Military Review

Who stole the gold of the Russian Empire

59
Before the outbreak of the First World War, the Russian Empire had the largest gold reserves in the world. It was 1 billion 695 million rubles - 1311 tons of gold, which is equivalent to 60 billions of dollars at the rate of 2000-s. During World War I, considerable sums were spent by the tsarist government on providing military loans, for which gold was delivered to the UK. Therefore, by the time of the October Revolution 1917, the empire's gold reserves amounted to 1 billion 101 million rubles. Back in 1915, in wartime conditions, most of the gold reserves were exported to Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod.


Who stole the gold of the Russian Empire


After the October Revolution, most of the gold reserves came under the control of the Bolsheviks. However, the situation in the Volga region was not very good for Soviet Russia. In August 1918, the Bolsheviks decided to evacuate the gold reserve from Kazan, which was attacked by troops of Colonel Vladimir Kappel and the Czechoslovak Corps, made up of former prisoners of war of the Austro-Hungarian army — the Czechs and Slovaks of nationality who were in the Russian Empire during the First World War. But the Bolsheviks did not have time.

7 August 1918, the troops of Colonel Kappel completely captured Kazan. "Red" managed to take out only 4,6 tons of gold. The rest of the gold reserve, located in Kazan, fell into the hands of Kappelevtsy. Colonel Kappel reported in a telegram to Colonel Stanislav Chechek, commander of the Penza group of the Czechoslovak Corps, that he had got the gold reserves of the Russian Empire totaling 650 million rubles, and 100 million rubles by credit signs, gold and platinum. Vladimir Kappel decided to preserve the gold reserves for the needs of the anti-Bolshevik movement, which required his early evacuation from Kazan to more reliable places that were under complete control of the “whites”.

Gold was transported by ship to Samara, transported from Samara to Ufa, and in November 1918 was delivered to Omsk at the disposal of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. In May 1919 of the year in the Omsk branch of the State Bank, an audit of the gold reserve was carried out, as a result of which the bank’s employees established that there was gold worth 650 million rubles. October 31 1919 of the year gold was loaded onto trains. Under the heavy guard of Kolchak officers, he was to be taken to the east - to Irkutsk. But due to all sorts of obstacles, only 27 December 1919, the gold reserves of the Russian Empire arrived in Nizhneudinsk. Here the military representatives of the Entente forced Admiral Kolchak to renounce their dictatorial powers, after which the gold was transferred to the control of the Czechoslovak Corps, parts of which the Entente considered most reliable.



But the Czechoslovak Entente did not meet the expectations. Already 7 February 1920 of the year 409 million rubles in gold from the means of the gold reserves of Russia the Czechoslovak command transferred the Bolsheviks - in the form of payment for the guarantee of safe movement across the territory of Russia from Siberia to Czechoslovakia. It is noteworthy that during the long wanderings across the expanses of the Volga region and Siberia, the gold reserves of the Russian Empire were rapidly declining. It is known that while in the hands of Admiral Kolchak, the gold reserves decreased by 235,6 million rubles. Of these, about 68 million rubles were spent by Kolchak on the purchase of weapons and uniforms for his army, on the payment of salaries. Another 128 million rubles were placed Kolchak in foreign banks, where they sunk into oblivion.

Interestingly, 657 million rubles were exported from Kazan to Samara, and during the re-registration in Omsk only 651 million rubles were found. This circumstance gave reason to suspect the command of the Czechoslovak Corps and its military personnel to steal a part of the gold reserve during its transportation, for which the Czechoslovakians were responsible. The officers of the Czechoslovak Corps who returned from Russia even managed to open their own bank in Czechoslovakia.

But Czechoslovak prisoners of war were not the only ones who had a hand in plundering the gold reserves of the Russian Empire. An impressive amount of gold was in the hands of a very interesting and outstanding personality - Ataman Grigory Semenov. It was his people who in September 1919 in Chita seized a train carrying 42 million rubles from the so-called. "Kolchak" gold fund.

Ataman Grigory Semenov at that time played a special role in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. This man was one of the “people's commanders” - chieftains born of the Civil War and pursuing their goals, often going against the aspirations of the more organized part of the “White movement”. In the 1917 year, when the October Revolution took place, Grigory Mikhailovich Semenov was just 27 years old. It is now the chieftains of the Civil War seem to us to be elderly people, in fact, almost all of them were about thirty years old — Semenov, Makhno, and Grigoriev, and many other atamans.

Despite his youth, behind ataman Semenov had an impressive military past. In 1911, he, the son of Cossack Mikhail Semenov, from the guard of Kuranzh, the village of Durulguevskaya, the Zabaikalye Cossack Army, graduated from the cornet of the Orenburg Cossack Junker School and was distributed to the 1 of the Verkhneudinsky regiment of the Transbaikalian Cossack army. He was not a stupid man, so he served in the military topographic team in Mongolia. At the same time, he established friendly relations with many representatives of the Mongolian elite of that time, which was facilitated by his excellent command of the Mongolian language. In 1911-1912 Semenov served in the 2-th Trans-Baikal Battery, then in the 1-th Chita Regiment and in the 1-th Nerchinsk Regiment in the Amur Region. The Nerchinsky regiment was commanded at that time by Baron Peter Wrangel, and another significant character of the Civil War, Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, also served there. So three outstanding in the future commander were in one piece.

