Military Review

How Kornilov stormed Ekaterinodar

127
27 — March 31 1918, the army of Kornilov stormed Ekaterinodar. It was the first major field battle of the Civil War in Russia and the last battle of General L. G. Kornilov.


Connection with the Kuban "army"

Forcing the Kuban, the Volunteer Army went in the direction of Maikop. However, it turned out to be in Zakubanie in a “continuous Bolshevik environment”. The district supported the Bolsheviks. Each farm met white rifles with fire, in the woods shot from ambushes. The regiments had to go with constant clashes, knocking out and scattering the enemy. Each detachment deviated from the main forces was ambushed. The villages were abandoned, residents fled, hiding, stealing cattle and hiding food. People even burned houses, leaving volunteers without shelter. At the sites, the White Guards fell under artillery shelling. At the same time, the major forces of the Reds were still moving for YES.

10 (23) March, forcing the White River, volunteers again stumbled upon the enemy barrier. The situation was difficult: the volunteers were ambushed in a narrow valley; the dominant heights were occupied by red. The Kornilovs were subjected to heavy shelling, repelled by strong attacks. From the rear also came the enemy. Ammunition was running out. However, the volunteers held out during the day, and at dusk rose to a desperate attack. The army broke the encirclement and went to the foothills of the Caucasus. The local Circassians, who were at enmity with the Red Cossacks, met Kornilov’s army well. Men began to join YES. Having received news of the movement of the Kuban "army", Kornilov took the troops along the mountain paths to join up with the Kubanians.

But the Kuban command, after an unsuccessful campaign to Ekaterinodar, where they thought to see the Kornilovites, was in a critical situation. 7 (20) in March Pokrovsky decided to turn back to the Kuban River - to join up with the army Kornilov that had left there. Red troops pursued Kuban, tried to block them. The Kuban "army" showed low combat capability and its only salvation was in association with Kornilov. Only after 4 of the day after the hard battles and grueling transitions in a solid circle surrounded by red, the Volunteer Army and Kuban met. 11 (24) of March, when the exhausted Kuban were again blocked near Kaluzhskaya, the Kornilovites left. Kuban cheered and drove the enemy.

14 March Kornilov and Pokrovsky met. The Kuban "government" immediately recalled the "independence" and spoke of the independence of its "army" in the operational submission to Kornilov. But he was against: “One army and one commander. I do not accept any other position. ” Kubans had nowhere to go, the forces joined. The number of army increased to 6 thousand bayonets and sabers with 20 guns. March 15 The Volunteer Army again launched an offensive.

In March 1918, the weather in the battle area was extremely difficult: cold rain poured incessantly, replaced by sleet and frosts. The roads are gone. Everything turned into a space of water and liquid mud, which periodically became ice. On the outskirts of the village of Novo-Dmitrovskaya it became very cold, deep snow fell in the mountains, the temperature dropped to 20 degrees below zero. Horses and people overgrown with ice crust. According to contemporaries, it came to the fact that in the evening the wounded lying on carts had to be freed from the ice crust with bayonets.

Denikin wrote in his memoirs: “Cold water soaked through the whole dress, flowed sharp, piercing streams by the collar. People walked slowly, shuddering from the cold and heavy dragging their feet in their swollen, water-filled boots. By noon the thick flakes of sticky snow had gone, and the wind blew. She is covered with eyes, nose, ears, breathtaking, and her face is pricking like sharp needles ... Meanwhile, the weather changed again: a sudden frost broke out, the wind increased, a snowstorm began. People and horses were quickly overgrown with ice; everything seemed frozen to the bone; warped like wooden clothes bound the body; it is difficult to turn the head, it is difficult to raise the leg in the stirrup. As a result, this offensive became known as the Ice Campaign.

15 (28) March, volunteers came to Novo-Dmitrievskaya. In the village were red. Pokrovsky with Kuban believed that it was impossible to attack in such terrible weather. The guns are stuck in the mud. The main forces were stuck at the crossing, they had to be transported two by two on horseback. Avant-garde, Markov's officer regiment was alone at the village. But Markov decided: “On such a night without a roof, everybody here will take a break in the field. Let's go to the village! ”And the regiment went to bayonets. Overturned the preservation of the Reds, who did not wait for the attack and warmed themselves to their homes. The big red garrison escaped. The fighters of the distinguished Officer Regiment, the battle near Novodmitrovskaya was called “Markovsky”. General Denikin will later write down: “March 15 — The Ice Campaign — the glory of Markov and the Officer Regiment, the pride of the Volunteer Army, and one of the most vivid memories of each pioneer of the past days — were not that, not that fairy tale.”

