Military Review

Germany + Austria: A look through 80 years

21
Germany + Austria: A look through 80 years



On the one hand, it seems to be nothing. Well, Anschluss ... Especially since so much time has passed!

However, when I sat down to study everything that was happening in Austria, as we moved more and more analogies were with completely different countries.

I think closer to the end you will understand what's what.

So 80 years ago, in March 1938, Austria became part of “Greater Germany”.



In general, the idea of ​​combining was not new. The great German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck dreamed about this. But the realization of the dream was realized by Adolf Hitler.

And then a bunch of historical nuances.

The first. Unlike all subsequent acquisitions for “Greater Germany”, not only did the annexation take place without a single shot, but also with the full support of the Austrians.

Second. Economic background. To say that Austria was thrown into the arms of Hitler - well, it is to say nothing. But more about this in more detail below.

Third. After the war, when Germany was once again broken up, Austria for some reason was considered a country liberated from Nazism with all the outgoing consequences.

But - in order.

And it is worth starting with item No. 2.

The Austrian origin of Hitler, as many believe, is generally not a reason for unification. The idea of ​​“reuniting the German people” was pressing long before Hitler came, oddly enough. Since the end of the First World War.

When the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, it turned out that Austria turned out to be a very modest state by European standards. Both geographically and in terms of population. The newborn state was generally considered unviable.

However, the Germans who inhabited Austria (mostly) nevertheless, rolling up their sleeves, began to improve their lives. But they did not forget about the brothers in Germany, attempts to make an alliance with their neighbors began almost immediately. Of course, the Entente in the face of the remaining members did not allow such a plot to develop.

In general, the winners treated the losers in such a way that the birth of revanchism in German society with the subsequent arrival of revanchists to power became a matter of time.

Given the proximity to Italy, it is not surprising that during the raging economic crisis in Austria, totalitarian ideologies dominated in people's minds: communism, fascism and Nazism.



Officially, very moderate Social Democrats were in power in Austria. But, in addition to totalitarian currents, there was a standoff with the right-wing forces in the face of Christian socialists.

In 1933 (!!!), Chancellor Engelbert Dolfus, fearing the victory of the left in the elections, dissolved the parliament and proclaimed a “corporate dictatorship” - a system that was supposed to repel both the socialists and the German nationalists. Supporters of this ideology are often called “Austro-Fascists”.

The Dolfus government abolished the elections, reinstated the death penalty, banned the activities of the communists and the Nazis, and created a single organization with the church called the Patriotic Front. Later, the Austro-Fashista outlawed the Social Democratic Party. Just in case.

Austrian fascism, of course, could not dislike the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini - after all, even the Austrian “May Constitution” very much resembled his own. Duce dreamed of creating the “Danube Federation”, and Austria saw him as the most important ally in the implementation of these plans.

In the 1934 year, during a coup attempt, Dülfus was killed. The coup was not successful. Whether the readiness of the Austrians was to blame, or the four divisions of Mussolini, who had risen on the border.

But in the 1938 year, when Hitler firmly decided that Austria was “time to go home,” Mussolini did not want to clash with him. And he went "on the hunt."



The new Chancellor Schusching had no choice but to pass on Austria to Hitler. Schuschnigg and the president of Austria Miklas were arrested for this and until the end of the war the former chancellor sat in concentration camps ...

And on April 10 in Austria, nevertheless, passed a referendum on joining Germany planned by Schuschnigg. But already after. The result, announced by Nazi propaganda, was loud: 99,8 percent of the country's population supported reunification.

And, by the way, do not suspect the "new" authorities of fraud: over the next years, the Austrians proved to be even more fanatical National Socialists than the Germans. By the end of the war in the NSDAP there were up to 700 thousands of Austrian citizens - almost every fifth Austrian.

It is worth mentioning that membership in the NSDAP was optional, but who didn’t accept anyone?

Well, a few words about the tolerance of the Austrians should be said. When Hitler took over the Jews, in Austria everything was quiet and calm. But after the Austrians completely made up for themselves. Before the Anschluss, about 200 thousands of Jews lived in small Austria, and more than 50 thousands came running from Germany.