During the First World War, Semenov went to the front as part of the 1-th Nerchinsky regiment, fought on the territory of Poland, where in the first months of the war he was presented to the Order of St. George IV degree for repulsing the regimental flag captured by the enemy and the brigade train. Grigory Semenov served as a regimental adjutant, then became the commander of the 6 of the hundreds of the Nerchinsky regiment. At the end of 1916, Semenov transferred to the 3-th Verkhneudinsky regiment, fought in the Caucasus and participated in a campaign in Persian Kurdistan, was promoted to captain.

In 1917, Semenov appealed to the then Minister of War Alexander Kerensky with a proposal to form a Mongol-Buryat regiment in Transbaikalia that would fight as part of the Russian army. After the October Revolution, he managed to secure a similar resolution from the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies. However, soon the Chita Bolsheviks realized that under the trademark of the Mongol-Buryat Regiment, Semenov created an armed formation of an anti-Bolshevik orientation, and decided to arrest him. But it was too late - Semenov revolted and at the beginning of 1918, he occupied Dauria - the eastern part of Transbaikalia. However, in March 1918, he was forced to retreat to Manchuria, where he continued to form his own Special Manchurian Detachment (OMO), which included Transbaikalian Cossacks, officers, a detachment of Serbs from among the Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war, two infantry regiments staffed by the Chinese , the Japanese detachment of Captain Okumura. The number of OMOs by April 1918 was reached by 3000 people.

Almost from the very beginning of the hostilities in Transbaikalia, the ataman Semenov was unable to improve relations with Admiral Kolchak. The admiral was a man of Russian military traditions, a champion of tough discipline and hierarchy, while the Cossack Semenov was more inclined towards more voluntary forms of military organization. The ataman and the admiral did not find a common language, although they fought together against the Bolsheviks and they had to reckon with each other.

Ataman Semenov and his subordinates were distinguished by extreme cruelty. Semenovtsy mercilessly dealt not only with their opponents who were captured, but also with civilians. The subordinates of Semenov did not disdain open crime, mocking civilians - women were raped, they could easily kill both the old man and the child. Naturally, looting of towns and villages was a common thing for the Semenovs. When Semenov seized 42 million rubles of “Kolchak gold”, he spent most of them on the purchase of weapons and uniforms for his army.

Almost from the first months of hostilities against the Bolsheviks, Semenov developed a special relationship with the Japanese command. It was the Japanese who supplied Semenov weapons, its Special Manchu Detachment included 540 Japanese soldiers and 28 Japanese officers. Semenov paid handsomely for Japanese weapons. In March, 1920 of the year he handed over to the Japanese command in the port of Far Far 33 a box with gold coins - about 1,5 tons of gold. This money was placed in the Chosen Ginko Bank, and then some of it was transferred to the accounts of General Mikhail Podtyagin, who served as the military attache of the Far Eastern Army in Tokyo. Podtyagin was one of the key intermediaries in the purchase of weapons from Japan.

By October 1920, the position of the Semyonov detachments who fought with units of the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic had seriously deteriorated. 22 October 1920, the Semenovites left Chita, which was for a long time the capital of the ataman, and retreated in the direction of Manchuria. Ataman Semenov himself fled from Chita on an airplane. In early November 1920, he turned up in Harbin. Naturally, the Semenovites also took out the remnants of the gold reserves, which were under their control. In November, Major General Pavel Petrov, who served as head of the rear of the Far Eastern Army, Ataman Semenov, handed over the head of the Japanese military mission to Colonel Isome for temporary storage of 1920 boxes with gold coins and 20 boxes with ingots worth 2 million rubles. Of course, the price of the receipt, which the Japanese gave to General Petrov, was zero. No one subsequently returned this gold to Petrov, although Semenov’s general repeatedly tried to appeal to a receipt signed by a Japanese colonel.

In 1921, Ataman Semenov finally left Russia, moving to Japan. In 1922, General Pavel Petrov also moved to Manchuria, who, after Semenov’s flight, served as Chief of Staff of the Amur Zemskaya District, General Mikhail Diterikhs. General Pavel Petrov in emigration occupied the position of the Head of the Office of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian All-Military Union (EMRO), based in Mukden. After emigrating to Manchuria, the leaders of the Semenovtsy repeatedly tried to return the money due to them. In 1922-1929 Ataman Semenov and General Pododyagin were suing the courts of the Japanese Empire for 1 million 60 thousand yen, which remained in accounts in Japanese banks.