Two days was a battle for the village. Red counterattacked, but white held. 17 March Kuban tightened. The Kubans again spoke of the “autonomous army of the sovereign Kuban”. Kornilov put them in place. A "union treaty" was signed, under which the forces of the Kuban government were included in the army of Kornilov, and the Kuban government pledged to facilitate the replenishment and supply the Volunteer Army. Pokrovsky was removed from command, he had to form a new Kuban army. The Kubans were mixed with the Kornilovs, the regiments were reformed into three brigades — Markov, Bogayevsky and Erdelyi.

How Kornilov stormed Ekaterinodar

Russian general, white commander Sergey Leonidovich Markov (1878 - 12 June 1918)

Storm of Ekaterinodar

Before the army of Kornilov, a new task arose - to take Ekaterinodar. The army stood in Novo-Dmitrievskaya until March 22: the headquarters developed an operation to capture the capital of the Kuban. The troops rested and reformed, repulsing the constant attacks of Avtonomov’s red detachments from Grigorievskaya. In addition, it was necessary to solve the problem of ammunition, without them a serious offensive was impossible. Therefore Erdeli's cavalry was sent to take the Kuban ferries, Bogayevsky cleared the surroundings with fights, and March 24 Markov attacked the Georgy-Afipskaya station, where there was a strong Red garrison and warehouses. The sudden blow did not work, the volunteers were met with strong fire. I had to transfer the Bogayevsky brigade here. The fight was hard. General Romanovsky was injured. The Kornilov regiment three times went into bayonet attacks. As a result, the station was taken, seized warehouses with ammunition, including 700 shells to the guns.

Based on intelligence data, Kornilov’s headquarters assessed the Red Army forces at 18 thousand bayonets and sabers with 3 armored trains (in reality, the Red forces in the area quickly grew to 60 thousand people). The troops were supported by three artillery batteries in positions in the area of ​​the Black Sea railway station, on Sennaya Square and near the artillery barracks. In addition, Avtonomov and Sorokin at this time hastily pulled up the red detachments to the capital of the Kuban. Despite the fact that the Reds had a great advantage in manpower, and could quickly get reinforcements, were well supplied with ammunition and held defenses in a large city with stone buildings, Kornilov decided to attack, hoping for weak moral stability and combat capability of the enemy. Kornilov hoped to catch the Reds by surprise, leading the army to storm from the west, suddenly crossing the Kuban River by ferry to the west of Ekaterinodar - in the stanitsa of Elizavetinskaya, and not from the south, in the area of ​​permanent bridge crossings, or east of the city near the village of Pashkovskaya, where the red hit command. In addition, whites, crossing the ferries, cut off their retreat.

Thus, the white command made several serious mistakes at once. The enemy forces and his fighting efficiency were greatly underestimated. Red commanders Sorokin and Avtonomov fought skillfully. They had the opportunity to receive serious reinforcements and use large reserves to cover possible gaps in the defense. Avtonomov, who led the defense of the city, pulled everything into Ekaterinodar that could be attracted to the defense, and, having gained a huge numerical advantage over the assailants, he used it well. The combat capability of the red troops was higher than they thought. In particular, one thousand delegates of the 2 Congress of Soviets of the Kuban Region took part in the defense of the city, which began its meetings on the very day of the storming of Ekaterinodar with the Dobrarmy. A detachment of delegates to the congress under the leadership of Ivan Heichents was particularly resilient. The artillery of the Reds worked well: the density of artillery fire of the Reds reached 500 - 600 projectiles per hour, while the 1-I battery YES experienced a shortage of projectiles and could respond with rare shots. The red artillery literally pressed the volunteers to the ground, and the white artillery could not support its infantry and destroy enemy positions and crush artillery batteries in a large city. In addition, Kornilov made a mistake when at the beginning of the battle left behind the river. Kuban to cover the crossing and wagon train brigade of the most efficient General Markov. A third of the army did not participate in the beginning of the battle and was brought into battle in parts, as it was ferried from noon on March 28 to March 29.


Don Cossack, Red Commander Alexey Avtonomov (1890 - 2 February 1919)

March 27 (April 9) General Erdeli of 1918, with a swift cast, occupied the only ferry across the Kuban River to Elizavetinskaya. The Reds counterattacked, but the Kornilovsky and Guerrilla regiments were “mentally attacked,” without shots, knocked them over. Good luck at the beginning of the battle led to new mistakes. After the first successes, the mood in the army headquarters rose. Encouraged by the ease of success, seeing confirmation of the moral instability of the Bolsheviks, as well as having information about the reinforcements suitable for the red, Kornilov ordered an immediate assault, without drawing up all his forces. In addition, the Volunteer Army began to cover Ekaterinodar from all sides in order to block the railway tracks from the north, on which the new troops were approaching, and to deprive them of the possibility of withdrawing from the city. Kornilov wanted to crush the main forces of the Reds in the area with one blow. That is, the army of Kornilov decided to “digest” such a piece that she could not bite off. At the same time, Kornilov still hoped for a Cossack uprising in the surrounding villages. The Cossacks did indeed start an uprising against the Bolsheviks, and even sent small reinforcements to Kornilov, but there were few of them.