The number of those who did not have time to escape from Austria and was destroyed: about 65 thousands. There are documents in which Kaltenbrunner himself roared at particularly zealous countrymen. But so ... friendly.

So, in fact, the history of Austria ceased for a while and the short history of the state of Ostmark began.

It is quite normal for the Austrians (we will continue to call them that) served in the Wehrmacht and the SS. The Wehrmacht was called up about 1,2 million Ostmark residents who were not considered bad warriors at all.

During the war years, 240 Austrians served as generals in the Wehrmacht, SS and police. Austrian SS units were thrown into the fight against the Yugoslav partisans, and they were no less cruel than the elite units of Himmler.

However, the number of activists and opponents of the regime was barely distinguishable against the general background of the gray mass of opportunists. Not sharing the goals of the war, and even losing the right to be called Austrians, the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of Eastern Ostmark province continued to live peacefully under Nazism.

Moreover, industry, agriculture and tourism developed at an unprecedented pace. By May 1941, there were about 3 thousands of official unemployed in the whole of Ostmark. The unemployment rate has been reduced tenfold.

Well, again, the invisible patronage of a fellow countryman ...

Stories that the Austrians were supposedly "cannon fodder" for the Germans, do not receive confirmation. And it all started only after the first serious losses. Voronezh and Stalingrad. Well, the bombing that has begun aviation Allies in 1943.

It is impossible to say unequivocally that everything in Ostmark was very often a fan of Nazism. Of course not. More than 3 thousands of Austrians fought in the British army and 4 thousands - in the French Resistance. The Communists, who were not cleaned up by the SS and SD, also made their contribution.

According to modern data, almost 45% of those killed in the dungeons of the Gestapo Ostmarka are the communists of Austria and Germany. The number of about 35 thousands of people.

Little? Little.

Go to the last oddity. Yes, it is strange, but after the end of the war, it was newly created Austria that for many years was considered the “first victim of Nazism”.

And the medal, which was awarded to the Soviet soldiers, knocked the Germans out of Vienna, for "liberation", and not for "capture". Although they took. By storm. And they paid thousands of our soldiers and officers during the assault on the lives of 26.



And the “tomorrow” of Austria, too, was far from being like in Germany.

Denazification in the country was extremely benign and ended by the year of 1948. Many researchers emphasize that the wording “extremely mild” is poorly said. Former SS functionaries quietly worked in the government, wrote new school history textbooks, and so on.

About war crimes - silence. If there was anything, it’s all from the Germans. Austrians are completely white and fluffy. Wehrmacht veterans have always been honored.

Such a doctrine suited almost everyone, since it really formed a new nation, fundamentally different from the Germans.

And this myth calmly existed until the end of the last century. Well, the Jews - they are ... you will not break. The Austrians had to admit many things that were completely unpleasant for them, such as participation in the SS and the Holocaust, and even paid more than 2001 million dollars of restitution to the Jewish diasporas in the 900 year under the Washington agreement.

I will emphasize boldly: only in 2001 did Austria confess its sins. Before…

The myth of the differences between the Austrians in the past collapsed. What's next?

And then nothing.

But it is worth noting that accepting responsibility for what was done during the Second World War was hardly a wedge between Austria and Germany, wasn’t it? Quite the contrary.

The further, the more historians admit that the majority of Austrians supported the war on the side of the geek from Linz to the very end.

And when the end marked by the Tolbukhin fighters under the walls of Vienna was inevitable, they allowed themselves to be set free.

Do not remind anyone? It reminds me so much. Four states that do not know how to draw conclusions from their past.

The problem is that the Austrians have Germans. In Germany. Yes, we will not talk about the second Anschluss today, since there are states in modern Europe, but in fact there are no borders.

But this is Austria and Germany. Inhabited by virtually one people. Committed in the past almost the same mistakes.

Today, the history of these two countries cannot but should serve as an example. It is clear why.
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  1. Theodore
    Theodore 20 March 2018 06: 39
    +1
    Well, they remained neutral, and they do not stink against Russia like a woman angel!
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 09: 12
      +2
      Quote: Theodore
      Well, they remained neutral, and they do not stink against Russia like a woman angel!

