Military Review

Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 2

108
We continue to talk about the specifics of the offensive in a positional war on the Russian front of the First World War (see Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 1.).


Often the situation was such that the force of systematic enemy fire required the use of additional means of attack preparation engineering. One of such means was engineering bridgeheads, which made it possible to secretly concentrate troops before a direct attack.


Engineering assault bridgehead. Manual to fight for the fortified bands. According to the instructions and edited by the commander of the 5 army of the general from the cavalry Gurko. Ed. 4., Tipo-Lithography of the Special Army headquarters, 1916.

Another was the mine war - the methodical destruction of enemy positions by medieval methods. To lay the mines, they pre-dug a deep well, from the bottom of which, in the direction of the enemy’s trenches, there was a mine gallery, in order to prevent the land from falling down and covered with wooden frames from the inside. In the place designated for the explosion of a mine, a special recess was torn off, into which the charge, called the mining one, was placed. The charge was closed with earth and after a while it exploded under the key point of the enemy’s position. But the enemy was not idle - he also led the underground galleries, listened to the knock of the work of other mine workers. If he succeeded in undermining them, he laid his forge and blew up the enemy along with the result of his work.

That is why the mine war was difficult and risky. The opposition of the enemy unnerved the miners and caused important mistakes. Often the forge exploded prematurely and destroyed its buildings and artificial obstacles. Mine warfare was fought in the Carpathians, near Letzen, Illukstom, and other sectors of the front. A rather vigorous mine warfare was conducted in the spring of 1915 on the Warsaw sector in the 2 Army — an attempt was made to seize the sector from the fols. Mogely on r. Ravke. The farm was able to occupy the mine after the explosion. The Germans answered - and a mine warrior began, which was very nervous about the troops, and in the end brought only losses to both sides - without tangible tactical success. And in March, 1915 in the Carpathians, in the battles for Tsvinin, a fierce battle for every meter of space went on the ground and under the ground - having blown up the first mine in the advanced trenches of the German 3 Grenadier Regiment, 17 in March managed to establish itself in the undermined part of the enemy fortifications.

Considering the fact that in the struggle for the fortified lines on every frontier, to which the troops went out towards the night, it was necessary to create defensive lines to fight the enemy’s counterattacks, the attacker had to provide his men with the necessary building material, wire, stakes, etc.

On the Russian front, the first positional forms of struggle arose in the winter of the 1914 / 15. - they were especially bright on the Polish theater of operations (in battles on the Bzura river), as well as in East Prussia.



Attempts by the parties to use tactics developed during the war of maneuver led to great losses. Thus, the officer of the Caucasian Grenadier Division, Lieutenant K. Popov recalled the battles on the river. Bzura - a tributary of the Vistula. Ford the river was not everywhere passable and not yet frozen. 8 December 1914 was a big battle, during which the German regiment that had crossed over was completely destroyed, and the 500 man from its composition was captured. But the Germans crossed again - now at Brokhov, and the 237 Infantry Regiment, supported by 3, was ordered by the grenadier-Erivanians to drop the crossed Germans. The distance to the German trenches reached a kilometer, and the terrain on which to attack was flat as a table, with the exception of a few wetlands. The enemy anticipated the attack - single bullets regularly buzzed over the heads of the Russians. When the attack began - the German rocket lit up the whole field ... And the fire hell began: rifle fire and drumming of machine guns of the enemy were supplemented with artillery fire, which beat shrapnel from the opposite bank of the river. But, in spite of everything, the avalanche of Russian fighters rushed forward - trying to overcome the distance from the Germans as soon as possible. The lieutenant recalled the fierce faces of his fighters, shouts of "Hurray" and the steel wall of bayonets. He himself squeezed “Nagan” with cold-nosed fingers and also rushed forward. But the mass of infantrymen was faring with amazing speed - and the fiery tongues of the attacking machine guns and the line of enemy trenches, surrounded by the border of flashes from rifle shots, were already visible. The new rocket flashed the following picture: the 50 man of the infantry stopped in indecision at the parapet of the enemy's trench. Someone with a shout of "hurray" rushed forward, he was supported by other fighters - and they fell, mowed down with machine-gun fire. On the field, everything lay - most people, of course, lay down. The Germans did not cease fire, rockets were constantly hoisting into the sky. After lying 10 minutes, the lieutenant began to crawl back. The whole field was moaning with cries: "Save, help," "Do not leave me." But the snow, like a shroud, covered the lying mass of people. It was impossible to even think about sanitary aid - right up until the morning the Germans maintained a strong fire. Everyone who could walk or crawl, gradually left. And most of the wounded left to lie on the field. Every night, the fighters sent to this field picked up the corpses and put them into a mass grave dug behind the Russian trenches [Popov KS. Memoirs of the Caucasian Grenadier 1914 — 1920. M., 2007. C. 54-58].

The most prominent specifics of positional warfare were revealed in January of 1915 in the battles of Volya Shidlovskaya. In the summer of 1915, maneuverable military operations were supplemented with episodes of positional warfare (for example, during the battles of Lyubachev).

Autumn-winter 1915 led to the stabilization of the Russian front.


The realities of positional warfare.

This period was marked by the first major operation of the Russian troops, carried out in the new conditions and ended in failure.

7-th and 9-th Army of the South-Western Front 14 December 1915 - 6 January 1916 conducted an offensive operation on the river. Strypa (we will describe it in detail in the near future). Teeming with the tactical mistakes of the Russian troops, this operation did not lead to a breakthrough of the enemy’s tactical defense. As a result of this operation, the Russian command stated the following shortcomings:

1. Lack of infantry interaction with artillery. There were no artillery observers in the advanced offensive units, as a result of which the infantry not only could not have the necessary artillery support during enemy counterattacks, but often the artillery shot its infantry. Artillery, especially heavy, was set too far, and its shooting was not sufficiently thought out.

2. Deficiencies in management. The infantry often broke into enemy positions, capturing prisoners and trophies, but in all cases could not hold them and threw them back with great losses. The main reason for the instability of the infantry is the lag in reserves and the inability to secure captured tracts of terrain.

The commander of the 7 Army General of Infantry D. G. Shcherbachev noted: “1) ... the headgear was given an insufficiently defined task; 2) ... with the first burst there were no commanders in place who ... would establish order; 3) there was no connection to the rear; 4) there were no advanced gunnery observers " [Volpe A. Frontal hit. The evolution of forms of operational maneuver in the positional period of world war. M., 1931. C. 240].

One of the main reasons for the tactical failure was that the advancing units of the 7 and 9 armies were forced to approach the enemy for a long time - covering a large distance under their actual fire. The following order was given to one of the chiefs: “All infantry units assigned to the strike must be covered in trenches at a distance of no closer than 1000 (!) Steps (tactical nonsense - AO) from the attacking position of the enemy " [Note on operations on the South-Western Front in December 1915 and the North and West in March 1916. Secret. Typography of the Supreme Commander, 1916. C. 20]. Thus, taking into account that the enemy’s positions were not adequately reconnoitered, and his fire system was not destroyed, the huge losses incurred earlier than they approached the main fortified line of the enemy, and even greater losses when they broke into enemy positions. .


Storm fire artillery.

The command of the 9 Army noted:

"In most cases it will be relatively easy to approach the fortified position of the enemy over the distance 1 - 2 versts and consolidate there, but further: bringing closer will require a lot of effort, time (depending on the situation, several days, and sometimes even weeks) and assistance mainly heavy artillery. The rapprochement must go on continuously on a broad front and continue until the units approach the enemy’s trenches so (approximately 40-50 steps) so that during the attack they can reach these fortifications without stopping. During the rapprochement with each new stop, the parts must be firmly fixed. Having thus reached very close to the enemy and occupying a starting position for the attack, it is necessary to immediately proceed to equip it with a fortification in order to build a bridgehead that would allow both the warhead and the reserves as close as possible to the enemy ” [Volpe A. Decree. cit. C. 240-241].

Finally, the commander-in-chief of the armies of the South-Western Front, General from artillery N. I. Ivanov, 8, February 1916, wrote: “Under the present conditions for conducting operations, it will be difficult to often rely on the element of surprise attack. Therefore, in order to draw closer to the enemy and facilitate the production of the assault, it is necessary to practice on the whole front a gradual advance in small parts, resorting to nighttime advancements, saps and even a mine war with the indispensable, constant, solid strengthening of the space covered. The gradual development of trenches by moving forward in small parts and establishing their connection with the main lines will create new positions close to the enemy, will enable with less losses to get to his wire barriers and begin to damage them, destroy and pave the aisles. ” [Ibid. C. 241].



According to the results of the operation, serious tactical conclusions were made. Developed their own tactical recommendations, adopted the experience of conducting a positional war on the French front.

Among the most important conclusions concerning the actions of the troops during the breakthrough of the enemy's echeloned defense were the following:
1) The breakthrough area must be wide enough - 20-30 km (to eliminate the possibility for enemy artillery to shoot it from the flanks - to neutralize the enemy's fire tongs);
2) Artillery maneuvering is a symbolic element of success. Artillery should be able to accompany the advance of the infantry, increase the force of strikes and conduct repeated fire attacks;
3) The transfer of projectiles and other material and technical objects to the breakthrough area should be given the closest attention;
4) Qualitative engineering and aerial reconnaissance is the key to competently preparing an effective offensive operation;
5) Artillery should be massaged, reducing to special groups under the leadership of the responsible chief;
6) Particular attention should be paid to the exact calculation of the required number of artillery barrels used to break through, the power of fire and the amount of ammunition.