Red cut off the escape route and they put up stubborn resistance. March 28 (April 10) the battle did not happen as planned in the headquarters YES. Both sides attacked and defended. At the same time, the red troops had a numerical advantage, large reserves, which were thrown to dangerous places, crushed the whites with powerful artillery fire and fought off volunteer attacks one after another. Still, the White Guards persisted in advancing, occupying one suburb of the Kuban capital after another, and slowly reached the outskirts of the city. But this success was bought at a high price - about 1 thousand people were out of action. Among the wounded were the commander of the Partisan regiment, General B. I. Kazanovich, the Kuban commanders S. G. Ulagai and P. K. Pisarev, the commander of the Don members, Esaul R. G. Lazarev. The battle continued at night. But the front did not move. Ekaterinodar did not give up. Soon, at the headquarters of Kornilov, news was received that the Reds received reinforcements - several trains with revolutionary sailors broke through to the defenders from Novorossiysk.

However, Kornilov still believed in success. His conviction was based on the experience of previous battles. Earlier, having lost the first defeat and the suburbs, the Reds hurried to leave the settlement itself. Therefore, they decided to continue the assault, hoping that the new decisive onslaught would lead to victory. March 29 (April 11) tightened Markov team. Kornilov threw all available forces into the attack, striking the main blow from the north-west. Markov personally led the attack: the volunteers were able to overthrow the 1 th Catherine Regiment and other units of the Reds, took up well-fortified Artillery barracks.

After a short lull after the Markovites, the first commander of the regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Nezhentsov, personally led his Kornilov regiment into the Reds and was killed by a bullet in the head. General A. I. Denikin described the death of Nezhentsev in this way: “... Nezhentsev gave the order to attack. From his mound, on which God kept him for a whole day, he saw the chain rising and lying down again; bound by the invisible threads to those that lay below, he felt that the limit to human daring had come, and that it was time to use the “last reserve”. Descended from the hill, ran into a ravine and raised the chains. - Kornilov, forward! A voice stuck in my throat. A bullet hit in the head. He fell. Then he got up, took a few steps and fell down again, killed by the second bullet on the spot ”.


Commander of the Kornilov shock regiment, Colonel Mitrofan Osipovich Nezhentsev (1886 - 30 in March 1918)

Nezhentsev was replaced by Colonel V.I. Indeykin. In his first attack with the Kornilov men, he was wounded by a stray bullet. The attack of the remaining without commanders of the Kornilov regiment choked. To the rescue of the Kornilovites, a wounded General Kazanovich, with the Elizabethan Cossacks who joined them in 100, rushed with the reserve battalion of the Partisan regiment. He managed with a swift blow not only to break through the defenses of the Reds, to break into Yekaterinodar, but in pursuit of the retreating, to reach the very center of the city at dusk with their insignificant forces. It seemed that victory was near. But no one supported the attack of Kazanovich. The remaining units suffered heavy losses, mixed up, and the command was interrupted by communications with some of them. The death of reputable and beloved commanders, serious losses extinguished offensive outburst. Thus, Colonel Kutepov, who took command of the Kornilov regiment, could neither raise a completely upset and intermixed regiment with other parts of the regiment, nor simply transmit to Markov a message about the attack of Kazanovich. As a result, Markov did not move his troops to help Kazananovich.

Thus, all of Kazanovich with 250 fighters reached the city center. Grabbed carts with ammunition and ammunition. In the morning, finding that there would be no help, he turned back. They walked in a column, they met in red and said that a red "Caucasian detachment" was going on. As a result, were able to break through to their own, although the city was packed with red troops. The main result of the night raid of Kazanovich was the seizure of a wagon with 52 shells, which was a “whole event” for the Volunteer Army, which was experiencing a severe lack of ammunition. However, the last chance for success was lost.