      There is no doubt that this is for the time being.
      So, just in case:
      In 1990, Austria began to move away from a policy of neutrality, introducing amendments to the State Treaty, which allowed the development of cooperation with the German armed forces. During the Gulf War, Austria was the only neutral state to allow allied aircraft to fly over its territory. During the NATO operation against Serbia in 1999, Austria opened its airspace for NATO aircraft.
      . In 1995, the country joined the European Union and participates in the EU's Rapid Response Force and the NATO Partnership for Peace program.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 20 March 2018 09: 51
        +6
        Actually, the Germans did not really strive to build a single state. Only at the end of the nineteenth century a united Germany appeared. And how many wars were between small German formations, and did not count.
        During European integration under the command of Napoleon, they unanimously forgot mutual claims and set off to rob RUSSIA. During the WWII, they also united and also tried to rob. During the next European integration, under Hitler’s command, a merger also occurred in anticipation of robbery.
        The fact that Europe is uniting is also a premonition of the possibility of a robbery, only technology has stepped so far that the possibility of * suicide * has become quite real. But for countries with a Western regime, it is impossible to survive without robberies, so they unite and distribute roles within their alliances.
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 12: 09
          +1
          Quote: Vasily50
          for countries with a Western regime it is impossible to survive without robberies, that is why they unite and distribute roles within their alliances

          What kind of beast is unknown - "Western regime"?
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 20 March 2018 14: 17
      0
      WE NEEDED A CORRIDOR TO SWITZERLAND - FORGIVENESS.
      And now and then it is beneficial for everyone to have a darkened dressing room.
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 21 March 2018 02: 43
      0
      What? It was the Austrians who stormed Brest. Countrymen Adolf.
    4. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 27 March 2018 09: 03
      0
      This is because they have long completely delegated their foreign policy to Germany.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 March 2018 07: 09
    +10
    By the end of the war, the Nazi Party consisted of up to 700 thousand Austrian citizens - almost every fifth Austrian.
    There is an even more shocking figure: every FOURTH Austrian fought in WWII.

    And the medal awarded to the Soviet soldiers who knocked out the Germans from Vienna, for "release", And not for the" capture ".

    Such a strange decision was made by the Soviet leadership.
    Former SS functionaries quietly worked in government, wrote new school history textbooks and so on.
    About war crimes - silence. If something was, then it's all from the Germans.

    And this despite the fact that a significant part of Austria and Vienna right up to 1955 were in the soviet zone occupation.
    Why forgiven these beasts, (as well as Hungarians, Romanians, Slovaks, Italians) - a question for the owl leadership. Moreover, eastern Europe was fed with bread and resources from the USSR devastated by it.
    What turned out? Restoration at the Russian expense of Russophobic states of Eastern Europe.
    They wanted, of course, another, but got it. request

    Substation Brest Fortress on June 22 was stormed by Austrian troops. I remember the author’s excellent report on the largest reconstruction of these events. good
    Thanks to the author for reminding this page of the story.
    1. BAI
      BAI 20 March 2018 11: 17
      +5
      Such a strange decision was made by the Soviet leadership.

      This decision was made at the Moscow Conference - the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, USA and Great Britain, held in Moscow from October 19 to 30, 1943. This is a JOINT (collegial, if you like) decision of the Allies, and not a sole decision of the USSR.
      And this decision was made in order to have legal grounds for not recognizing the Anschluss and withdrawing Austria from Germany after the war (after Kursk, the outcome of the war was clear to everyone).
      It is strange that the article does not contain a word about this conference.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 20 March 2018 11: 53
        0
        Quote: BAI
        This strange The decision was made by the Soviet leadership.
        This decision was made at the Moscow Conference - the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, USA and Great Britain,

        It was about the name Medals. Budapest was "taken", and Vienna, much more criminal, was "liberated." Is it weird? Of course.
        Quote: BAI
        And this decision was made in order to have legal grounds for not recognizing the Anschluss and withdrawing Austria from Germany after the war (after Kursk, the outcome of the war was clear to everyone).