In 1933, General Pavel Petrov arrived in Japan on the instructions of General Mikhail Diterikhs, trying to secure the return of the money that was transferred for temporary storage to Colonel Isome. The trial, initiated by General Petrov, significantly delayed and lasted until the Second World War. Petrov even stayed in Japan, having received the post of head of the department of the Russian All-Union Union in Japan. But to achieve the return of money he did not succeed. Already during World War II, General Petrov agreed with the proposal of the Japanese authorities to renounce claims in exchange for payment by the Japanese authorities of all legal expenses for many years of legal proceedings.

Ataman Semenov, after emigration, finally transferred to the service of his long-time masters - the Japanese. The Japanese leadership provided Semenov's house in Dairen (now Dalian in Liaoning Province in the People's Republic of China) and a monthly pension of 1000 gold yen. Semenov led the Far Eastern Cossack Union, and from 1934 he began to actively cooperate with the Bureau of Russian Emigrant Affairs in the Manchurian Empire (BREM), which was engaged in the training of saboteurs from the White emigres and the Russian youth, followed by the transfer to the territory of the Soviet Union. Comprehensive assistance to the Japanese intelligence ataman Semenov provided the entire Second World War.

In August 1945, Grigory Semenov was arrested by Soviet troops in the territory of Manchuria. 26 August 1946, the trial of the Russian Japanese emigrants who had been captured in Manchuria began. Semenov was also in the dock, who on August 30 of the year 1946 was sentenced to death by hanging and was hanged in prison on the same day at 23. General Pavel Petrov was more fortunate - since he lived in Japan, he was not arrested by the Soviet authorities. In 1947, he moved to the United States and began to serve the new masters, the Americans, as a teacher of Russian at a military school in Monterey. He lived to old age and died in the 1967 year at the age of 85.
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 26 March 2018 06: 08
    +8
    Who stolen gold of the Russian empire

    The answer in the article:
    After the October Revolution, most of the gold reserves came under control Bolsheviks

    An interesting question is where THEY spent it: for the wars they lost, they paid the gold of the Russian Empire with Estonia, Poland, Germany, armed the eternal enemy Turkey and spent on the World Revolution ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 26 March 2018 06: 49
      +7
      Quote: Olgovich
      An interesting question is where THEY spent it: for the wars they lost, they paid the gold of the Russian Empire with Estonia, Poland, Germany, armed the eternal enemy Turkey and spent on the World Revolution ...

      Not without this, but to the Bolsheviks got the LITTLE part of the gold reserves of RI. And somehow it was AMAZINGly fast after the war that Czechoslovakia began to grow, especially its banking sector, Japan ... I will say more, and who else was involved in the issue of seeking deposits in foreign commercial and state banks of countries such as England, the USA and Switzerland, made by representatives of the Republic of Ingushetia before its collapse
      1. your1970
        your1970 26 March 2018 09: 38
        +5
        there is a nuance - INSTEAD in order to go to Moscow (which was directly dictated by the political and military situation, the presence of the railway to Moscow and the small spacecraft in this direction) - the white people rushed to Kazan (which, as it were, was not on the road - where is Samara and where is Kazan). Chechek categorically forbade Kappel and Stepanov to step on Kazan,
        If we went to Moscow, it is quite possible that we would have won ...

        They chose between victory and gold coin - and chose the cellars of the Kazan Bank ...
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 26 March 2018 12: 06
          +3
          Quote: your1970
          INSTEAD of going to Moscow (which was directly dictated by the political and military situation, the presence of the railway to Moscow and small spacecraft forces in this direction) - whites rushed to Kazan (which, as it were, was not very much on the road - where is Samara and where is Kazan). Chechek categorically forbade Kappel and Stepanov to step on Kazan,

          From Kazan to Moscow there is also a direct train. And he attacked Kazan from Simbirsk (and not from Samara), which is very close to Kazan. At
          Kappel was always much less powerful than the Bolsheviks. As well as weapons, equipment, money, which they seized in Kazan.
          1. your1970
            your1970 26 March 2018 12: 35
            0
            and from Simbirsk the train was to Moscow ...
            however - everything was already there. Kappel chose gold, weapons, equipment and lost to Russia ...
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 26 March 2018 14: 15
              +2
              Quote: your1970
              however - everything was already there. Kappel chose gold, weapons, equipment and lost to Russia ...