Recommendations for the attacking troops noted that the starting positions for infantry attack should be at a distance of 200-250 m from the enemy’s trenches - otherwise it would take a long time to run under fire, and artillery from large distances would not be able to effectively support the offensive. Such a position should provide the infantryman (subject to the destruction of artificial obstacles) the opportunity to reach enemy trenches in one roll. The rapprochement must be carried out in advance, both by engineering methods (for the first time it was about creating assault bridgeheads), and by capturing tactically important sections of the terrain.

Engineering equipment areas attached special importance. To give the advancing infantry a strike the necessary strength, it is necessary to correctly determine the size of the combat sectors (not to make them too broad) and to have strong reserves. It was not recommended to form consolidated corps for the offensive, and also to have more than 5 corps in the shock army. Finally, thorough technical support is needed for the advancing infantry — communications equipment, hand grenades, barbed wire scissors, pyroxylin sticks, canvas mats to overcome artificial obstacles.

Artillery must pay the utmost attention to the destruction of artificial obstacles, machine-gun blockhouses and nests. The artillery attack plan should have provided for the solution of the following tasks: a) for how long and in what way will the passageways be made in the wire barriers; b) how far the enemy’s trenches will be felled; c) which fortified points should be destroyed. Artillery reconnaissance, competent choice of positions, clear statement of feasible combat missions, supply of ammunition, interaction with infantry and maneuvering are the most important questions that the artillery chief should pay particular attention to. Artillery actions in positional combat must be distinguished by a careful and methodical nature.

Particular importance was attached to infantry escort artillery, for “Due to the extreme dependence of infantry on artillery fire and equipment of the area ... against the defensive structures protected by artificial obstacles, the infantry has no offensive power” [Note on the execution of operations. C. 34].

Indeed, as the experience of the first operations in a positional war has shown, even the presence of strong reserves will not succeed. After all, if there are no passages in the barriers and the enemy’s fire system is not suppressed, then it is impossible to bring them into battle. The broken through units without artillery support, thrown by enemy hand grenades and counterattacked by his reserves, will either be destroyed or thrown back to their original position.

And here the infantry escort artillery plays a special role. Thus, the 14 and 15 Siberian rifle regiments (the 2 Siberian Army Corps) were armed with regimental 37-mm cannons adapted for movement (or rather, rolling on their hands) along narrow infantry trenches and for action in the offensive combat in advanced rifle chains - along with machine guns. These small guns during the fighting near Prasnysh led the Siberians to brilliant actions, which covered the glory of the 14, 15 and 16 of the Siberian infantry regiments. Similarly, in the same battles of the Second Prasnysh operation, the 3 th mountain and artillery division of the 4 Siberian Rifle Artillery Brigade brilliantly acted, attached to the battery regiments as infantry escort artillery.

Due to their lightness, 37-mm guns in battle did not leave the infantry chains, which in many respects gave the Russian offensive success, expressed in the heavy defeat of the Germans and their withdrawal to their border. The gunners believed in these guns more than in the rest of the artillery of their divisions — that is, on. these tools gave the Siberian regiments not only tactical stability, but also became a landmark factor of moral support.

Tactical recommendations in relation to defense in a positional war also contained novels. In particular, it was prescribed to occupy the first line of defense with relatively weak forces (in order to minimize losses in people and fire weapons), paying particular attention to strengthening the 2 line of trenches (this is also the starting position for counterattacks). Positions were indicated in such a way that there were no points left in the hands of the enemy, from where his artillery observers could see the Russian positions - after all, experience had shown that everything that was visible to the artillery observer would almost certainly be destroyed. For example, the commander-in-chief of the armies of the Western Front, in his instructions in January, 1916 ordered “no dugout against heavy shells in the first line to build” [Strengthening positions // Military engineering collection. Book 1. 1918. C. 135]. It was noted that the loss of the 1 line is not the end of the battle, but only its start.

It was recognized that it was necessary to have at least 3-x defense lines, each with its own artificial obstacles (at least 5-ti rows of stakes in wire barriers, 2-x such barriers are desirable) and strong points. The time spent by the enemy’s artillery to change positions for the attack of the next lines of defense will help the defender - using a counterattack - to eliminate the breakthrough. Positions should consist of autonomous "centers of resistance" (interconnected trenches), each of which will be able to successfully defend for a long time and prevent the enemy from expanding towards the flanks. Resistance centers should be in fire and normal communication with each other and be located in 1 – 1,5 thousands of steps one from another. Reinforcements should be grouped and not be continuous lines.



To be continued
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  1. Albatroz
    Albatroz 20 March 2018 05: 39
    +6
    A whole bunch of difficulties.
    And it is very important not only to apply the instructions developed from the bloody experience, but also to navigate in a changing environment
    1. kipage
      kipage 20 March 2018 09: 07
      +18
      This is where the place for creativity of the command.
      Even engineering assault bridgeheads differed in parameters - for example, on the Southwestern and Western fronts
      1. Streletskos
        Streletskos 20 March 2018 11: 57
        +18
        The situation was complicated by the fact that the parties in peacetime for decades prepared for a maneuver war
        And then I had to learn another war - positional, in a short time, where the enemy did not forgive mistakes. All war veterans went through bloody setbacks, gaining experience bought at a high price - people's lives, and what kind of people
    2. Horseman without a head
      Horseman without a head 20 March 2018 21: 52
      +17
      The ability to make decisions in real time is the quality that distinguishes a true leader
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 20 March 2018 07: 50
    +11
    Due to its lightness, the 37 mm guns in battle did not go out of the infantry chains, which in many respects gave the Russian offensive success
    ... Interesting fact. Thank you ...
  3. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 20 March 2018 08: 21
    +11
    Great article! Positional warfare is in itself a terrible form of warfare. The Russian imperial army, along with its allies and enemies, had to look for ways to effectively overcome the positional impasse. The author — my sincere gratitude for the work done!
  4. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 20 March 2018 08: 55
    +17
    The breakthrough area should be wide enough - 20-30 km (to exclude the possibility for enemy artillery to shoot it from the flanks - to neutralize the enemy fire mites)

    It was such a misfortune that happened on Strypa
    Instructions and recommendations were built up in practice and gradually trained the Russian army (and the troops gained combat experience) for operations in the conditions of positional warfare
    1. Streletskos
      Streletskos 20 March 2018 11: 54
      +17
      Very interesting practical combat experience
  5. BAI
    BAI 20 March 2018 09: 52
    +4
    And all these fortifications logically led to the appearance of tanks.
  6. shuravi
    shuravi 20 March 2018 10: 21
    +1
    Quote: BAI
    And all these fortifications logically led to the appearance of tanks.


    Exactly. Only tanks and self-propelled guns could reverse this situation. Another thing is that RI was simply unable to produce them.
    1. Streletskos
      Streletskos 20 March 2018 11: 52
      +18
      Well, look.
      Recently, a series of articles on VO has been published. And specialists - Kolomiyets and Baryatinsky write about the same.
      1)
      It is interesting to note the fact of the development of semi-tracked vehicles made according to the project of the head of the technical department of His Imperial Majesty’s own garage A. Kegressa. In the summer and fall of 1916, the 2nd series Austin test was so successful that it was decided to put on the tracked track part of the armored Austins and Fiats, as well as all the Packard guns of the Obukhov plant. In the future, it was planned to equip all the armored vehicles of the Russian army with the Kegress mover.

      This is actually an armored personnel carrier.
      2)
      The Putilov factory was given an order to develop a cannon armored car based on the FWD truck, and already in October 1916 an unarmored chassis with a mounted 76,2 mm field gun of the 1902 model was successfully tested. It was decided to strengthen the armament by installing a 42-linear (107-mm) gun with excellent ballistic data on the machine (the armored car actually became a self-propelled gun), but after February 1917 the work was stopped.

      This is SPG
      3)
      to complete the planned planned formation of tank units of the Russian army was supposed in 1917 - 1918. purchase 360 ​​Schneider tanks in France (there was interest in the British MK V tank); secondly, there was a real and accessible Russian production project - its object was a 12-ton tank armed with a three-inch gun and a machine gun (it was proposed by the Russian Renault Society to GVTU in late 1916).

      These are tanks. Eventually.
      As part of the Russian army at the end of 1917 - beginning of 1918. additional 12 armored divisions were to appear, equipped with all-wheel drive FWD and Jeffrey armored vehicles, half-tracked armored cars (Kegress system) and tanks.
      The program began to be implemented - coups-revolution prevented.
      Of course, native capacities were not enough.
      But after a successful outcome of the war, several tank plants would be built - including for repair money from Germany and Austria-Hungary.
      Yes, and there was a base - and even before industrialization, although of course it was not the same as in the 30s.
      After all, they built the MS-1 in the USSR (by the way, "Russian Renault"). In 1920, 15 tanks MS-1 were fired - BEFORE INDUSTRIALIZATION and under the conditions of devastation, even during the Civil War. That is, on the old imperial base.
      Slowly, they turned around. If the defeated Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary (AB fragments) had their own tanks, then the winners would have had (and had) all the more (of course, if RI had survived to victory).
      1. Albatroz
        Albatroz 20 March 2018 12: 08
        +5
        And why could only tanks be broken?
        After all, they learned to break through the layered defense without tanks.
        The offensive of 1916 was in Galicia, the offensive of 1917 was in Belarus. The main thing is that there should be order with the ammunition and the troops are appropriate.
        1. Streletskos
          Streletskos 20 March 2018 12: 11
          +17
          I agree with you.
          We would also have learned how to correctly use cavalry. We had it very much.
          I mean - ENTERING THE PURE BREAK.
          If the horse masses were introduced into the breakthroughs of May-June of 1916 (writes Klembovsky), the Austro-Germans would not be able to stay on the Styry-Stokhod. Ours would already be beyond these barriers.
          1. shuravi
            shuravi 20 March 2018 13: 23
            0
            Quote: Streletskos
            I agree with you.
            We would also have learned how to correctly use cavalry. We had it very much.
            I mean - ENTERING THE PURE BREAK.
            If the horse masses were introduced into the breakthroughs of May-June of 1916 (writes Klembovsky), the Austro-Germans would not be able to stay on the Styry-Stokhod. Ours would already be beyond these barriers.