Commander of the Partisan Regiment, General Boris Ilyich Kazanovich (1871 — 1943)

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1918 year

How to create a volunteer army
How the battle for the Don began
"Your talk is not needed by the working people. The guard is tired!"
100 years of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and Navy
Who incited the Civil War
White fought for the interests of the West
Anti-Russian and anti-state white project
How "Ukrainian Chimera" incited the Civil War
How to create Ukraine and the "Ukrainian people"
How the red took Kiev
Victory of the Red Army on the Don
Bloody Battle of the Ice Campaign
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 March 2018 06: 59
    +1
    The forces were not equal.
    And at any stage - the manifestation of "independence". And this is chaos, by definition.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 19 March 2018 08: 20
      +8
      About * chaos * and so on, a lot of things have been written, especially by the whites and their descendants, in justification of their own villainy and betrayal.
      Kornilov is the one who demanded the renunciation of Nicholas II and, unashamedly blackmailed by the fact that anything could happen to his family, since his savages from the division can do anything with * the royal surname *.
      The author simply mentioned that the local population shot at the * knights of the white movement *, but just forgot to mention why the locals actually met all of these * highly moral * and * unconditionally educated * * knights of the white movement *?
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 19 March 2018 09: 32
        +9
        Quote: Vasily50
        and why did the locals themselves so welcome all of these * highly moral * and * unconditionally educated * * knights of the white movement *?

        what But really, why? Is it because they were stained with blood for the most I do not want? The tragedy of the Civil War on the former outskirts of the Empire was that the peasantry immediately dealt with the theme of "robbed loot" and immediately entered the Red Army, which in turn gave unlimited opportunity for profit, it was worth calling a certain part of the population bourgeois and that’s all! This is what happened with the Circassians, living according to the semi-feudal law of the mountains, they did not accept the revolution, which means that they immediately became bourgeoisie, which in turn was taken by nonresident peasants and a part of the Cossacks who joined them !!!
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Monarchist
          Monarchist 19 March 2018 15: 49
          +1
          Serge (the numbers are not Christian), about the same, but in different expressions the old men and my history teacher told me.
          But I don’t agree with you: "living according to the semi-feudal laws of the mountains, they did not accept the revolution" should correct you a little: among the glitsea there were also revolutionaries-Mos Shovgenov and others. This is better told: Samsonov, Polonsky
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 20 March 2018 06: 48
            +3
            Quote: Monarchist
            Serge (numbers this is not Christian)

            laughing Oh. come on mister monarchist! In the Russian Imperial Navy there was a huge galaxy of officer dynasties and representatives of the dynasties wore numbers (so as not to confuse who is who), so are they not Christians? Do not go to extremes, my friend!
            Quote: Monarchist
            But I do not agree with you

            I wrote about the Circassian people, and not about some of its representatives wink
        3. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 20
          +3
          And plus to this - that in the eyes of the peasantry the whites were those ghouls who robbed him, the peasantry, for centuries. Everything is simple.
        4. IImonolitII
          IImonolitII 20 March 2018 19: 44
          0
          Living under semi-feudal laws, they did not experience the hardships of the peasantry and the proletariat. That is, in the eyes of the ordinary oppressed, they also enjoyed the benefits received at the expense of the peasants. And not supporting the revolution naturally turned into class enemies.
      2. Basil50
        Basil50 19 March 2018 11: 12
        +6
        All sorts of fans * crunch of buns * and other crap about elitism should ask how many people and where they scattered from the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
        In the first five years of the twentieth century, about seven million people emigrated abroad. At the same time, they emigrated to China and Afghanistan, and to Turkey and to the Balkans and to America and to the southern and northern, it is only those who were able to register as emigrants, without taking into account the nomadic tribes in Asia.
        This is the question of the * kissel shores * ruthlessly defeated by the Essaires and their accomplices under the control of foreign masters.
        1. Nikitin
          Nikitin 19 March 2018 12: 19
          +8
          Quote: Vasily50
          All sorts of fans * crunch of buns * and other crap about elitism should ask how many people and where they scattered from the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
          In the first five years of the twentieth century, about seven million people emigrated abroad.

          Poor ENGLAND, ITALY, GERMANY - of which more than millions have emigrated. yes
        2. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 14: 15
          +4
          Quote: Vasily50
          About seven million people emigrated. At the same time, they emigrated to China and Afghanistan, and to Turkey and to the Balkans and to America and to the southern and northern, it’s only those who were able to register as emigrants,


          Can you name the source of these amazing revelations?
      3. Nikitin
        Nikitin 19 March 2018 12: 16
        +5
        Quote: Vasily50
        Kornilov is the one who demanded the renunciation of Nicholas II and, unashamedly blackmailed by the fact that anything could happen to his family, since his savages from the division can do anything with * the royal surname *.