              He did not have forces and means (before the capture of Kazan), comparable to the forces of the Reds in sight.
              To go somewhere, leaving Kazan in the rear, without anything and without a real army, was insanity.
              1. your1970
                your1970 27 March 2018 08: 32
                +1
                1) and the Bolsheviks real was the army already?
                2) in Penza there were squirrels - which were против Bolsheviks unlikely would go to Moscow and obviously would not interfere Kappel promotion
                Z.Y. At that time, everything was so fragile among the Bolsheviks - that the unhappy 50 thousand rebel Czechoslovak corps occupied all (!!!!) Transsiberian. If Kappel did not understand the anecdotal situation, if he did not see what was happening around, well, then his level as a commander is such ...
                For several months the Chapaev’s division from Ozinok went / drove (along the railway) to beat Shipovo (60 km occupied by the Cossacks) regularly, several times a week. They would arrive, their muzzles would be beaten up, they would be kicked out (“free !!!”) and back, the Cossacks in the evening back to Shipov ...
                But why go far - after 100 years - the country is 404 and their "terrorist battles" (up to 100 people maximum !!! but you are afraid of the real force), APU attacks "with the forces of 2 squads and armored personnel carriers" ...
                word for word ...
                Cappel would venture - maybe everything would be different
          2. Monarchist
            Monarchist 26 March 2018 17: 11
            +3
            At Shirokorad, I think I read that Kappel had a minimum of strength
    2. IGOR GORDEEV
      IGOR GORDEEV 26 March 2018 06: 51
      +13
      Quote: Olgovich
      An interesting question is where THEY spent it: for the wars they lost, they paid the gold of the Russian Empire with Estonia, Poland, Germany, armed the eternal enemy Turkey and spent on the World Revolution ...

      Before asking a similar question, I would ask another question - who brought the country to the February Revolution and the subsequent bacchanalia from which it later had to be difficult to get out of.

      As we know, history is cyclical and there is convincing historical reflections that the entry into the war with Germany (the 1st world beginning of 1914) was erroneous for the Russian Empire. In this century (in 2014) we were "invited" to the war with Ukraine (the introduction of troops and the capture of Kiev, etc.), to the war with Turkey (a downed plane). I believe that a lot of intelligence is not necessary to start a war, especially if you do not calculate all the consequences (economic and political) for the country.
      1. baudolino
        baudolino 26 March 2018 07: 32
        +3
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        who brought the country to the February Revolution and subsequent bacchanalia

        There is no need to consider civil war as something unusual in history and easily avoided. There were no full-fledged states that would have escaped civil war. This is a universal tool for solving the insurmountable problems that society faces. And excessive cruelty is also a property of civil war.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 26 March 2018 07: 51
        +2
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        who brought the country to the February revolution

        World War - led to revolutions in the 4 largest countries of the world. severe shocks occurred in other participating countries
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        subsequent bacchanalia

        This is after the Thief.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 26 March 2018 10: 10
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
          who brought the country to the February revolution

          World War - led to revolutions in the 4 largest countries of the world. severe shocks occurred in other participating countries
          Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
          subsequent bacchanalia

          This is after the Thief.

          Right And the February Masonic revolution is all in roses, you are our haberdashery.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 26 March 2018 12: 09
            +2
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            And the February Masonic revolution is all in roses, you are our haberdashery

            The February "revolution was made by the PROLETARIAT" (Lenin, "short course of the CPSU," 1938) comrade.
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            you are our haberdashery
            yes
            1. Looking for
              Looking for 27 March 2018 19: 39
              0
              YOU ARE LYING!!! V.I. Lenin never wrote, either short or complete “courses.” Secondly, ANY statement by Lenin is always accompanied by a reference to his work down to the page. third-
              "Our tactics: complete distrust, no support for the new government; we especially suspect Kerensky; arming the proletariat is the only guarantee; immediate elections to the Petrograd Duma; no rapprochement with other parties."

              - Vladimir Lenin, a telegram to the Bolsheviks leaving for Russia. March 6 (19), 1917 [3
              1. [comment-show]
                Olgovich
                Olgovich 28 March 2018 10: 28
                +1
                Quote: Seeker
                YOU ARE LYING!!! V.I. Lenin never wrote, either short or complete “courses.” Secondly, ANY statement by Lenin is always accompanied by a reference to his work down to the page. third-

                You're sadly clueless lol Learn the Short Course in the History of VKPBE, Chapter 5:
                5. The February Revolution.

                "Revolution made proletariat. ", - wrote Lenin in the early days of the February Revolution (Lenin vol. XX, pp. 23-24).

                Memorize by HEAR, ignoramus! yes lol
                [/ comment-show] [comment-deleted]
                The comment was deleted.
                [/ comment-deleted]
  • Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 27 March 2018 20: 17
    +3
    Quote: Olgovich
    (Lenin, "short course VKPBE", 1938)

    Olgovich, urgently treated, this is the last stage of your illness.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 28 March 2018 10: 31
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Green
      Quote: Olgovich
      (Lenin, "short course VKPBE", 1938)

      Olgovich, urgently treated, this is the last stage of your illness.

      You are not in a hurry, for it is too late and nothing will help you. yes
      A Short History of VKPBE History, Chapter 5:
      5. The February Revolution.
      "Revolution made proletariat.", - wrote Lenin in the early days of the February Revolution (Lenin, vol. XX, pp. 23–24).
      Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets
      lol
      Tie yourself with an ax on your nose. lol
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 28 March 2018 16: 40
        +3
        Quote: Olgovich
        A short history of VKPBE history, "chapter 5:
        5. The February Revolution.
        “The revolution was accomplished by the proletariat.”, Wrote Lenin in the early days of the February Revolution (Lenin, vol. XX, p. 23-24).
        Bolsheviks led the direct struggle of the masses in the streets

        Tie yourself with an ax on your nose.


