Second hi Happy holiday to you. I spent 2 weeks in training at the Vyshny Volochyok, they had to learn how to take photos. But no luck - GSVG and company protection of the airfield. drinks
    3. fleks
      fleks 24 March 2018 20: 02
      +2
      though plagiarism but the navigator’s soul pleases .......
      1. Svarog51
        Svarog51 25 March 2018 17: 20
        0
        Alexey hi You are not based on Ivanovo for an hour?
  9. shuravi
    shuravi 24 March 2018 13: 39
    +4
    Navigator, he is like a triune god:

    - navigator VUS (military specialty);
    - navigator position (where the crews are not the first, assigned to the pilots);
    - navigator on duty (duty navigator on the KDP, appointed from navigators, or pilots).
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 14: 40
      +7
      Quote: shuravi
      - navigator on duty (duty navigator on the KDP, appointed from navigators, or pilots).

      So once sat on the KDP, and the board fell 1000 meters in our direction. When at night the shells from the cannon began to fly, I thought: it’s useless to hide, here it’s either lucky or hello Lord. We were lucky everyone then ..
      1. Svarog51
        Svarog51 24 March 2018 17: 10
        +3
        Tramp, I hope they won’t punish me for congratulations. Here - from a pure heart.
  10. shuravi
    shuravi 24 March 2018 15: 37
    +6
    He pulled out of the old portfolio:

    1. NN52
      NN52 24 March 2018 15: 56
      +2
      What scale?))))
      1. shuravi
        shuravi 24 March 2018 16: 04
        +2
        Quote: NN52
        What scale?))))

        five
        1. Pete mitchell
          Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 16: 21
          +5
          Nostalgia? I still keep my first card
          Well knock over drinks
          1. NN52
            NN52 24 March 2018 16: 31
            +2
            Knock over!

            We will be healthy!
            1. Pete mitchell
              Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 16: 32
              +4
              And one more laughing well for health
              1. NN52
                NN52 24 March 2018 16: 38
                +2
                Yes Easy!!!!
              2. Svarog51
                Svarog51 24 March 2018 16: 55
                +4
                Aviation soldier To set the mood drinks
                1. Svarog51
                  Svarog51 24 March 2018 16: 58
                  +3
                  And we sang this with a friend, he served urgently from naval aviation. Already a year and a half has not been ...
                  1. Svarog51
                    Svarog51 24 March 2018 16: 59
                    +3
                    For all who stayed in the sky ...
                2. Pete mitchell
                  Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 16: 58
                  +4
                  This is our drinks
                  1. Svarog51
                    Svarog51 24 March 2018 17: 12
                    +1
                    For a soft fit! drinks drinks drinks
                    1. Pete mitchell
                      Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 17: 23
                      +4
                      This is exactly in our opinion drinks
                    2. NN52
                      NN52 24 March 2018 17: 34
                      +2
                      Svarog51

                      Thank you !!! Are you raising us there? drinks
                      1. Svarog51
                        Svarog51 24 March 2018 18: 37
                        +2
                        "200 eight-star Old Fortress" drinks
          2. shuravi
            shuravi 24 March 2018 16: 59
            +4
            Quote: Pete Mitchell
            Nostalgia? I still keep my first card
            Well knock over drinks


            Well, my first ones were still with the vulture. So it’s already safely scattered ashes across the earth.
            And you can drink.
            Oh, there were times through which holes wore.

            1. Pete mitchell
              Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 17: 14
              +5
              Quote: shuravi
              And you can drink.

              So overturn. So it seems they all received the fingerprint, after applying the first mark. But time was not boring ..
      2. fleks
        fleks 24 March 2018 20: 06
        +1
        20km or 10km
        1. Pete mitchell
          Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 21: 15
          +3
          Pyaterochka ..
  11. shuravi
    shuravi 24 March 2018 17: 09
    +5
    The task is to find something alien, defiling the cabin. laughing

    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 17: 15
      +3
      Are you talking about a laptop? A strange thing in the An-12, if I’m not mistaken
      1. shuravi
        shuravi 24 March 2018 17: 21
        +3
        Yes Yes. It is a laptop.
        1. Pete mitchell
          Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 17: 22
          +4
          Type guessed?
          1. NN52
            NN52 24 March 2018 17: 31
            +2
            Besides a thick laptop ..
            On the left side, slightly higher than the headphones, is it by chance not a garmin navigator? or am I mistaken?
            1. Svarog51
              Svarog51 24 March 2018 18: 42
              +2
              Weather service for tomorrow gives - a million per million. Flying. Who's the hangover?
              1. Pete mitchell
                Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 19: 03
                +4
                I would have this weather service .... I was already "pulled out" for tomorrow
                1. NN52
                  NN52 24 March 2018 19: 16
                  +2
                  Pete mitchell

                  You most importantly do not forget to leave us a hangover ...
              2. NN52
                NN52 24 March 2018 19: 06
                +2
                Svarog51