        What sand nonsense ....
        And from such "knowledge your beliefs are born?"
        However, what kind of “knowledge”, such and beliefs hi
      4. Monarchist
        Monarchist 19 March 2018 15: 33
        +2
        Basil, about the "chaos", but simply a mess, and the Reds also spoke. L. G. could not blackmail the Sovereign: a) he was a monarchist, b) do not ascribe to him the "merit" of others. This has already been said
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 19 March 2018 16: 34
          +3
          to the monarchist
          Alekseev was also a monarchist, then organized an uprising, including under monarchical slogans. And Kornilov at one time was proud of participating in the * conviction * of the tsar to renounce. What happened then only says that many figures of the white movement, especially in exile, have * forgotten * a lot of things and edited their participation and their speeches. Wrangel turned out to be the most famous in terms of the editorial board of his participation in the Civil War and in the looting of RUSSIA.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 March 2018 07: 09
    +11
    The ice campaign showed the highest courage and professionalism of the volunteers: fighting one to ten, getting weapons and ammunition only in battle. without supply bases and rear-they smashed the enemy. The reason for the failure of Yekaterinodar is banal: the absence of shells, which the Reds had in abundance — it was they who seized all the supplies of the 12 millionth Russian Army.
    But whites showed complete moral and military superiority.
    1. apro
      apro 19 March 2018 07: 19
      +8
      Quote: Olgovich
      But whites showed complete moral and military superiority.

      And what was that?
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 19 March 2018 07: 38
        +7
        Really, you ask silly questions ... smile Because gladiolus ... smile
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 March 2018 07: 49
        +8
        I repeat, if once is not enough hi
        fighting one to ten, getting weapons and ammunition only in battle. without supply bases and rear-they smashed the adversary.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 19 March 2018 10: 21
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          I repeat, if once is not enough

          hi Greetings to Olgovich, you still haven't answered my question ..... why did the Reds win the Civil War and the White lose it? Although White had several chances to gain the upper hand!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 20 March 2018 07: 55
            +3
            Quote: Serg65
            .. why did the Reds win the Civil War, and the Whites lose it? Although White had several chances to gain the upper hand!

            1. The Reds had all the material resources of the country — all the property of the Russian Army, industry, money. White had a lot of bread, but the material resources for the war were either captured or received by oi allies, who, in the end, betrayed and did not fulfill the supply agreement. The creators of the Bolsheviks were more profitable than the supporters of the One and the Indivisible.
            2. Scary severe hunger who came to the country with the Bolsheviks. With them came the complete collapse of industry and wild unemployment and the inability to physically survive. Often the only way to get rations and life for a family is to serve in the army.
            Plus the previously unimaginable animal cruelty in Russia: hostage, mutual responsibility and circular responsibility.
            3. The whites did not want to fight with their fellow citizens to the last, remember the so-called Kornilov’s “rebellion” when Kornilov and his comrades gave up. Then they hoped that the Bolsheviks would fulfill the will of the people and give power to the Constituent Assembly
            4. White honestly promised a difficult, gradual work on building the state. The monstrous cynical lie of the Reds, who promised the golden mountains immediately and immediately to everyone who was "oppressed" ("Promise-EVERYTHING, anything !. And hang ... We'll hang it later!" (C) was sweeter and clearer.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 20 March 2018 12: 21
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              ("Promise-EVERYTHING, anything !. And hang ... We will hang later!"

              Do not tell me from whom the quote? Or did you blow it again (like much more) by the "wind" into the cavity between the ears?
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 20 March 2018 14: 03
                0
                Quote: HanTengri
                Do not tell me from whom the quote? Or did you blow it again (like much more) by the "wind" into the cavity between the ears?

                Go-go, go-go Mate lover and Mr.: I disdain to communicate with you.
            2. Serg65
              Serg65 20 March 2018 12: 22
              +3
              Quote: Olgovich
              The Reds turned out to be

              Olgovich, be simpler ....
              The whites could not decide what kind of power they had, so their power was pervasive, and the red ones quickly imposed strict discipline and stopped all chatter! If Kolchak and Marushevsky had shut their mouths to the governments of the popular socialists, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, and everyone there, then White would have had power! If Denikin had not been jealous of Transcaspian Kolchak, then White would have had power!
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 20 March 2018 14: 11
                0
                Quote: Serg65
                White couldn’t decide what kind of power they have, so their power has subsided, and red quickly imposed strict discipline and all chatter stopped in the bud!
                Someone a little later (abroad) had an even tougher discipline. THIS is a sign correct behavior?
                ALL motley Russia, from peasants to monarchists, rose up against usurpers.
                And yes, it was, therefore, difficult to agree.
                But still, in the end, it settled down, albeit with a loss of time.
                The main reasons, IMHO, are in the foregoing. hi
            3. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 26
              +5
              “Figuratively speaking, the Reds won because the peasants weaved a million bast shoes to them. They didn’t weave the White, and they had to ask the British for shoes and windings. The White Army acted in Russia as conquerors, and its advance was accompanied by uprisings (according to the white historian A. Zaitsev, who published a large book in Paris in 1934, followed by the white “wave of rebellious lower classes”) "(S.G. Kara-Murza)