            The fact that the cavalry showed itself for obvious reasons as a civilian in the minds of many couch strategists makes it a kind of prodigy.
            In fact, with the advent of aviation, the cavalry turned into the most bullshit army.
            All its advantage, namely in speed of movement, was nullified.
            In total, a link (three to four) of aircraft of not the largest carrying capacity (up to 200 kg) with only “nails” on board easily overtook and rolled out the division of “livestock breeders” to zero.
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 20 March 2018 13: 51
              +6
              Perhaps that is why in the Red Army tank corps remained until the end of the Second World War.
              1. Horseman without a head
                Horseman without a head 20 March 2018 21: 53
                +17
                Probably meant cavalry corps
            2. Streletskos
              Streletskos 20 March 2018 14: 36
              +17
              shuravi
              The fact that the cavalry showed itself for obvious reasons as a civilian in the minds of many couch strategists makes it a kind of prodigy.
              In fact, with the advent of aviation, the cavalry turned into the most bullshit army.

              and according to the views of other couch strategists, a miracle weapon is aviation.
              Not turned into anything. Cavalry. This is also a myth.
              The Allies introduced it into the breakthrough and made excellent use of it on the Western Front in 1918, for example near Amiens. With all the thunderstorm of the then aviation, the cavalry acted effectively.
              1. shuravi
                shuravi 20 March 2018 15: 08
                0
                Quote: Streletskos

                and according to the views of other couch strategists, a miracle weapon is aviation.


                And therefore, aviation began to develop rapidly, and "army animal husbandry" went to sunset?

                Not turned into anything. Cavalry. This is also a myth.
                The Allies introduced it into the breakthrough and made excellent use of it on the Western Front in 1918, for example near Amiens. With all the thunderstorm of the then aviation, the cavalry acted effectively.



                The last vestiges of medieval tactics. And that, thanks to the fact that the Allies surpassed Germany precisely in terms of the number of aircraft.
        2. shuravi
          shuravi 20 March 2018 13: 09
          0
          Quote: Albatroz
          And why could only tanks be broken?
          After all, they learned to break through the layered defense without tanks.
          The offensive of 1916 was in Galicia, the offensive of 1917 was in Belarus. The main thing is that there should be order with the ammunition and the troops are appropriate.



          And how, to fill up the corpses of soldiers?
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 20 March 2018 13: 49
            +6
            Better than under Sinyavino, Rzhev, Mius Front, Demyansk ... (((And in the latter cases there were tanks
          2. Streletskos
            Streletskos 20 March 2018 16: 01
            +19
            No, Vladimir.
            The last vestiges of medieval tactics. And that, thanks to the fact that the Allies surpassed Germany precisely in terms of the number of aircraft.

            You ignore the FACTS.
            That even with the use of aviation, the Allied cavalry successfully operated near Amiens.
            On the Russian front, where aviation was several times smaller, the cavalry acted even more confidently - for example, near Buchach, 1916.
            And how, to fill up the corpses of soldiers?

            You first learn the facts.
            During the Brusilovsky breakthrough, breaking through the layered defense, the Russians lost people LESS than the enemy. 62 thousand killed on July 1, 1016
            Similarly - in the Summer Offensive of 1917 of the 10th Army (see Artillery Standard for example).
            It was all a matter of competent preparation, thoroughness of interaction and firepower.
        3. Rotmistr
          Rotmistr 20 March 2018 19: 30
          +18
          And why could only tanks be broken?
          After all, they learned to break through the layered defense without tanks.

          You have absolutely correctly noticed the essence of the issue.
          By 1917, the Russian army learned to break through the enemy’s positional defense - and without tanks, unlike our allies (although the tank was also an auxiliary tool on the Zapfronte) - due to competent fire control, the interaction of military branches and tactics.
          Improvement of the latter and reflect the reviewed instructions and tactical recommendations.
          1. Albatroz
            Albatroz 20 March 2018 19: 53
            +3
            In this situation, the main thing was to have mobile troops - for the development of success.
            But, you see, what’s the matter: they are called couch strategists. It turns out that cavalry could not be used for this.
            Would know about it Keller, Pavlov or Kaledin))
            1. Rotmistr
              Rotmistr 20 March 2018 20: 08
              +18
              Not only could cavalry be used, but also necessary - introducing into the breakthroughs formed.
              There are many successful examples of the active and successful use of cavalry even at the stage of positional warfare. It is enough to recall the actions of the 4th Cavalry Corps (primarily its 16th Cavalry Division) in the summer of 1916 - the cavalry entered the breakthrough at Kostyukhnovka, acting against the mixed Austro-German forces. It worked successfully for 2 days, but in the end it occupied itself with the quartermaster’s warehouses (a usual cavalry disease) - and the enemy was able to break away and go beyond the Stokhod river, where it was fixed.
              Well, or you can take a look: Strelyanov, Kireev, Kartaguz "Kuban, Terek and Ural Cossacks in the offensive of the Southwestern Front of 1916." Super book, completely based on archives.
              This is after 16 years.
              Regarding the 10th Kiselevsky Army during the Summer Offensive of 1917
              The German front in Belarus was broken through (the Artillery Standard was already mentioned here) - but the infantry, as you know, refused to build on the success of the artillerymen and percussionists, began to rally. Nachart of the 10th army complained that the commander did not lead the cavalry into the breakthrough - it was better preserved than infantry in the organizational and ideological sense, and would finish off the retreating Germans. It would also help to take out several German batteries that were captured by hunters and gunners.
              About
              called couch strategists.
              the epithet is interesting. Based on this, comments and articles on strategy should be written entirely by generals (strategists of the Schlieffen or Moltke level, no less), and knights should be written about knights accordingly), diplomats should be written about diplomacy or travelers))
              No other way)))
      2. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 12: 41
        +1
        Quote: Streletskos
        Slowly turned around

        The key word here is slowly. But there’s only a problem - no one would wait until we slowly turned around.
        Quote: Streletskos
        If the defeated Germany, the Czech Republic, Hungary (AB fragments) had their own tanks

        GI was one of the most developed countries in the world, and there is nothing surprising in the fact that fascist Germany built powerful BTVs on the foundation of its technical achievements in the 20s-30s-40s.
        And as for the Czech Republic and Hungary - how many tanks they built in comparison with the advanced states, and what quality?
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 20 March 2018 13: 55
          +8
          Opponents of the RIA (however, like some allies) also did not have or almost did not have their own tanks. In fact, only England and France made tanks in large numbers during the WWII.
          After the WWII, without a Bolshevik coup, Russia, of course, would make tanks, as the rest of the world did.
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 15: 36
            +1
            Quote: Gopnik
            without a Bolshevik coup, Russia, of course, would have made tanks

            Would do. Slowly.
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 20 March 2018 16: 40
              +4
              Why slowly? More of the same France is exactly like the country with the largest land army in the world.
        2. Streletskos
          Streletskos 20 March 2018 14: 38
          +18
          Hello.
          It was the Czech tanks that were advanced on the Oda. stage.
          25% of the tank fleet of the Wehrmacht, if memory serves.
          And RI is a powerful state. Conducted industrialization and normalk.
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 15: 45
            +1
            Quote: Streletskos
            Czech tanks and were advanced on opr. stage

            And yet, they were made by an agrarian quantity - as many as a couple of thousand. How much did truly powerful military powers do, google yourself?
            Quote: Streletskos
            RI - a powerful state

            So powerful that they struggled around the world, even with small arms they could not provide themselves.
            Quote: Streletskos
            Conducted industrialization

            б
            1. Streletskos
              Streletskos 20 March 2018 16: 02
              +18
              Everything was aligned
              Not all at once
            2. Gopnik
              Gopnik 20 March 2018 16: 44
              +2
              Quote: rkkasa 81
              So powerful that they struggled around the world, even with small arms they could not provide themselves.


              nobody disdained purchased and captured small arms. The same England. At the same time, RI produced small arms most of all, except Germany.

              Quote: rkkasa 81
              б


              Most importantly, they would not have carried out the de-industrialization that happened under the Bolsheviks. And industrialization, and so did good, during the WWII, laying and opening new plants and increasing output by several times
              1. rkkasa xnumx
                rkkasa xnumx 20 March 2018 17: 14
                0
                Quote: Gopnik
                nobody disdained purchased and captured small arms. The same England. At the same time, RI produced small arms more than anyone except Germany

                ... and Gagarina sent into space ... no, but what? To fuck so fuck!
                Quote: Gopnik
                would not have carried out the de-industrialization that happened under the Bolsheviks

                The Bolsheviks ... de-industrialization ... my friend, you need to be treated.
                1. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 20 March 2018 17: 26
                  0
                  Quote: rkkasa 81
                  ... and Gagarina sent into space ... no, but what? To fuck so fuck!


                  You are simply not in the subject. Read something on the topic, and then share your brain juice.

                  Quote: rkkasa 81
                  The Bolsheviks ... de-industrialization ... my friend, you need to be treated.


                  You need to be treated. From the Bolshevik deceitful delirium, figures of statistics help. According to which, after the Bolshevik Maidan, the level of industrial production and the number of workers fell significantly. Reaching level 1916 at best in 10 years.
            3. Horseman without a head
              Horseman without a head 20 March 2018 21: 56
              +18
              And yet, they were made by an agrarian quantity - as many as a couple of thousand.