        Well, why so shamelessly cheating? In the textbook “A Short Course in the History of the CPSU (B.)”, A quote from the work of V.I. Lenin, on the basis of only this V.I. Lenin cannot be considered the author of this textbook. For example, I also quote in my articles from the works of V.I. Lenin, and what do you think turns out that V.I. is the author of my articles Lenin?
        So, sick, get treated, I don’t know an ax will probably not help you, there’s only one cure for your illness - the guillotine.
        PS I’m only curious about how you “tie an ax with your nose”, this is a new phase of the disease, or know-how!
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 29 March 2018 09: 42
          0
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Well, why so shamelessly cheating? In the textbook “A Short Course in the History of the CPSU (B.)”, A quote from the work of V.I. Lenin, on the basis of only this V.I. Lenin cannot be considered the author of this textbook.

          WHERE is it written to me that he is the author of the textbook? fool
          He is the author of the PHRASE, which is in the COURSE. Again, didn’t get it? belay request .
          Quote: Alexander Green
          So sick heal, I don’t know, an ax will probably not help you, there’s only one remedy for your illness - the guillotine.

          "Painful" so you know this is a violation of the Site Rules (insult, rudeness). I don’t think so, but the administration is yes (I received a preface for this). Interesting....

          Quote: Alexander Green
          Curiosity only torments me, how do you “tie an ax with your nose”, this is a new phase of the disease, or know-how!

          belay It is proposed to YOU, my dear, to better remember Ilych. For this you: Tie yourself with an ax on your nose. It's all so simple. yes lol
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 29 March 2018 16: 38
            +2
            Quote: Olgovich
            DE it is written to me that he is the author of the textbook?

            Alas, you don’t even understand what mistake you made, thereby only emphasizing your incompetence in this matter. Every educated person knows that for the correct application of quotes there is a state standard in the text: a quote is given and a source with the title of the article and publication where the author of the quote wrote it, and not where someone used it. Moreover, the GOST states that all writers quote V.I. Lenin on the 5th edition of the complete works.
            Quote: Olgovich
            Tie yourself with an ax on your nose LODGE-as a keepsake. It's all so simple.

            Thank you, I realized that your latency period is already over.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 30 March 2018 04: 45
              0
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Alas, you don’t even understand what mistake you made, thereby only emphasizing your incompetence in this matter.

              In what is this "question"? belay
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Every educated person knows that for the correct application of quotes there is a state standard in the text: a quote is given and a source with the title of the article and publication where the author of the quote wrote it, and not where someone used it.

              You do not understand Russian at all? fool You are given both the author of the phrase and the source where this phrase was used: "course vkpbe
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Moreover, the GOST states that all writers quote V.I. Lenin on the 5th edition complete works.

              Write a complaint to Stalin: he edited the course personally lol
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Thank you, I understand.

              So, they cut into a nodule:
              A short history of VKPBE history, "chapter 5:
              5. The February Revolution.
              "The revolution was carried out by the proletariat.", - (Lenin, vol. XX, pp. 23–24).
              lol
            2. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 30 March 2018 18: 23
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              You do not understand Russian at all?


              You hopelessly .... because you don’t even understand that if you didn’t correctly quote and link to it, you misled readers. From your text, all unfamiliar with the works of V.I. Lenin will be considered that he is the author of the Short Course of the CPSU (B.). In addition, you not only misled the readers of the site, but also persist in this, and this is the clinic.

              If you want to be correctly understood both in Russia and everywhere, and not be mistaken for a patient, you must adhere to generally accepted rules, in this case the standard.

              PS I forgot to say, the muzzle that you built in the commentary at the very beginning is very to your face, that is how I present you.
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 26 March 2018 10: 04
    +3
    Quote: IGOR GORDEEV

    Before asking a similar question, I would ask another question - who brought the country to the February Revolution and the subsequent bacchanalia from which it later had to be difficult to get out of.

    Which is not a convenient question.
    1. The Bolsheviks threw the tsar, as a result of the coup, everything is clear, understandable and pleasant. repeat
    2. The country was brought to a pen .... eeeeee ..... All brought. Yard-thieves-Masons, generals-thieves-Masons, noblemen-landowners despising their people, commoners-intellectuals seized on Western theories and also despising their people, that's all.
    3. The February Revolution is Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood. In short, everything is in chocolate, Power is in the hands of the Conscience of the people (intelligentsia). True people are not what is needed for happiness.
    She was in February. She was killed by the big people. Everyone knows that. Well, probably this is all that every cultural person needs to know about her. repeat
    And so we live the Kerensky-Sharikovs walking and screaming along the street: "In the queue sv..ch!"
  • Looking for
    Looking for 27 March 2018 19: 48
    +2
    Without the revolution of 1905-1907, without the counter-revolution of 1907-1914, such an exact "self-determination" of all classes of the Russian people and peoples inhabiting Russia would be impossible, determining the relationship of these classes to each other and to the tsarist monarchy, which manifested itself in 8 days in February March Revolution of 1917. This eight-day revolution was, so to speak metaphorically speaking, “played out” precisely after a dozen major and minor rehearsals; “Actors” knew each other, their roles, their places, their situation, far and wide, through and through, to any significant shade of political directions and methods of action.
    But if the first, great revolution of 1905 ... after 12 years led to the "brilliant", "glorious" revolution of 1917 ... - then a great, powerful, omnipotent "director" was needed, which, on the one hand, was able to accelerate enormous proportions over the course of world history, and on the other - give rise to unprecedented power, global crises, economic, political, national and international ...
    This omnipotent "director", this powerful accelerator, was the world imperialist war.