        The conference expressed its desire to "see the restoration of a free and independent Austria."
        Anschluss was recognized Noalready in force in 1943 g.
        In addition, it was stated:
        Austria, also stated in the Declaration, ne relieved of responsibility for participation in the war on the side of Nazi Germany
        .
        And they did, in fact, on the contrary (see article).
        1. BAI
          BAI 20 March 2018 13: 30
          +1
          1.
          It was about the name of the medal. Budapest was "taken", and Vienna, a much more criminal, "released"

          And I'm about the medal. It is impossible to free what has become part of Germany voluntarily. The conference recognized her forcible accession, not voluntary.
          2.
          Anschluss was declared Inactive already in 1943.

          In my opinion, I wrote clearly that the conference was held in 1943. What is the problem?
          3.
          Austria, as also stated in the Declaration, is not relieved of responsibility for participation in the war on the side of Hitler Germany

          The quote is incomplete and somewhat distorts the meaning. Since the Declaration is very short, it is not difficult to bring it in its entirety.

          DECLARATION OF AUSTRIA



          The governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America have agreed that Austria, the first free country to fall victim to Hitler aggression, should be freed from German domination.

          They view the annexation imposed on Austria by Germany on March 15, 1938, as non-existent and invalid. They do not consider themselves to be in any way bound by any changes made in Austria after this date. They declare that they want to see a free and independent Austria restored, and thereby enable the Austrian people themselves, as well as other neighboring states that will face similar problems, to find the political and economic security that is the only foundation for lasting peace.

          However, Austria draws attention to the fact that it bears responsibility, which it cannot escape, for participating in the war on the side of Nazi Germany, and that upon final settlement, her own contribution to her release will inevitably be taken into account.

          Those. at the end of the war can be evaluated in different ways. By the way, Finland, Bulgaria and Romania.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 20 March 2018 14: 28
            +1
            Quote: BAI
            And I'm about the medal. It is impossible to free what has become part of Germany voluntarily. The conference recognized her forcible accession, not voluntary.


            Read the declaration
            : Austria to the fact that she is responsiblewhich cannot be avoided for participating in the war on the side of Nazi Germany


            And WHERE is Austria's FORGIVENESS for crimes in the Declaration? On the contrary, everything is clearly said about punishment. Which is NOT followed, in the cut with the declared. What is said

            WHERE was taken into account her "contribution" , i.e. that every FOURTH Austrian (from infant to old man) fought and atrocities, mainly in Russia?
            Nowhere!
            Those. it is about NOT fulfilling the Declaration. To which I have indicated.
            Quote: BAI
            Anschluss was declared Inactive already in 1943.
            In my opinion, I wrote clearly that the conference was held in 1943. What is the problem?
            3.

            The problem is ... you: you wrote
            to have legal grounds for not recognizing the Anschluss and the withdrawal of Austria from Germany after the war

            What is noticed that already in 1943 the Anschluss was rejected and Austria Germany was NOT considered hi
            1. BAI
              BAI 20 March 2018 21: 26
              +1
              1.
              And WHERE is Austria's FORGIVENESS for crimes in the Declaration? On the contrary, everything is clearly said about punishment. Which is NOT followed, in the cut with the declared. What is said

              Here. I specifically highlighted.
              upon final settlement, her own contribution to her release will inevitably be taken into account.

              2. What makes you think that the words about
              her own contribution to her liberation.
              Is this about some kind of toughening the attitude of the victorious countries towards Austria? This openly laid the possibility of her future forgiveness.
              3.
              To which it was noted that already in 1943 the Anschluss was rejected and Austria was NOT considered Germany

              Here it’s harder.
              3.1. I wrote:
              This decision was made at the Moscow Conference - the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, USA and Great Britain, held in Moscow from October 19 to 30, 1943.

              3.2 What you answered:
              Anschluss was declared Inactive already in 1943.

              frankly, after expression 3.1 I do not see the point in expression 3.2.
              3.3 However, after the question:
              In my opinion, I wrote clearly that the conference was held in 1943. What is the problem?