              And - yes, plus animal cruelty unimaginable in Russia before, because of which the Reds were expected "as the kingdom of God" (eyewitness account). But the main thing: “in Russia at that time there was an“ interclass unity of the lower classes ”, which rejected the White’s project. They rejected it as a whole, and not because of trifles and not because of cruelties and executions. The hatred of the lower classes (mainly the peasantry) and the white elite was mutual and accepted almost racial in nature, A.Denikin writes about this in his memoirs, "Essays on the Russian Troubles" (S.G. Kara-Murza).
            4. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 20 March 2018 21: 55
              +3
              Quote: Olgovich
              The monstrous cynical lie of the Reds, who promised the golden mountains immediately and immediately to everyone who was "oppressed" ("Promise-EVERYTHING, anything !. And hang ... We'll hang it later!" (C) was sweeter and clearer.

              Stop lying already. They hung the royal punishers, "Stolypin ties" remember. White continued the tradition of hanging. I have never met information so that the Reds hang someone somewhere.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 21 March 2018 09: 14
                0
                Quote: Alexander Green
                Stop lying already.

                So do not lie.
                Better yet, learn finally The history of our homelandso as not to write this constantly delirium : a la
                Quote: Alexander Green
                I have never met information so that the Reds hang someone somewhere.
                yes
                1. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene 22 March 2018 01: 32
                  +2
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  So do not lie.

                  Will you really deny the tradition of tsarist and white executioners - to hang revolutionaries, Bolsheviks and sympathizers for them?
                  Yes, and give at least one well-known example, when the Reds hanged at least someone in the civil war. All anti-Soviets trumpet that "they shot, chopped with sabers, drowned on barges, buried alive," but there was no mention of the hanged.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 22 March 2018 09: 39
                    0
                    Here no educational programnice man. Melgunov to help.
                    "Itself, itself!" (C)
                    1. Alexander Greene
                      Alexander Greene 22 March 2018 23: 27
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      There is no educational program, dear man. Melgunov to help.

                      And I do not ask you to enlighten me, you, as always, were in trouble without any confirmation or logical justification. And Melgunov is still that nonsense, but you outdid him.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 24 March 2018 10: 24
                        0
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        And I do not ask me to enlighten


                        So READ MORE! The bald foreign tourist that bequeathed to you, have forgotten? yes
                      2. Alexander Greene
                        Alexander Greene 24 March 2018 17: 33
                        +3
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        So READ MORE! The bald foreign tourist that bequeathed to you, have forgotten?

                        Your disease is progressing, everywhere bald foreign tourists dream of you.
      3. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 07: 58
        +13
        The fact that the pioneers literally swept out 10 times superior to them parts of the Reds. Throughout military science, the Volunteer Army was doomed to die from the cold and hands of an enemy superior in number and equipment. But she survived and inflicted a number of sensitive defeats on the enemy.
      4. Laurus
        Laurus 19 March 2018 11: 21
        +12
        In a "heroic" defeat. With all their “moral” and “military superiority,” they were defeated and, tail-tailing, fled to the owners. Many later crap, as best they could, of the country in which they were born and raised.
        1. Nikitin
          Nikitin 19 March 2018 12: 39
          +7
          Quote: Laurel
          In a "heroic" defeat. For all their “moral” and “military superiority,” they were defeated.
          .

          Look at your flag! yes It- Flag of Russia and her heroes-Kornilov, Denikin and others like them.
          Quote: Laurel
          ran to the owners

          Yes, the daughters and granddaughters of Stalin, Khrushchev, Andropov, Brezhnev, Suslov live in the West yes
          Quote: Laurel
          Many later crapas they could, to the country in which they were born and raised.

          Yeah, this is when the "white" starved to death 7 million people only in 1932-33, there was cannibalism and corpse-eating, previously never seen in Russia before yes
          1. Laurus
            Laurus 19 March 2018 12: 54
            +11
            The flag is set to me automatically. If I chose - it would be the flag of the USSR.
            Heroes of the country (any) can never be traitors who fought against the country and its people, like Kornilov, Denikin, Kolchak, Krasnov or Vlasov.
            Tales a la Solzhenitsyn about the famines and tell Svidomo Ukrainians, they will appreciate. As for the famine, it was the whole history in Russia, information about the famines in the Republic of Ingushetia is not difficult to find. And the Bolsheviks cursed by mankurts won the famine, modernizing agriculture and creating collective farms.
            1. Serg65
              Serg65 19 March 2018 14: 36
              +3
              Quote: Laurel
              Heroes of the country (any) can never be traitors who fought against the country and its people, like Kornilov, Denikin, Kolchak, Krasnov