    - Lenin, “Letters from Away” [3]
  • Boris55
    Boris55 26 March 2018 08: 49
    0
    Again, roll the barrel to the Bolsheviks. In the 17, the Trotskyists came to power!
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 26 March 2018 09: 12
      +2
      Quote: Boris55
      Again, roll the barrel to the Bolsheviks. In the 17, the Trotskyists came to power!

      A Trotsky monarchist or what? laughing
      1. Alber
        Alber 26 March 2018 11: 11
        0
        Quote: RUSS
        A Trotsky monarchist or what?


        Zionofashist your Trotsky. Executioner
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 26 March 2018 12: 05
          +1
          Quote: Alber
          Quote: RUSS
          A Trotsky monarchist or what?


          Zionofashist your Trotsky. Executioner

          Well, firstly, he is not mine, and secondly, he got out of your red-bellied ones, and who he became - an executioner, a Zionist or someone else, everyone decides for himself. For me, this is a demon, an enemy of Russia and the Russian people along with Lenin and Co.
  • RUSS
    RUSS 26 March 2018 09: 11
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    An interesting question is, where did they spend it

    For some kind of horseradish, the Bolsheviks sent gold to the Turks at the head of Ataturk when there was a famine in Russia;
  • BAI
    BAI 26 March 2018 10: 08
    +3
    That's right, the answer in the article:
    1.
    Therefore, by the time of the October Revolution of 1917, the gold reserve of the empire amounted to 1 billion 101 million rubles.

    2.
    Colonel Kappel reported in a telegram to Colonel Stanislav Cheček, who commanded the Penza group of the Czechoslovak Corps, that he had fallen into the hands of the gold reserves of the Russian Empire with a total of 650 million rubles, as well as 100 million rubles with credit signs, gold and platinum bullions.

    More than half of the supply was in the hands of whites. Who stole - the answer is obvious.
    1 million rubles = 0,703 tons of gold. And where these tons were dissolved when the gold was under the control of whites is really interesting. Indeed, in 1920, Wrangel had nothing.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 26 March 2018 12: 24
      +3
      Quote: BAI
      Who stole - the answer is obvious

      The answer, yes, in the article (I quoted it):
      After the October Revolution, most of the gold reserves came under control Bolsheviks


      Here is what the Stalinist DEN Katasonov writes about this (and this is just the tip of the iceberg:
      if we talk about Trotsky, then he had several channels for withdrawing gold abroad. The final destination for Trotsky’s gold was America, where his relative, banker Abram Zhivotovsky, was located. He was a business partner of Lev Davidovich and helped to convert metal into currency and place it in American banks.

      "Gold of the Comintern" - supposedly to support the struggle of the Communists of other countries for the victory of the socialist revolution in the world. Recall that in March 1919 a meeting of “fiery revolutionaries” from different countries took place in Moscow, at which the participants agreed to coordinate their efforts to fan the fire of the “world revolution”. The Communist International was created, the Bolsheviks from Soviet Russia promised their comrades-in-arms not only ideological support, but also material assistance. A channel for the withdrawal of gold from Russia was organized under the banner of the struggle for the “world revolution”. True, far from everything came to the “fiery revolutionaries” of other countries (sometimes almost nothing). The source of the "gold of the Comintern" was the stocks of the People's Commissariat of Finance. There was also a “party cashier”
      And besides, there was a large amount of gold, which did not fall into the storage of the NKF at all, but it went, bypassing the official instances and registration, immediately abroad. This gold and other jewels that were confiscated from the population, taken away from the Church, stolen from museums, etc. Confiscations were supplemented by the voluntary-compulsory sale of valuables by the population to the authorities on the basis of a secret decree of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Of September 5 of 1921. Here the circle of "beneficiaries" in the person of party and state leaders remained wider.
      1. BAI
        BAI 26 March 2018 16: 49
        +3
        650 million rubles, as well as 100 million rubles with credit signs, gold and platinum bullions.
        - this is more than half of Kappel
        By the time of the October Revolution of 1917, the gold reserve of the empire was 1 billion 101 million rubles.