              And the Germans didn’t have a million tanks
              Here the Czech couple of thousands became a significant quarter there.
              There were quality cars, especially the LT-38, especially against the background of the PZ-1 and PZ
              1. Horseman without a head
                Horseman without a head 20 March 2018 21: 57
                +17
                not finished - and PZ-2
        3. shuravi
          shuravi 20 March 2018 15: 24
          0
          Quote: rkkasa 81
          Quote: Streletskos
          Slowly turned around

          The key word here is slowly. But there’s only a problem - no one would wait until we slowly turned around.


          An empty matter to argue. Or similar characters do not care about realities, the main thing for them is faith.
        4. BAI
          BAI 20 March 2018 21: 39
          +2
          And as for the Czech Republic and Hungary - how many tanks they built in comparison with the advanced states, and what quality?

          Czech Republic by 1938 - a lot and good quality. They appeared in the USSR in 1941. And when you consider that after 1938, the Czech Republic successfully made German armored vehicles ...
      3. shuravi
        shuravi 20 March 2018 13: 06
        +2
        Quote: Streletskos

        These are tanks. Eventually.
        As part of the Russian army at the end of 1917 - beginning of 1918. additional 12 armored divisions were to appear, equipped with all-wheel drive FWD and Jeffrey armored vehicles, half-tracked armored cars (Kegress system) and tanks.
        The program began to be implemented - coups-revolution prevented.


        How amazed amateurs put everything upside down.
        The program was doomed to failure. But the reason was the enormous technical and technological backlog of RI.
        As a result, the strategy for “buy everything you need in the West” has completely failed. What led to demoralization and the collapse of the army.
        And the February coup is a consequence. And only the October Revolution saved the country.
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 20 March 2018 13: 58
          +6
          Quote: shuravi
          How amazed amateurs put everything upside down.


          Exactly. Reading your comments, the same thoughts come to mind.

          Quote: shuravi
          As a result, the strategy for “buy everything you need in the West” has completely failed.


          She justified herself before the Maidan, and would have justified herself further, had not happened the Bolshevik Maidan

          Quote: shuravi
          What led to demoralization and the collapse of the army.


          This, as well as de-industrialization, with the closure of factories and the dismissal of specialists, is a consequence of the Bolshevik Maidan

          Quote: shuravi
          And only the October Revolution saved the country.


          she destroyed her
          1. shuravi
            shuravi 20 March 2018 15: 15
            +2
            Quote: Gopnik


            Exactly. Reading your comments, the same thoughts come to mind.


            Reading your comments, you begin to doubt whether you have a head.


            She justified herself before the Maidan, and would have justified herself further, had not happened the Bolshevik Maidan


            To say this, you definitely need to be without a head. At least you would count how the number of the same aviation in the Republic of Ingushetia and its allies grew. How they were in a hurry to deliver aircraft, components.

            This, as well as de-industrialization, with the closure of factories and the dismissal of specialists, is a consequence of the Bolshevik Maidan


            Was there an industry in RI? laughing

            she destroyed her


            Which one? From ̶t̶ranu landowners, nobles. priests and other garbage? Yes.
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 20 March 2018 16: 51
              +4
              Quote: shuravi
              Reading your comments, you begin to doubt whether you have a head.


              And here I am that you have a head for wearing a cap, and even one gyrus (from it) I have no doubt.

              Quote: shuravi
              At least you would count how the number of the same aviation in the Republic of Ingushetia and its allies grew. How they were in a hurry to deliver aircraft, components.


              I read about it more than yours. And just as the Allies were in a hurry to supply planes and components of the USSR during the Second World War.

              Quote: shuravi
              Was there an industry in RI?


              I immediately realized that you are not in the subject of what you are trying to talk about

              Quote: shuravi
              Which one? From ̶t̶ranu landowners, nobles. priests and other garbage? Yes.


              The country of Russian people. Peasants, workers. And also yes, nobles, priests, scientists, officers. The garbage, as they should be, was skerried in Switzerland and England, then they sealed in sealed wagons
              1. shuravi
                shuravi 20 March 2018 20: 43
                +1
                Quote: Gopnik


                And here I am that you have a head for wearing a cap, and even one gyrus (from it) I have no doubt.


                Do not guess the headset. However, where do you understand this.



                I read about it more than yours. And just as the Allies were in a hurry to supply planes and components of the USSR during the Second World War.



                Yah? And even compared, how many planes when delivered, how many engines and how many when its done?


                I immediately realized that you are not in the subject of what you are trying to talk about


                Yah? And how many RI did aircraft engines, ball bearings?



                The country of Russian people. Peasants, workers. And also yes, nobles, priests, scientists, officers.


                Where did the peasants and workers on the other laborers? After all, you stand for it.


                The garbage, as they should be, was skerried in Switzerland and England, then they sealed in sealed wagons


                You are not good for them.
                1. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 21 March 2018 12: 46
                  0
                  Quote: shuravi
                  Do not guess the headset. However, where do you understand this.


                  Of course, if I'm so smart, then why don't we build?

                  Quote: shuravi
                  Yah? And even compared, how many planes when delivered, how many engines and how many when its done?


                  Конечно.

                  Quote: shuravi
                  Yah? And how many RI did aircraft engines, ball bearings?


                  And those. you are not up to date, as usual. OK. 1000 engines, ball bearings, like most countries, did not produce.

                  Quote: shuravi
                  Where did the peasants and workers on the other laborers? After all, you stand for it


                  No, where people worked for themselves. And when they didn’t want to, they didn’t work. Worked for sticks of workdays in the USSR, where for being late - the term, but for the strike and absenteeism the case under the counter-revolutionary article.

                  Quote: shuravi
                  You are not good for them.


                  But then you’re just so much into it
          2. BAI
            BAI 20 March 2018 21: 42
            +2
            She justified herself before the Maidan, and would have justified herself further, had not happened the Bolshevik Maidan

            And for which RI chiches would I buy all this? How would Wrangel pay with resources and territories?
        2. Streletskos
          Streletskos 20 March 2018 14: 41
          +19
          shuravi
          The program was doomed to failure. But the reason was the enormous technical and technological lag of RI
          .
          This is with a fright?
          What led to demoralization and the collapse of the army.

          To the demoralization and collapse of the army
          led to its democratization and decay - due to legislative and practical decisions of the new authorities in February-November 1917
          The February coup, this is a consequence. And only the October Revolution saved the country.

          Incompetent people got it. Russia would have been saved without a bunch of these cataclysms
          1. shuravi
            shuravi 20 March 2018 15: 22
            +2
            Quote: Streletskos
            shuravi

            This is with a fright?


            Not with a fright, but with the fact that if there is no own production even of bearings, I’m not talking about engines, then there can be no armored programs in principle.


            To the demoralization and collapse of the army
            led to its democratization and decay - due to legislative and practical decisions of the new authorities in February-November 1917


            You should at least read the story.


            Incompetent people got it. Russia would have been saved without a bunch of these cataclysms


            Disasters, this is a consequence, but not a cause.
            1. Streletskos
              Streletskos 20 March 2018 16: 04
              +19
              shuravi
              You should at least read the story.

              So I advise you to read a story - about how the army was destroyed in the spring and autumn of 1917.
              There is a Soviet collection of documents by the way.
              Write his bibliographic data?
              1. shuravi
                shuravi 20 March 2018 20: 46
                +2
                Quote: Streletskos
                shuravi
                You should at least read the story.

                So I advise you to read a story - about how the army was destroyed in the spring and autumn of 1917.
                There is a Soviet collection of documents by the way.
                Write his bibliographic data?


                No agitation can ruin an army in which all is well. But when a zavshilovanny officer from the trenches broke out on occasion in the same Petrograd, and saw how the capital was fattening, then no agitation is necessary.
                1. Bouncer
                  Bouncer 20 March 2018 20: 51
                  +18
                  And you so imagine that in the army, in which there is no political work, an order comes - we select commanders, we create committees, we do not give honor, and in general we do what we want.
                  How long will such an army last?
                  Ours lasted almost a year, and the German one in November 18th was enough for 2 weeks.
        3. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 20 March 2018 15: 08
          +11
          Quote: shuravi
          The program was doomed to failure. But the reason was the enormous technical and technological backlog of RI.


          That is, before that the production of armored vehicles was successful, and then "suddenly" there was a "huge lag"? Illogical.
          And about the technological level of RI:
          https://polit-ec.livejournal.com/10400.html

          Read and educate. The stuff is good.
          1. shuravi
            shuravi 20 March 2018 20: 47
            +1
            Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
            Quote: shuravi
            The program was doomed to failure. But the reason was the enormous technical and technological backlog of RI.


            That is, before that the production of armored vehicles was successful, and then "suddenly" there was a "huge lag"? Illogical.
            And about the technological level of RI:
            https://polit-ec.livejournal.com/10400.html

            Read and educate. The stuff is good.