              what What is their betrayal?
            2. Monarchist
              Monarchist 19 March 2018 16: 25
              +4
              Laurel, let’s start on the points: 1 “the heroes of the country can never be traitors who fought against the country and its people, like Kornilov, Denikin, Kolchak, Krasnov or Vlasov”, why didn’t you mention Makhno and Antonov? They also fought and famously fought with the Reds? 2) Vlasov: “this is a completely different story” in 1937, the chairman of the tribunal was considered to be the “favorite” of Stalin, until the very last moment he kept Soviet documents. Read from Zdanovich about Soviet pilots, and the Air Force had the highest percentage of Bolsheviks and Komsomol members in the service of the Wehrmacht. There are suggestions that the son of N. S. Khrushchev was also a traitor.
              3) "Tales a la Solzhenitsyn about the famines tell Svidomo", but I did not know that Sholokhov or Berezhkov (Stalin's personal translator) were Svidomo. It is Mr. Yushchenko who invented the tale that the famine was only in Ukraine. On our site there were publications about the Holodomor in Russia.
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 10
                +3
                Quote: Monarchist
                "Tales a la Solzhenitsyn about the famines tell Svidomo," but I did not know that Sholokhov

                And where did you read from Sholokhov about the famine? He wrote about hunger, but he never called it a famine. Wrecking, of course, was, but from the hidden enemies of Soviet power. Sholokhov, when he turned to the Central Committee and to Stalin, help was immediately provided to the starving people, and the pests identified by Sholokhov were immediately planted. Now they are considered to be innocently repressed by some, and crocodile tears are shed on them, while others are used to accuse the Soviet government of organizing an alleged famine.
            3. Nikitin
              Nikitin 19 March 2018 17: 25
              +2
              Quote: Laurel
              The flag is set to me automatically. If I chose - it would be the flag of the USSR.

              You deny State flag RF? belay
              Quote: Laurel
              Heroes of the country (any) can never be traitors who fought against the country and its people, like Kornilov, Denikin, Kolchak, Krasnov or Vlasov.

              They fought FOR the country and people, starting since August 1914 against the German invaders, received injuries and rewards. But bald tourists shamefully sat in switzerland, saving their worthless skins, moreover, campaigned for ...defeat ! This is betrayal!
              What would happen to the country if the Denikins did not save her in 1914-1917?
              Quote: Laurel
              Tales a la Solzhenitsyn about the famines and tell Svidomo Ukrainians, they will appreciate.

              I tell the TRUTH illiterate ignoramuses who hate the history of their country to such an extent that they deny millions of deaths.
              Quote: Laurel
              As for the famine, he had the whole history in Russia, find information about the famines in RI not difficult

              It is difficult to find what was NOT.
              Quote: Laurel
              And the Bolsheviks cursed by mankurts defeated the famine, modernizing agriculture and creating collective farms

              You would be UNLIMITED, to know that with the advent of collective farms (1937, 40 g), you began to eat and dress Much lessthan in 1913 (read yes same Report of the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR 1955.)
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 16
                +4
                Quote: Nikitin-
                But bald tourists shamefully sat in Switzerland, saving their worthless skins, moreover, campaigned for ... defeat

                Dear, bald tourists also began to seem strange to you. See this disease was the first to get Olgovich.
                Quote: Nikitin-
                You would be UNLIMITED, to know that with the advent of collective farms (1937, 40 g), you have become and dress much less than in 1913 (read the Report of the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR 1955.

                and do not use old stamps. This is an idea. that you recently changed your nickname.
              2. Sugar Honeyovich
                Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 10
                +2
                [quote = Nikitin -] [quote = Laurus] What would happen to the country if the Denikins did not save it in 1914-1917?

                That they SO saved her by 1917.? !!!

                ... with the advent of collective farms (1937, 40 g), eating and dressing became much less than in 1913 [/ quote]

                And the collective farmers say the opposite ...
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 March 2018 18: 35
            +1
            This is an argument. But not convincing. During the Time of Troubles under Boris Godunov, there was also a lot of bad things.

            And for the XIX century, there was more than one famine. And child mortality is very high (let someone who owns the numbers accurately - correct).
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 19 March 2018 20: 50
              +1
              Quote: Korsar4
              During the Time of Troubles under Boris Godunov, there was also a lot of bad things.


              And what happened during the time of the Black Death is something! And in the Stone Age, cannibalism was generally

              Quote: Korsar4
              And for the XIX century, hunger was more than once


              such as in 1932-33 was not

              Quote: Korsar4
              And infant mortality is very high


              so she was rather big in the USSR, until antibiotics came up
        2. Serg65
          Serg65 19 March 2018 14: 35
          +1
          Good! Olgovich is heroically silent, well maybe Lavr will quench my curiosity .... so why did the Reds win ???
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 March 2018 20: 23
            0
            Probably, argument N 1. The nobility has lost popularity in other layers.