                There are no peacetime flights on Sundays ...
                So .... today it is possible in full ....
                And for the hangover we will send the Tramp as the tallest and fastest running (he does not smoke besides) wassat
                1. Pete mitchell
                  Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 20: 05
                  +4
                  Sergey, well, tell Polst the Second that it’s impossible - a villain, one word
                  1. Svarog51
                    Svarog51 25 March 2018 02: 01
                    +1
                    Well, once in peacetime on Sundays there are no flights - to him, as free from flights and ... good drinks
          2. Vovanfalcon
            Vovanfalcon 25 March 2018 03: 46
            +2
            No. Judging by the glazing, this is the An-30.
      2. fleks
        fleks 24 March 2018 20: 09
        +3
        it's not an12 ----- where's the locator?
        1. NN52
          NN52 24 March 2018 20: 29
          +2
          fleks

          Pete Mitchell is not a Vtashnik, just like me ...
          We were asked about the excess in the cab, we answered ...
          About An 12 at random ... and I don’t know ..
    2. fleks
      fleks 24 March 2018 20: 07
      +2
      Of course, a laptop. what else
  12. Cheldon
    Cheldon 24 March 2018 18: 03
    +2
    Happy holiday to all! From the graduates of SVVAULSH !!!
    1. NN52
      NN52 24 March 2018 18: 28
      +3
      Alexey!

      You also have a holiday from the graduates of AVVAKUL !!!
  13. ODERVIT
    ODERVIT 24 March 2018 18: 25
    +3
    Happy holiday !!! The navigator is the chief in the crew, after the commander.
  14. VictorZhivilov
    VictorZhivilov 24 March 2018 18: 33
    +2
    Congratulations, everyone who is involved and send musical greetings!
  15. NN52
    NN52 24 March 2018 18: 42
    +2
    Svarog51,

    You just, it’s there, don’t overtake us ... we’re only 150 pieces of whiskey ...
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 18: 44
      +4
      Quote: NN52
      only while whiskey is 150 ...

      Ha ha, I already ran to the store repeat
      1. NN52
        NN52 24 March 2018 19: 02
        +2
        Our shot, everywhere ripe .....
        Jameson? 4,5 liters?
        1. Svarog51
          Svarog51 25 March 2018 02: 05
          +1
          You just, it’s there, don’t overtake us ... we’re only 150 pieces of whiskey ...

          I was tracked by my home navigator service and placed in an arched shelter. repeat
  16. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 March 2018 19: 14
    +2
    Navigator, course! - three hundred and fifteen! - Do not curtail yourself, point a finger!
    My favorite activity in kindergarten age is to play in the navigator cabin of IL-28
    Graduates of ChVAUSH (OVVAUSH from 1957 of the year to 1960) - Happy Holidays!
    1. pafegosoff
      pafegosoff 29 March 2018 20: 23
      0
      By the way, I liked the cabin of Ila much more, unlike the Tu-16. There was also a shutter-case for transferring notes to the commander ... Exotic!
  17. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 March 2018 19: 25
    +2

    Training and flight department OVVAUSh before the dissolution of the school on Khrushchev reduction of aviation.
  18. Bort radist
    Bort radist 24 March 2018 19: 32
    +3
    Happy Holiday, navigators!
  19. shuravi
    shuravi 24 March 2018 20: 18
    +3
    At Mi-6, the navigator had an “argument”.

    1. NN52
      NN52 24 March 2018 20: 48
      +2
      Or like this...
      1. NN52
        NN52 24 March 2018 20: 49
        +2
        or so ... too
        1. NN52
          NN52 24 March 2018 20: 50
          +2
          it is possible and so too
          1. Pete mitchell
            Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 21: 04
            +4
            Quote: NN52
            wink

            Lyapota ..
    2. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 21: 03
      +4
      Shurawi satisfy the interest: there I guessed the type above?
      1. shuravi
        shuravi 24 March 2018 21: 17
        +3
        Quote: Pete Mitchell
        Shurawi satisfy the interest: there I guessed the type above?


        Well, look at the glazing, not to be confused with anything. Only one has such a "porch." wink
        1. NN52
          NN52 24 March 2018 21: 27
          +2
          Am I with a garmin navigator?
          1. shuravi
            shuravi 24 March 2018 21: 49
            +2
            Quote: NN52
            Am I with a garmin navigator?


            Aircraft An-30.




            As for the rest, then ahz, my types are Mi-2U, Mi-8T, Mi-24. hi
        2. Pete mitchell
          Pete mitchell 24 March 2018 22: 18
          +4
          Well, excuse me, I only saw him from afar.
          -2 also happened to fly
  20. gla172
    gla172 29 March 2018 19: 54
    0
    ....what is it...???
  21. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 29 March 2018 20: 18
    0
    And I missed such a holiday in a booze!
    31.01.1977/1537/XNUMX Order of the Moscow Region awarded the first rank, Military University No. XNUMX