            More and more convinced that as a fan of RI, his head is so weak.
            Painful, how many ball bearings did RI do?
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 21 March 2018 12: 18
              0
              Painful, ball bearings from Sweden were bought by all the industrial countries of the world. And in 2MB too
    2. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 20 March 2018 15: 05
      +11
      Far from a fact. Structural reserves for the production of tanks were. It is another matter that at the end of the 1916 of the year, the imperial machine of the military industry was just beginning to straighten its shoulders. The volume of unfinished factories is impressive due to the 1917 – 1922 events.
      1. Streletskos
        Streletskos 20 March 2018 16: 10
        +19
        One Herr Lieutenant ignore the facts.
        that:
        a) cavalry was also used on the western front in 1918 (we ask the author of this article to reveal this interesting question);
        b) that on the Russian front, where aviation was several times smaller, cavalry was used even more successfully. It is a pity that the organization is not so confident and large-scale. Yes, and in the presence of aviation it worked perfectly (a lot of examples).
        c) that in the summer of 1920 and without industrialization, the Soviet government produced Ms-1 tanks ("Russian Renault") at the TsAR production base, and so on.
        One slogans and flags.
        They could not give up their power in '91 - now waving flags now. And they’d do the right thing that they didn’t give.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 21 March 2018 23: 33
          0
          Do not confuse "Russian Renault" with the MS-1 (T-18).
          Actually, Soviet tank building began on the name of light tanks. They were 15 combat vehicles built in 1919-1921 at the Sormovsky plant on the model of the captured French Renault FT17 tank. These cars were called differently - “M”, “KS”, but more often - “Russian Renault”. They did not participate in the hostilities of the Civil War, but in the 1920s they were in service with the Red Army.
          The first Soviet tank launched into mass production was the T-18, or MS-1 (“small escort, the first sample”). It was developed in the years 1925-1926 in the design bureau of the Cannon Arsenal Trust and was intended for the direct accompaniment of infantry. It was manufactured by the Bolshevik plant (Leningrad) and the Motovilikhinsky machine-building plant (Perm). From 1928 to 1931, 959 units were produced.

          1. Streletskos
            Streletskos 22 March 2018 07: 31
            +16
            Yes, “Russian Renault” is not a MS, but a COP - it’s a letter
            1. Streletskos
              Streletskos 22 March 2018 07: 33
              +16
              But when creating the MS-1 was taken as the basis of the COP
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 01
                +1
                There was no other basis!
                It was not on the basis of the British ROMBES that it was necessary to begin to design their own tanks.
                What the industry was able to produce, they got it!
                The Italians won their FIAT-3000 until 1943.
                1. Streletskos
                  Streletskos 22 March 2018 08: 21
                  +15
                  Of course - there was no other basis
                  In addition to the COP - IMPERIAL backlogs
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 26
                    0
                    Where in the Russian Empire were these backlogs made?
                    Share classified information.
                    1. Cheburator
                      Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 35
                      +15
                      And where did the “Russian Renault” come from in the RSFSR in the summer of 1920 - in conditions of blockade and international isolation? There is only one answer - old groundwork.
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 50
                        0
                        Read the article - The difficult path of "Russian Renault"
                        on armedman.ru
                        If there were backlogs, would they have collected only 15 cars from May 1920 to June 1921!
                        If you have information about where these so-called "backlogs" were made - share the information!
                        Then there was a break until 1928, when the production of the MC-1 (T-18) began and 959 units were already produced in almost three years of production!
                        Probably the same from the "royal backlogs" riveted!
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 08
          0
          a) cavalry was also used on the western front in 1918 (we ask the author of this article to reveal this interesting question);

          The battle of Amiens.
          4th English Army (11 infantry and three cavalry divisions, 2000 guns, 400 aircraft, 580 tanks).
          The cavalry corps was divided into two parts. The 1st Cavalry Division of the British was ordered to catch infantry north of Luce as quickly as possible, while the 3rd Cavalry Division was to do the same south of the river. The second cavalry division of the British followed them in the second line. Battalions of Whippet tanks moved ahead of the first line divisions to cover the riders and lay passages through barbed wire fences. By 2. 10 divisions of the first line reached the Ignokur-Marselkav line and turned around to fulfill their tasks. Sixteen tanks were assigned to each brigade, consisting of three cavalry regiments and one horse-drawn battery.
          The 1st Cavalry Brigade broke through farthest, stopping in front of Framerville and Voville. The rest did not reach the milestone from which their main task was to begin - a breakthrough to the railway connecting Scholne and Rua. It would not be an exaggeration to say that cavalry could not have advanced so far without a tank cover. An attempt to carry out a cavalry attack with large forces was inevitably choked in a matter of minutes, leading to heavy losses, as evidenced by the actions of the 6th cavalry brigade southeast of Keio or the Canadian cavalry brigade near Bokur. And this is subject to the absence of a solid defense front here!
          Only two and a half companies of German sappers was enough to stop the advance of the 3rd Cavalry Division, and they only retreated when the tanks went on the attack and pushed them back north of Beaufort. Only a few cavalry units were able to get here, and here the battle ended.
          The second line of cavalry was not introduced into battle.

          Here you have ALL THE DARK CAVALERY! On the Western Front!
          1. Streletskos
            Streletskos 22 March 2018 08: 20
            +15
            And where did you get this from?
            I read that cavalry was introduced and acted successfully
            We will find out
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 25
              0
              Find out!
              The most successful was the OSTIN armored car group (not redeemed RI 4 series of vehicles)
              It is necessary to mention one more episode of this battle, namely the use of the 17th battalion of armored vehicles. Off-road and trenches of the Austin armored cars were towed by supply tanks. 12 armored cars overtook the Australian infantry in the first half of the day, after which for several hours they traveled around the front from Somme in the north to Framerville in the south and fired at German headquarters, retreating military units and vehicles to the rear — in short, increased confusion and panic. But since the created panic was not used by the British troops, the actions of the battalion of armored vehicles can only be considered as a private success, which did not affect the development of events at all.
              1. Cheburator
                Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 34
                +15
                Borisov. Amiens operation 1939. writes:
                On the part of the Allies, the cavalry capabilities were not used enough in this operation. The cavalry has a limited task: to reach the milestone outlined by the task of the day, and to keep it until the approach of its infantry. The cavalry is dispersed, dispersed, operating by divisions in separate directions. The 2nd Cavalry Division of the Canadian Corps did not take part in the battle at all. Cavalry does not interact well with tanks and aircraft. As a result, several enemy sapper mouths delay the entire cavalry division and force it to dismount; a rare chain of remnants of the defeated divisions of the Germans restrains the cavalry of the allies. The cavalry could successfully develop the pursuit of the enemy if it were used concentratedly and reinforced by tanks, aircraft and infantry units planted on vehicles. The throwing out of their reserves by the Germans in packs disorganized gave the cavalry the full opportunity, together with the aircraft, to defeat them in parts and break out to maneuver freedom.

                That is, there were INACCURACIES in the use of cavalry, but it still worked.
                AND unsuccessful. In conditions of technology-saturated Western Front.
                Of course, you need to find out the nuances. And cavalry acted in OTHER operations of this campaign.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 22 March 2018 08: 41
                  0
                  Soissons July 18, 1918.
                  Here is how these events look in the description of Ludwig von Eimansberger:
                  As in all battles of the Western Front, there was at the ready cavalry intended to pursue the enemy.
                  The 10th Army was given the French cavalry corps, the three cavalry divisions of which were in two groups behind the Retz forest and to the north 20 km behind the front line. The cavalry was given motorized infantry reinforced by sappers, a total of 6 battalions. After breaking through the German positions, the command intended to advance the horse masses on a wide front between Vierzi and Schoden, deep behind enemy lines.
                  During the battle of July 18, the gene. Manzhen ordered the cavalry to appear already at 8. 30 in the morning, but due to the lack of a sufficient road network in the dense forest and the heavy blockage of all roads in the front line, the cavalry reached the old French front only at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. For another 1 hour, the distance to the battle lines allowed the front to cross.
                  But the Germans fired machine-gun fire, which should have been foreseen in advance, the cavalry was forced to dismount, and the whole enterprise ended in fights of several dismounted squadrons north and south of Vierzi.

                  Here you have the Nuances!
                  To break through the cavalry into the operational space, artillery and tank support was required, but after breaking through the Infantry's echelon defense of the enemy!
                  Cavalry itself could NOTHING ANYTHING without support.
                  The day of July 18, 1918 is over. Although it was unsuccessful for the German army on the section between the En and Marna rivers, where the front stretching up to 50 km was broken in some places, and in some places nevertheless, the worst was prevented by the fact that the strike divisions of other reserves managed to stop the French attack at the rear positions. ”
                  1. Cheburator
                    Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 45
                    +16
                    Cavalry itself could NOTHING ANYTHING without support.

                    Great discovery.
                    No one wrote that the cavalry should break through the front. God forbid!
                    Of course I couldn’t. Neither in terms of numbers nor in the absence of heavy weapons available to the infantry.
                    We wrote above that it should only be introduced into a PURE breakthrough.
                    You copy one book from what is on the internet there, but we will find out the nuances. Moreover, on July 18, operations on 18 also end on counterattack.
                    1. Cheburator
                      Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 46
                      +15
                      The key to the success of any operation is the interaction of the combat arms.
                      This is also known.
                  2. Cheburator
                    Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 59
                    +15
                    And here is the data from professional studies of the activities of the cavalry on the Zapfronte in 1918.

                    "In April 1918, the French 2nd Cavalry Corps, having rested for several days in Normandy, was thrown by a forced march into Flanders, traveled 60 km within 200 hours and supported the front of the British at Kammel, shocked by the stubborn attacks of the Germans."

                    “In May 1918, the French front was broken through at Chmen-de-Dame, and numerous German infantry divisions poured into this breakthrough, trying to seize the last natural barrier on the way to Paris - the edge of the Willers-Cotres forest. The French 1st Corps, at that time was very dispersed, it was introduced into the breakthrough area, brigade after brigade, and delayed the German advance. At the same time, the French 2nd Corps, covering 200 km in three days, arrived at Urku and stopped the German advance on the southern part of the forest. "

                    On July 15, 1918 the Germans made their last effort - attacking south of the Marne in the direction of Epernay, they broke through the French front. The French 1st Cavalry Corps, having traveled 80 km without stops, arrived in the breakthrough area after 10 hours - and after three days of fighting, it restored its position and liquidated the breakthrough. Although the cavalry corps fought on foot, he made extensive use of the technique attached to him.

                    During the first (Amiens) advance of Ludendorff in 1918, the English 2nd Cavalry Division was moved to Amiens and, having made 20 English miles per day, consisting of 4 cavalry brigades (12 cavalry regiments) arrived in the breakthrough area.