        And this gold turned out to be white.
        So again: white has more than 50% of imperial gold.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 27 March 2018 08: 43
          +1
          L.N. Yurovsky in his capital study, "The Monetary Policy of Soviet Power in 1917-1927." (M .-- L., 1928) believed that as of November 17, the Bolsheviks had a gold reserve of 1 billion 101 million gold. rub. In Nizhny Novgorod, the Bolsheviks were on 552 million gold rub. gold. -EXACTLY HALF.
          What about paper Gold-so only the Germans sent him a gigantic amount of 203 million 635 thousand gold rub. that the Bolsheviks sent from Moscow on September 10 and 30, 1918.
          And since November 1919 in Nizhny Novgorodburned stoves - doubles burned credit tickets, loan bonds, stocks, coupons of the "royal" treasury, "romanovka" and "thoughts". “With bags of these papers,” associate professor Andrei Efimkin writes melancholy with reference to the State Archives of the Gorky Region. Two city baths and the building of the governor’s department were heated all winter.
          Although these securities were priced ea foreign securities exchanges .. "

          From the article Sirotkina V.G..
  • parusnik
    parusnik 26 March 2018 08: 05
    +6
    Another 128 million rubles were placed by Kolchak in foreign banks, where they have sunk into oblivion.
    ... The investor did not come for the money ...
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 26 March 2018 08: 44
      +3
      And what? The same thing happened in Ukraine. Puppets were brought to power and * the gold reserve * began * to evaporate * without documents and even persons involved in * evaporation * no. And of course, steal everything that is bad, good. They’re already getting to the ground.
    2. captain
      captain 26 March 2018 09: 03
      +5
      But the Bolsheviks, Leninists did not trust the Russian Red Army men and entrusted the "golden echelon" to the Hungarians, the so-called internationalists, to accompany him from Siberia. Rumor has it that grandfather Lenin ordered to entrust the Hungarians, he knew whom, judging by the Great Patriotic War. And who considered this gold in 1991? Where did the gold of the USSR go? Has the resurrected Semenov stolen? Here is a White Guard bastard and even stole it here.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 26 March 2018 09: 14
        +5
        And what is the causal relationship between:
        128 million rubles were placed by Kolchak in foreign banks, where they have sunk into oblivion.
        и
        But the Bolsheviks, Leninists did not trust the Russian Red Army men and entrusted the "golden echelon" to the Hungarians, the so-called internationalists, to accompany him from Siberia. Rumor has it that grandfather Lenin ordered to entrust the Hungarians, he knew whom, judging by the Great Patriotic War. And who considered this gold in 1991? Where did the gold of the USSR go?
        1. captain
          captain 26 March 2018 14: 17
          +1
          Quote: parusnik
          And what is the causal relationship between:
          128 million rubles were placed by Kolchak in foreign banks, where they have sunk into oblivion.
          и
          But the Bolsheviks, Leninists did not trust the Russian Red Army men and entrusted the "golden echelon" to the Hungarians, the so-called internationalists, to accompany him from Siberia. Rumor has it that grandfather Lenin ordered to entrust the Hungarians, he knew whom, judging by the Great Patriotic War. And who considered this gold in 1991? Where did the gold of the USSR go?

          Very simple; Where is the gold that the Hungarians brought to the vault? Where is the gold that has been accumulated for hundreds of years? Where did it go in 1991? Why are Russophobian-Leninists silent about him?
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 26 March 2018 17: 38
            +2
            Clear smile I tell you about Thomas, you tell me about Yerema, in the elderberry garden, in Kiev, uncle .. laughing
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 28 March 2018 20: 19
              +6
              This "captain" spoils everything Soviet, appealing to his service in the Soviet army laughing The mind is incomprehensible. How many potential traitors the USSR has grown on its neck. We were accused of intolerance laughing
  • midshipman
    midshipman 26 March 2018 08: 43
    +7
    Thank you Ilya for an interesting article. Maybe after your article for some members of our Government it will become clear to whom to open memorial plaques, obelisks, monuments. And then the monument to Kolchak still stands in Siberia, and in St. Petersburg they wanted to hang a memorial plaque on the house where this killer lived.
    My ancestors fought for Soviet power in Russia. On the line of the wife, her uncle was the artillery commander at Blucher. On the line of my father, his ancestors were commanders in the Red Army, and on the line of his mother (AS Pushkin even in the "Captain's Daughter" reported the name of the officer who served in the fortress of Orenburg).
    I would like to note the words of the author of the article, that with the money of the "gold reserve" White bought weapons and uniforms. Who? Yes, those who are now supplying IS troops with weapons.
    1. novel66
      novel66 26 March 2018 09: 25
      +5
      Yes Yes! as the unforgettable Ostap Ibrahim used to say, etc.
      "By God, I’ll buy a million rifles from the British - they like to sell firearms to the tribes,"
  • Curious
    Curious 26 March 2018 08: 45
    +3
    Another sketch done by briefly retelling their Wikipedia article.
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 26 March 2018 08: 47
    +2
    Who stole the gold of the Russian Empire