              You wrote:
              To which it was noted that already in 1943 the Anschluss was rejected and Austria was NOT considered Germany

              I summarize.
              With reference to the Moscow Conference of 1943, implying that readers know its text (I apologize if I have a higher opinion of them), I expressed the idea that, by a JOINT decision of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, Austria was recognized as a country that fell victim to Hitler aggression, which should be freed from German domination. Therefore, the medal "For the Liberation of Vienna", and not for the "capture of Vienna." Those. in 1943 laid the legal basis for the withdrawal of Austria from Germany after the end of the war (the end date of the war was unknown) and the future attitude towards her as a victim, not an accomplice. The name of the medal is a by-product (no matter how it sounds). What are you writing me once
              To which it was noted that already in 1943 the Anschluss was rejected and Austria was NOT considered Germany

              Did I write somewhere that the Anschluss was rejected in 1942,1944 or in any other year except 1943?
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 21 March 2018 09: 08
                0
                Quote: BAI
                I summarize.

                I summarize:
                NONE of the allies and, primarily, USSR, taking Vienna, NOT fulfilled its own decision, clearly spelled out in the Declaration, namely:
                Austria is responsible behind participation in the war on the side of Nazi Germany
                .
                Failure to comply with the decisions has led to the fact that the name of the medal sounds more than strange. It is clear from whom they liberated Warsaw, etc. And from whom was the Austrian capital freed? From .... fiercely defending her and Nazism Austrians?! And just had to fulfill the intended ....request
                Quote: BAI
                Did I write somewhere that the Anschluss was rejected in 1942,1944 or in any other year except 1943?

                ONCE AGAIN (third) I will remind you that you wrote:
                to have legal grounds for not recognizing the Anschluss and the withdrawal of Austria from Germany after the war

                After the war nobody had already taken anyone out of Germany: the Anschluss was annulled at the 1943 conference. hi
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 20 March 2018 07: 45
    +5
    There is one at the time that the Austrians and Germans are one people, the Austrian communists did not agree at the beginning of the thirties at one of the congresses of the CPA, the decision was made by the Austrians not Germans ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 20 March 2018 08: 56
      +2
      It seems the article is correct, but I can’t get rid of doubts about the numbers, I should check them. In this article, the abundance of numbers is alarming, after the absence of the article on the economy of the USSR.
    2. Gopnik
      Gopnik 20 March 2018 11: 51
      0
      well, communists are generally strange people. The Austrians are not Germans, Little Russians are not Russians - divide and conquer.
    3. zoolu350
      zoolu350 20 March 2018 15: 12
      +1
      There is one point. That the Austrians, that the Prussians are all Germans grown in the "Holy Roman Empire of the German nation." But in the 18th century, they had two centers of consolidation: the North (Kingdom of Prussia - Berlin) and the South (Austrian Empire-Vienna). These two centers of German unity actively competed with each other and fought, until that time as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Berlin became the center of German unity de facto, and in 1938 he became so de jure. By the way, this article indicates that with the proper ideology, organization and political will, it is possible to gather people into a single state, even if there are significant contradictions in the past. But Ukraine has always been part of the Russian Civilization, but now this part of our people has been split off, thanks to the activities of the oligarchy of the Russian Federation and the owners of the Fed.
  4. apro
    apro 20 March 2018 10: 26
    +2
    The right of the German people to a single state is historically justified. The right to self-determination of peoples is not an inalienable right.
    1. alatanas
      alatanas 21 March 2018 12: 02
      0
      In principle, the people are Germans, but the Austrian and German nations have historically been formed. Austria has been an empire since ancient (relatively) times, in which, apart from the Germans, there were different peoples - I will not list them. On the other hand, there are many principalities of which, after the 1870 year, a single Germany was formed, which is still not so single (federation). For example - Bavarians, Saxons, etc. There are Yeshe and Swiss Germans who are Swiss.
      I visited both Austria and Germany, and I’ll tell you that the mentality is different, even within Germany alone, and there are a lot of differences between Austria and Germany.
      PS All of the above is written on the basis of historical aspects and has no bearing on the Anschluss and offenses in WWII.
  5. Serge72
    Serge72 20 March 2018 20: 46
    +16
    Germans they are Germans
    what are austrian what are german
    fought qualitatively - in both world wars