                    During March 30 - April 1, the division fought in a breakthrough side by side with the infantry, having a section up to 5 km to the front, and lost 60 officers and 1 soldiers. The situation was restored largely thanks to the arrival of the successful actions of this cavalry division.

                    That is, the cavalry also helped to ELIMINATE breakthroughs - with all the saturation with the technology of the Zapfront.
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 22 March 2018 10: 32
                      0
                      Although the cavalry corps fought on foot, he made extensive use of the technique attached to him.

                      So the allied cavalrymen helped to restrain the attacks of the German infantry in the PESH or equestrian system?
                      IN HIS! So they acted like Dragoons at the beginning of their creation - they came to the battlefield and dismounted for the Pawn ATTACK or DEFENSE - traveling infantry!
                      In the passages quoted by me, CAVALERY was thrown into the attack IN THE RIDING FORM to break into the OPERATIONAL SPACE!
                      But breakthroughs did not happen! In the cavalry, the cavalry of the allies WAS A BIT ...
                      1. Cheburator
                        Cheburator 22 March 2018 11: 02
                        +16
                        So the allied cavalrymen helped to restrain the attacks of the German infantry in the PESH or equestrian system

                        Both on foot and on horseback. Shuffle. On the Russian front, of course, they acted more often on horseback.
                        In the passages quoted by me, CAVALERY was thrown into the attack IN THE HORSE RANGE to break into the OPERATIONAL SPACE

                        Yes, they did not throw cavalry to break through the breakthroughs. This is nonsense. For this there is infantry, artillery and (then) armored vehicles.
                        Cavalry was introduced into the breakthrough - completing the latter or pursuing the enemy. The success of such a pursuit or the development of a breakthrough depended on different circumstances.
      2. shuravi
        shuravi 20 March 2018 20: 49
        +2
        Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
        Far from a fact. Structural reserves for the production of tanks were. It is another matter that at the end of the 1916 of the year, the imperial machine of the military industry was just beginning to straighten its shoulders. The volume of unfinished factories is impressive due to the 1917 – 1922 events.


        But why didn’t they build anything before 1917?
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 21 March 2018 12: 11
          +1
          And why most of the countries of the world, including all the enemies of Russia in the war, did not build tanks before 1917?
      3. BAI
        BAI 20 March 2018 21: 47
        +2
        Structural reserves for the production of tanks were.

        I hope you don't mean that?
        1. Cheburator
          Cheburator 21 March 2018 09: 10
          +16
          No, as I understand it, Mr. Poruchik does not mean Lebendenko’s “Tsar Tank” or even Porokhovshchikov’s “All-Terrain Vehicle”.
          But this

          "Russian Renault"
          Those that were produced in the first years of Soviet power. As I understand it, nothing arose from the air.

          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 21 March 2018 09: 31
            +16
            17 tanks.
            The Germans, by the way, during the WWII also built only 20 of their A7V
            Small-scale was characteristic not only of armored cars)
  7. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 20 March 2018 14: 43
    +19
    Interesting cycle
    I follow the trends
    We look forward to continuing
    good
  8. Serge72
    Serge72 20 March 2018 20: 43
    +18
    Interesting stuff
    It’s always hard to rebuild
    But managed
  9. XII Legion
    XII Legion 21 March 2018 08: 21
    +17
    Indeed, as the experience of the first operations in the conditions of positional war showed, even having strong reserves will not succeed.

    The exact opposite of tactics of maneuver warfare
    Bursting parts without artillery support, thrown by enemy hand grenades and counterattacked by his reserves, will be either destroyed or thrown back to their original position.

    The experience of the first offensive operations of the positional period (Strypa, Naroch) fully demonstrated the validity of this conclusion.
    I had to look for mechanisms to overcome the positional impasse. And they were found by the Russian army - and in conditions of lack of technical resources and even the absence of some technical means.
  10. Cheburator
    Cheburator 22 March 2018 08: 51
    +15
    hohol95,
    And what, even to create 15 cars do not need backlogs? Or they are made from air)
    And the Germans released their 20 A7V tanks a year, and so what?
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 22 March 2018 11: 21
    0
    Cheburator,
    Nillans R. Generals of the Great War. Western Front 1914 - 1918 M, 2005.S. 77.
    “The truth is that, starting from the 50s, when the infantrymen were armed with reliable impact and capsule rifled weapons, the role of the cavalry was reduced to the combat missions of the infantry mounted on horses, and it had no other prospects and it won’t be until some genetic scientist creates a bulletproof look of horses ... However, it cannot be said that by 1914 the cavalry units were completely out of date. They were used for reconnaissance, in pursuit of a retreating enemy, and, in addition, horses at that time were still the only means of rapid deployment of troops in the absence of roads. The cavalry proved to be useful during the period of "close combat", characteristic of the initial and final stages of the war, and it also experienced a brief period of rebirth on other fronts of this war ... However, speaking of the Western Front, it is fair to believe that for most of the war, cavalry played a "limited" role here. "
    1. Cheburator
      Cheburator 22 March 2018 11: 29
      +15
      I know Nolans.
      During a maneuvering war, cavalry (in the Horse formations) played an important role on the Zapafront.
      https://topwar.ru/112794-konnica-na-francuzskom-f
      ronte-v-1914-godu.html
      Even committing raids.
      The main areas of application of the efforts of the cavalry in the 1914 campaign
      1) In reconnaissance and in overcoming the resistance of infantry and cavalry of the enemy when performing reconnaissance. Intelligence was carried out in large units, not less than a squadron.
      2) In the organization of the mobile curtain (for example, the curtain of the German 1, 2, 3 of the cavalry corps during the German offensive in Belgium and France).
      3) In the implementation of coverage (coverage of the German cavalry of the left flank of the British at Soissons, coverage of the Sordé corps of the German 1 army).
      4) In the occupation and retention of the frontiers (the actions of the Sordé cavalry corps and the English cavalry during the frontier battle; the German cavalry corps on the Marne; the Konno cavalry corps and the French 6 cavalry division in Lorraine; the Konno and Despe corps; Run to the sea). In this case, the cavalry fought usually on foot.
      5) In filling the gaps in the fronts of the armies (replacing the German 1 Army with the German cavalry corps infantry corps). Actions were carried out both on horseback and on foot.
      6) In pursuit (the German cavalry during the offensive through Belgium and France; Konno cavalry corps after the Marne). Actions were carried out in a horse system.
      7) In covering the withdrawal of their troops (the Belgian cavalry in the early days of the war, the French and English cavalry in the Border Battle, the German cavalry on Marne). A combination of horse and foot fighters was used, the cavalry interacted with armored cars.
      8) In the organization of raids (the French 5 Cavalry Division 3 - September 10 to the rear of the German 1 Army; the German Cavalry Corps on Lille, Tournai and Bushen 10 - August 11).
      Thus, the cavalry of both sides on the French front in the 1914 campaign acted brilliantly - the German cavalry, as well as the French 1 and 2 cavalry corps, acted particularly vigorously and courageously.
      In positional warfare, as I wrote below, opportunities narrowed - but remained.
      most of the war, cavalry played a "limited" role here "

      This is natural for all fronts - a different era, rapid-fire weapons and fire fighting.
  12. Cheburator
    Cheburator 22 March 2018 11: 24
    +15
    Cheburator,
    It is a pity of course that you have to explain such simple things.
    During a maneuvering war, the cavalry covered the concentration of armies, conducted reconnaissance, covered the military joints and even carried out horse attacks against the infantry and cavalry of the enemy - in conjunction with infantry or on their own.
    Well, in positional warfare, the possibilities for maneuver are narrowed - and the cavalry acts already after the enemy front has been broken through by combined arms armies. And then she already develops success, pursues and even carries out horse attacks - including against suitable enemy reserves. So our cavalry acted in 1916 and cavalry on the French front in 1918.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 March 2018 12: 12
      0
      It is a pity of course that you have to explain such simple things.

      And you do not explain!
      Well, in positional warfare, the possibilities for maneuver are narrowed - and the cavalry acts already after the enemy front has been broken through by combined arms armies. And then she already develops success, pursues and even carries out horse attacks - including against suitable enemy reserves. This is how our cavalry acted in 1916. and cavalry on the French front in 1918

      Give an example of successful cavalry offensive operations on the Western Front in 1917-1918! In which of the operations did the cavalry complete its tasks?
      1. Cheburator
        Cheburator 22 March 2018 14: 35
        +15
        Well I wrote to you - the pursuit and development of a breakthrough.
        During a positional war, cavalry can do just that.
        And acted in the campaign of 1918
        The facts are given above.
        According to Soissons-Amiens, we will clarify.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 March 2018 14: 40
          0
          Do not reduce everything to a common phrase
          And acted in the campaign of 1918

          Give a specific example of the cavalry entering the operational space in the operations of 1916-1918 on the Western Front.
          Since you are so knowledgeable, show off your knowledge.
          1. Cheburator
            Cheburator 22 March 2018 15: 25
            +15
            You know dear crest
            A number of authors just considers 1918 the second birth of the cavalry - the positional front in the west collapsed in August September and it entered the operational space.