    Oh how .... From 650 million rubles. hung on chieftain Semenov 42 million rubles. and Atu him! He stole the gold of the Russian Empire!
    Something needs to be measured, the headline looks awkwardly-sensationally. But in fact - zilch.
    The title should be: “One of them” or “One of us” (which is closer, choose). repeat
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 26 March 2018 09: 17
      +4
      Yes, the headline was probably correct: "How they plundered the Russian Gold Reserve" ..
  • bubalik
    bubalik 26 March 2018 09: 14
    +5
    General Graves, Ataman Semenov, Vladivostok
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 26 March 2018 09: 23
      +3
      Does the general have a US passport in his jacket? repeat
      or floor inch steel plate?
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 26 March 2018 09: 37
        0
        Mavrikiy ↑
        Today, 10: 23
        ,,, most likely a cigarette case winked
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 26 March 2018 09: 39
          +1
          Well, except under the Havana.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 27 March 2018 00: 00
      +2
      American General Graves about Ataman Semenov in his book
      America's Siberian Adventure (1918-1920):
      “The soldiers of Semenov and Kalmykov, protected by Japanese troops, roamed the country like wild animals, killing and robbing people; if Japan wanted, these killings could stop in a day.
      If questions arose about these brutal murders, it was said in response that those killed were Bolsheviks, and this explanation obviously suited the world. The conditions in Eastern Siberia were terrible, and there was nothing cheaper than human life.

      Terrible murders were committed there, but not by the Bolsheviks, as the world thinks.
      I’ll be far from any exaggeration if I say that for every person killed by the Bolsheviks in Eastern Siberia, there are one hundred killed by the anti-Bolsheviks ... "

      White wrote denunciation to General Graves that he had been sent to help the Entente white, and was helping the red commissars.
  • Monarchist
    Monarchist 26 March 2018 17: 19
    +2
    Quote: RUSS
    Quote: Alber
    Quote: RUSS
    A Trotsky monarchist or what?


    Zionofashist your Trotsky. Executioner

    Well, firstly, he is not mine, and secondly, he got out of your red-bellied ones, and who he became - an executioner, a Zionist or someone else, everyone decides for himself. For me, this is a demon, an enemy of Russia and the Russian people along with Lenin and Co.

    As for Trinity, I agree: let everyone decide for himself what good Trotsky and his fellow tribesmen did for Russia? Kamrad Michman recently recalled a poisonous joke: on whom is Soviet power held?
    1. tanit
      tanit 26 March 2018 17: 46
      +5
      Trotsky, or, if you please, Bronstein, has one plus. Despite or against him, the Red Army won. This, whether you want it or not, is a fact. One way or another, but he commanded the Red Army. hi
      And about nationality and everything else - it’s already “they don’t wave their fists after the fight.” Voroshilov and Budyonny were certainly the right blood. hi
      And to steal gold, so the chieftains with purebred generals had a hand in it, didn’t they? request
  • Monarchist
    Monarchist 26 March 2018 17: 22
    +2
    Quote: parusnik
    Yes, the headline was probably correct: "How they plundered the Russian Gold Reserve" ..

    You are absolutely right: “How they plundered the Gold Reserve” would be at the very point.
  • komis55
    komis55 26 March 2018 17: 23
    0
    As soon as I saw the violations, I stopped reading: the equivalent. Have you sho 70 years of the USSR just want to evaluate a bucket of uranium? Well then: amputation is fun.
  • Kyrgyz
    Kyrgyz 26 March 2018 18: 31
    +1
    In Baikal they still dive looking for which year
  • Edvid
    Edvid 27 March 2018 00: 14
    0
    Quote: Kyrgyz
    In Baikal they still dive looking for which year

    ////////////////////////////////// //
    In the seventies and eighties literally on the banks of the Amur River in the Khabarovsk region
  • Altona
    Altona 27 March 2018 09: 28
    +2
    Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
    Before asking a similar question, I would ask another question - who brought the country to the February Revolution and the subsequent bacchanalia from which it later had to be difficult to get out of.

    ----------------------------------
    Olgovich is not interested. The main thing is that the Bolshevik Martians attacked and defeated the white-furry White Guards. And the fact that the White Guards, together with the invaders, were tying gold and other valuables, then Olgovich is also not interested. The main thing is that the Bolsheviks stole gold reserves in Gokhran and traded them with the West, buying the necessities for the young Soviet republic.
  • Looking for
    Looking for 27 March 2018 19: 25
    +1
    “So the three prominent commanders in the future ended up in one unit.” “How far will you, the Russians (not to be confused with the Russians), go if you become famous for your atrocities of Semenov, Ungern and Wrangel with the filing of some kind of“ Palestinian ” Cossack Ilyusha Polonsky., became outstanding.
    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 28 March 2018 20: 28
      +5
      I agree with you. With the "Russians" what to take? Until now, in fact, they vote for Yeltsin. Heart, so to speak. So that the brain does not strain. Ugh, damn it!