            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 March 2018 15: 41
              0
              A number of authors think the exact opposite ...
              Samsara of the First World War: How Indians Fought on the Western Front
              On July 14, 1916, during another massive attempt to break through the German front on the Somme, it seemed to the British that the enemy’s defense had finally collapsed. And if so, you can introduce cavalry into battle. General Haigu, the commander of the British forces in France, even managed to send a cheerful message: "The Indian cavalry is sharpening its sabers!" After this, units of the 2nd Indian Cavalry Division tried to enter a non-existent breakthrough. The cavalrymen of the Secunderabad brigade were the first to advance to the edge of German defense.
              One of the squadrons of this brigade (9th Dekansky) went on the attack and at first really did not meet any resistance. Quite the contrary. They came across a group of randomly retreating Germans - about two dozen people - whom the Indian cavalrymen had stabbed to the peak.
              Soon, machine-gun fire from the next line of German defense cooled the ardor of the advancing. The attack choked.
              It was the first and last advance of the cavalrymen during the battle of the Somme. / B]
              [b] Indian cavalry continued to wait in the wings on the Western Front until March 1918. Then she was finally transferred to Palestine more suitable for this type of army.
              1. Cheburator
                Cheburator 22 March 2018 15: 44
                +15
                The extreme comment below is about the actions of cavalrymen in the campaign of 17-18. on the western front.
                As requested.
                If some information is not available on the Internet, this does not mean that this was not in history.
                It's time to understand.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 22 March 2018 15: 52
                  0
                  You are kind to the mind that you do not teach the mind.
                  You still didn’t give me an answer on the tank "MATTERS" in the Russian Empire ...
                  1. Cheburator
                    Cheburator 22 March 2018 15: 58
                    +15
                    I do not teach you, I do not dare)
                    Just why incriminate me. I’m never grinding anything unfounded.
                    If you understand again.
                    As for tanks, you yourself understand that if in August 20 15 Russian “Renaults” were produced, it is obvious that nothing else but at the old production base and (or) using the old backlogs. The revolution just happened and the Civil War was on, old stocks were used - from uniforms to equipment.
                    Which plant should be clarified.
                    1. Cheburator
                      Cheburator 22 March 2018 16: 05
                      +15
                      If God forbid, offended
                      Sorry hi
                    2. hohol95
                      hohol95 22 March 2018 16: 50
                      0
                      Lenin became interested in the machine much more than military commanders, bombarding the driver and military experts with questions about the design and combat effectiveness of the new weapon.
                      Already on August 10, by decision of the Council of People's Commissars and the Council of War Industry Krasnoe Sormovo plant engaged in 1918-20. armament and repair of ships of the Volga Military Flotilla, the construction of armored trains and floating batteries, was singled out as a specialized enterprise - a manufacturer of tanks.

                      An order about it arrived at the plant when the tank itself was still being dismantled in Moscow. But it was enthusiastically received, and on August 22, 1919, the board of the plant decided to make the "first worker-peasant tank" nine months later (by the summer of 1920), and by the end of 1920 completely surrender 15 tanks - 5 cannon and 10 machine guns.
                      By mid-November, assignments were given to the factories of Putilovsky (in armament), Izhorskiy (in frame and armored parts) and AMO for a Fiat-type engine installation. During design and manufacture, the tank was called a Renault type, a Renault system, or a Renault system with a Fiat engine. No indices were assigned to him. Route technology
                      manufacturing at the end of 1919 was developed by engineer F. Nefedov, but it was approved only in March-April 1920.
                2. Cheburator
                  Cheburator 22 March 2018 16: 10
                  +15
                  how the Indians fought on the Western Front. This was the first and last advance of the cavalry during the Battle of the Somme.

                  Perhaps the Indians thought so in the year 16, not knowing that the war in the 1918 campaign would again take MANEUVERED forms.
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 22 March 2018 16: 45
                    0
                    The Indians were sent to Palestine in March 1918, and the fighting on the Western Front began to take on the maneuverability in AUGUST 1918! 4 months for war - a good term!
                    1. Cheburator
                      Cheburator 22 March 2018 16: 47
                      +15
                      Sometimes in scale and 4 months cost 4 years
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 22 March 2018 12: 36
      0
      North, Jonathan.
      H82 Soldiers of the First World War 1914-1918. Uniform, insignia, equipment and weapons / Jonathan North; [trans. from English M. Vitebsky]
      YOMENRI (VOLUNTARY CAVALERY REGULATIONS)
      The cavalry of the territorial army was called "yomenry" - most of its regiments originate in the militia, which appeared at a time when Napoleon was feared in England.
      In 1908, the "Yeomenry" combined with the corps of volunteers, resulting in the formation of a territorial army. At the same time, the horse militia was named the Special Cavalry
      reserve. All these troops were trained to act as equestrian infantry, and the names "ulans" and "hussars" were used only as a tribute to traditions and history. In 1914, there were 57 Yeomeni regiments. They united in the so-called County Association. The names of most regiments corresponded to the names of the area where they recruited personnel. At the same time, Yemeni regiments were not assigned to the cavalry regiments of the regular army, unlike the infantry of the territorial army, from which the battalions were formed, merging into the existing infantry regiments.
      At the same time, horses were taken from most of the regiments left on the British Isles to replenish units abroad. Horseless cavalrymen were often transplanted onto bicycles.
      In 1916, many Yeomeni cavalry regiments turned into scooters; The 74th division basically united the "dismounted" cavalrymen from these regiments.

      From cavalrymen to BIKERS good
      1. Cheburator
        Cheburator 22 March 2018 14: 37
        +15
        So first of all - from the cavalry.
        And we scooter parts were part of the kavkonneniy.
        Ну и что?
        Do you know that cavalry supported tanks during the 1918 campaign?
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 22 March 2018 12: 42
      0
      World War I 1914 - 1918
      Liliana and Fred Function
      The tactics of the British, much less ambitious than in Germany, and much more realistic than in France, consisted mainly in saving the army for future battles. The British cavalry command was tasked with creating mobile groups, which, depending on the circumstances, could be quickly transferred to the front where it was necessary. In addition, cavalry units had to capture key positions before the enemy and hold them until the infantry approached. In fact, the British cavalry were mounted infantry, to whom the horse gave the necessary mobility. It is worth noting that, although the British government had no illusions about the nationality of its future adversary, it never prepared its army for battle precisely with the German army. In 1914, only a few soldiers of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) could identify the Germans by any other details of the uniform, except for a pointed helmet.
      When the British cavalrymen tried to carry out attacks “in the French manner”, as, for example, in Cambrai in 1917, only a bloody defeat awaited them.

      The actions of the British cavalry on the Palestinian front turned out to be much more effective, especially in the summer of 1917. The cavalry divisions were organized in such a way that they could operate absolutely independently for three days. Each rider carried with him a three-day supply of food for himself and a two-day supply of fodder for his horse. Horse food on the third day, trench tools, kitchen utensils, etc., were transported in light carts. These mobile formations won an impressive victory over the Turkish forces, and in many ways the Entente owes it to the fact that Turkey was defeated.

      But Palestine is not Europe pitted with craters and trenches!
      1. Cheburator
        Cheburator 22 March 2018 14: 38
        +15
        Yes, and in Europe it was used.
        I will pick up examples for you, if you want to.
        But not from the "fun pictures" Funktsov
        1. Cheburator
          Cheburator 22 March 2018 15: 41
          +15
          At the Battle of Cambrai, the 3rd English Army attacked - 3 infantry divisions (9 infantry brigades) and a tank corps (9 battalions - 378 battle tanks), CAVALERY corps supported by 1 artillery pieces.
          I quote Borchert about the episode of the battle:
          At about 12 pm, the tanks of battalion B broke into Kanten. The village was captured after a fierce battle, and the attacking infantry occupied it after about half an hour. At the request of battalion commander B Dragoon squadron of the 2nd Guards Dragoon Regiment took part in the battle and rendered great assistance to the tanks, attacking the village from the east.

          Amiens 1918
          I quote from Captain De Labouchetre an article called "The Role of Cavalry and Tanks in the Battle of Amiens on August 8-12, 1918":
          III. Cavalry
          1. The composition of the cav. corps
          Cav. corps under the command of the gene. Cavanaga consisted of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavas. divisions, each in a 3-brigade composition, three 3-squadron regiments, with a battery of 76-mm guns (6 guns), with a machine gun squadron and a communications platoon. 3rd brigade of tanks attached to the Cav. the hull, consisted of the 3rd and 6th battalions of Medium tanks of the Whippet brand (14 tons, with 2 engines and a speed of up to 12 km per hour). The armament of each consisted of 3 machine guns, a crew of 3 people. Each battalion had 3 companies of 16 vehicles — a total of 48 tanks.
          2. The task of the cavalry
          The cavalry received an order after taking the opportunity to penetrate the enemy’s position and overtake the infantry, subsequently take control of the old external defensive lines and hold the latter until my infantry approached. The cavalry was supposed to advance further in the general direction from the Scholnes railway on Roya, trying to cut off the enemy’s communications and facilitate the advancement of the French.
          3. Cavalry placement
          For the purpose of the best connection with the infantry, 1st Cavalry Brigade. Division during the first phase of the battle passed into the subordination of the commander of the Australian corps, and the 3rd Cavalry. the division was located on the instructions of the commander of the Canadians corps. These cav. formations were to overtake the infantry as soon as the latter reached its second object of attack, after which they returned again to the subjugation of the cavalry. comcor.
          A company of tanks in 16 vehicles of the 6th battalion was attached to the 1st Cavalry. brigade, and the 3rd battalion of tanks - the 3rd Cavalry. divisions.
          4. Occupation Cav. hull and tanks starting position
          On the evening of August 5, Cav. the corps left the area of ​​Ohsi-le-Chateau. On the night of August 6-7, he was concentrated in the Somme Valley, northwest of Amiens, between Amiens and Flichkur. All day August 7, he remained sheltered in apartments. In the evening, after sunset, he set off on a night-march Cher Amiens, right in the area, on a plateau southeast of Longuo, namely the fork of the roads from Amiens, I and Peronn and Roya? where he remained focused until the appointed hour.
          1st Cavalry the division was located north of Kashi, the 3rd — west of the same area, and the 2nd — in the second echelon.
          In the evening of August 7, with the help of an engineering battalion of the American army, sappers of cavalry. corps to facilitate the march of cav. The divisions quickly made column paths along which the cavalry could move without occupying the roads used by other combat arms.
          On August 8, in the area southeast of Lyngyuo, both tank battalions were thrown to the cavalry, which on the evening of the 8th left Dulens and Amiens and remained hidden under the trees of Pont Nuayell Boulevard.

          I miss tank actions
          Next
          P. Entering cavalry into a breakthrough
          1. Cavalry movements with the onset of attack
          The cavalry, assembled southeast of Longuo, was ordered to advance forward at N o'clock. At 5 o’clock. 30 minutes. 1st Cavalry division (1st, 2nd and 9th cavalry brigades and 6th battalion of tanks) gene. Mullin was located south of the forest 'd'Aquinne. Advanced units of the 1st and 9th cav. brigades were approximately 1500 m northeast of Kashi, almost at the tail of the infantry. 3rd cav. Division of the Canadian Cav. brigades, 6th and 7th cav. brigades and the 3rd battalion. tanks, under the command of the gene. Garman; almost went to the western outskirts of Kashi. Canadian Cav. the brigade walked in my head.
          2nd cav. division (3rd, 4th, 5th cavalry brigades) under the command of the gene, Pitman remained in reserve at the crossroads southeast of Longyuo.
          2. The fighting of the 1st Cavalry. divisions
          1st Cavalry division with the exception of the 1st Cavalry. brigade, according to the order, was at the disposal of the corps of Canadians until the capture of the second attack objects. :. After this, the 1st Brigade was to return to the division again.
          The first intelligence data provided sufficient information about the course of the attack and the 1st Cavalry. the division moved behind the infantry, which 2 hours after the capture of the first targets was due at 8 o’clock. 20 minutes. start attacking second objects again.
          a) The fighting of the 1st Cavalry. brigades. 1st Cavalry the brigade (2nd Guards Dragoon, 11th Hussars, 5th Guards Dragoons cavalry regiments and companies of Tanks with 16 vehicles, Medium-Uigget) operated between the Amiens road “a S. Kenten and the Amiens railway Sholnes. She followed the 5th Australian Division, which was so second tier.
          At 6 o’clock. 20 minutes. The 3rd and 2nd Australian divisions reached their first facilities, where they were to stay according to the orders received.
          4th and 5th Australian divisions at 8 o’clock. 20 minutes. They overtook them and attacked the second objects, accompanied by tanks ready to rush into the attack of third objects.
          While the 4th Australian Division, in collaboration with the 3rd Corps in the north, was held up by Shipilli resistance, the 5th Australian Division on its right flank quickly moved forward, followed all the time by the 1st Cavalry. brigade and its tanks.
          The 2nd Guards Dragoon Regiment was the foremost echelon of this brigade.
          At 9 o’clock, the 5th Australian Division reached the second objective. Her advance was so fast that her heavy U-brand tanks could not keep up with the infantry. The latter was deployed without waiting for the tanks.
          Dragoons overtook the infantry and, with their intelligence agencies in front, headed for Bayonville and Garbonier.
          1 round passing Bayonville and vigorously proceeded to Framerville, He took and handed over to the following Australian infantrymen prisoners in the amount of 75 people.
          The main forces were stopped by German machine gun fire to the west of Bayonville and south of Garbonier. The foot battle of the 2nd squadron, supported at the same time by tanks and infantry, made it possible to take Bayonville, but Garbonier still held on. Then the 3rd squadron of the 2nd Dragoon Deysky regiment together with the 2nd squadron attacked the village from the south.
          2 platoons attacked in the equestrian system of the enemy, the latter fled.. After the attack, 26 prisoners and 2 machine guns were attached to 30 prisoners and 2 trench guns taken in the process of advancement. Another platoon, advancing to the railway tunnel south of Garbonniere, also overthrew the enemy: 7 Germans were killed, 2 prisoners, 1 machine gun and 1 light machine guns were taken.
          The 2nd Guards Dragoon Regiment, being stopped by machine-gun fire, took refuge south of the railway. 1 platoon pursued the retreating enemy and> took several more prisoners. Two Whippet tanks also arrived. The 2st and 1nd squadrons with tanks moved on the Garbonniere-Rosiere road. Unfortunately, one of the tanks, due to damage, suddenly stopped at the time when the second rushed into battle. The squadrons had to fight under heavy enemy fire and suffer serious losses, having settled down on the railway, with the front to the south, leading machine-gun and rifle fire on enemy units retreating to Rosiere.
          At the same time, the Australians, capturing at 9 o’clock. 30 minutes. their second object, they quickly moved behind the tanks forward to Garboyer, who, being heavily fortified, still held on.
          About 10 hours they attacked this village with the support of tanks. The 3rd squadron of the 2nd Guards Dragoon Regiment with a machine gun detachment advanced at a gallop on the right flank of the attackers, dismounted and opened fire, being supported by 2 guns.
          At the same time, the 11th Hussar Regiment, reinforced with a squadron of the 5th Dragoon Guards Regiment and machine-gun detachment, attacked Garbonnier from the north.
          At 10 o’clock. 15 minutes. Garbonnier fell, and then the movement began to attack the third objects. The 5th Guards Dragoon Regiment was moving north towards Voviller.

          Etc. etc.
          The cavalry in the 1918 campaign was introduced into the breakthrough and acted SUCCESSFULLY.
          A series of articles by foreign experts and front-line soldiers allow us to fully draw the appropriate conclusion.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 22 March 2018 16: 30
            0
            The events of the Amiens operation that you cited once again confirmed my opinions -
            cavalry on the Western Front "reborn" in the RIDING INFANTRY!
            Which were originally Dragoons
            Dragoons (fr. Dragon "dragoon", lit. "dragon") - the name of the cavalry, capable of acting in the foot ranks. In former times, the same name was understood as infantry mounted on horses.
            The word Dragoons first appeared in history in the sixteenth century: during the occupation of Piedmont (1550-1560), Marshal Brissac mounted on horseback selected, bold foot soldiers, gave this unit the name Dragoons and used it for quick raids. However, these dragoons fought on foot.

            From 1914 to 1918 the cavalry "walked into the 16th century!" But naturally on a more technical level of weapons!
            1. Cheburator
              Cheburator 22 March 2018 16: 38
              +15
              I wrote to you earlier - the cavalry was used COMBINED. Both in horse and on foot. That is why it is a universal military branch with enhanced mobility.
              Or do you traditionally see only what you want?
              I repeat additionally from the cavalry near Amiens:
              Dragoons overtook the infantry and, with their intelligence agencies in front, headed for Bayonville and Garbonier.

              They overtook the infantry, having patrols ahead. In horse riding? In equestrian.
              The 1st detachment, passing by Bayonville and energetically proceeding to Framerville, took and handed over to the following Australian infantrymen prisoners in the amount of 75 people.

              In horse riding? In equestrian.
              2 platoons attacked in the horse ranks of the enemy, the last ran away ..

              In horse riding? Of course, that's how a specialist officer writes.
              This is, as you say, in the era of fields pitted with craters. The Russian Cossacks had such cases - they jumped the barbed wire, like at Rudka the Worm in August 1916.
              And you can consider anything, it’s generally difficult to convince a person in something - especially at the age of one. Yes and whether it is necessary?
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 22 March 2018 17: 00
                0
                It was necessary to convince those who once thought that the cavalry was omnipotent and omnipotent! Nurtured and spoiled her! But World War I proved the opposite to them! Without the support of infantry, artillery, and then tanks, CAVALERY is in itself WEAKNESS against a technically trained and motivated enemy.
                That's why the British cavalry had to learn infantry fighting skills!
                1. Cheburator
                  Cheburator 22 March 2018 17: 26
                  +15
                  Without the support of infantry, artillery, and then tanks, CAVALERY is in itself WEAKNESS against a technically trained and motivated enemy.

                  But who argues with this.
                  And the infantry is weak without the support of artillery. Indeed, in this article there is an excerpt from the manual
                  “Due to the extreme dependence of infantry on artillery fire and terrain equipment ... against infantry defended by fire and protected by artificial obstacles, infantry, in itself, has no offensive force” [Note on operations. S. 34]

                  Artillery is vulnerable without infantry cover. The batteries of the Germans fell into the hands of the Allies in July-August 1918.
                  Combined arms combat is based on the interaction of the combat arms.
                  So all cavalrymen had to learn infantry combat skills, not only British. Some cavalry regiments were in a hurry and put in trenches (in their place), and so-called so-called Russian cavalry divisions appeared. Rifle regiments formed by cavalry regiments.
                  Nevertheless, the cavalry did not die and even excelled.
                  hi
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 22 March 2018 23: 43
                    0
                    The view from the enemy -
                    In the memoirs of war correspondent Ferenc Molnar, there are such interesting memoirs that characterize the Austrian cavalrymen who involuntarily became infantrymen:
                    “Hussar trenches are characterized by almost excessive and pedantic cleanliness. The hussar is tireless in matters of equipment - taking into account that he was once able to spend all day cleaning his horse, now that he has taken the horse away from him, he spends all day wiping the trench, washing it, scraping it, cleaning it. They themselves also - as tradition requires - are very neat. Everywhere there is order: the rifle shines like a new pin, the recess cut in the clay near it has exactly the right size and contains ammunition ready to be loaded.
                    The historical heroism of the hussars, immersed in dirty clay, which could have turned the most chic cavalryman into a tramp, keeps them from surrendering to the harsh circumstances compelling a cattle-like existence. Even here they speak to you, “infantry,” down. ”
                    On March 13, 1917, another radical reorganization began. In each cavalry division, only one squadron was to remain mounted! The rest of the hussars, lancers and dragoons, retaining the cavalry names and partly uniforms, finally turned into infantry.