            Alas, it is.

            Another thing is that gradually all estates began to mow down, up to the peasantry. But not at once.
            1. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 19 March 2018 21: 53
              +3
              No. The Reds were united, they had one goal (not counting Makhno, etc.), the Whites were divided, Kaledin, Kornilov, Denikin, etc. They could not even speak and strike at one time from different fronts. Free Don, the sovereign Kuban is an example of this, the hetman of Skoropadsky, too. Indeed, for the one and indivisible who was? Plus the support of the red people, plus the presence of foreign troops in Russia, for the people like a red rag.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 19 March 2018 23: 49
                0
                Quote: Okolotochny
                whites were divided


                so it’s natural, because there were no “whites”, they were just Russians. And the Russian people have different political views and preferences. They had one unifying idea - the fight against the Bolsheviks who seized their homeland.
                1. Serg65
                  Serg65 20 March 2018 07: 20
                  +2
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  in Russian people different political views and preferences

                  That is what divided these people in the fight against the Bolsheviks!
                2. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene 20 March 2018 22: 01
                  +2
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Quote: Okolotochny
                  whites were divided


                  so it’s natural, because "there were no whites, they were just Russians. А Russian people have different political attitudes and preferences. They had one unifying idea. - the fight against the Bolsheviks who seized their homeland


                  You can already write a dissertation on historical topics, you make mind-blowing conclusions.
              2. Serg65
                Serg65 20 March 2018 07: 18
                +2
                hi Welcome Alex !!!
                Quote: Okolotochny
                The Reds were One

                In many ways, you're right, Lesh. But about the whites, I have a slightly different view ..... the whites were not divided, but struck by nihilism and liberal ideas, this is precisely their defeat! The game of democracy, what is possible and what is impossible and led them to defeat! And of course, excessive vanity bordering senility, the same Denikin stepping over his self and jealousy to Kolchak, if he had sent real help to the Transcaspians, then the Reds would not be able to resist the Volga, just as you wouldn’t go to your grandmother!
                The Reds, on the other hand, introduced strict discipline, centralized power, subjugated the Soviets and brutally punished all dissent, this is their victory!
                Quote: Okolotochny
                plus the presence of foreign troops in Russia, for the people like a red rag.

                Lesh, besides the Germans, the Russian people almost did not see foreign troops, and the Far East was so far from Ryazan that the Russian peasant was not at all interested, besides, the 1 / 3 of the Red Army was not of Russian origin, by the way, this one third made the main contribution to the victory of the Reds in the 18 year!
                1. Okolotochny
                  Okolotochny 20 March 2018 21: 52
                  +1
                  Serge, hi I mean the same. The British and Americans are north, the French are the same Britons south. And white like that monkey. And, interestingly, the military with higher academic education. And personal and political ambitions prevailed over the interests of the state, country, and people.
    2. Luga
      Luga 19 March 2018 10: 41
      +14
      Quote: Olgovich
      But whites showed complete moral and military superiority.

      Found something to be proud of. A close-knit group of professional military men who could do nothing but kill people on an industrial scale, against yesterday's peasants and workers ...
      Quote: Olgovich
      fighting one to ten

      This only speaks of the narrowness of their social base, of the fact that they courageously and professionally fought against their own people.
      But life put everything in its place and as a result, Russia dispensed with them.
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 11: 39
        +9
        Quote: Luga
        a group of professional military men who knew nothing but to kill people on an industrial scale, against yesterday's peasants and workers ...

        A small correction. For the most part, these military officers were wartime officers — that is, mobilized. And the opposing Red Army men consisted of the same mobilized soldiers and officers. In other words, on both sides were the military, accustomed to "kill people on an industrial scale."
        Quote: Luga
        that they courageously and professionally fought against their own people.

        Given the fact that parts of the Reds mainly scattered from volunteers ... it can be concluded that the numerous Red Army soldiers of the beginning of 1918 were not eager to fight for "people's power."
        1. Luga
          Luga 19 March 2018 12: 38
          +8
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          For the most part, these military officers were wartime officers — that is, mobilized.

          Are you sure? But I heard that most of them were career officers and hereditary nobles. Where is the truth?
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          And the opposing Red Army men consisted of the same mobilized soldiers and officers.

          And I also heard that exclusively red volunteers fought against them at the beginning of 1918, since mobilization has not yet been carried out.
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          we can conclude that the numerous Red Army men of the beginning of the 1918 year were not eager to fight for “popular power”.

          And it is possible another way - they did not have experience in organizing military operations, they did not know how to fight and could not resist the personnel units, in which even infantry chains consisted entirely of officers.
          You think so, I’m that way, but to deny that in the end it was precisely the whites that Russia did not need, and after their defeat, the further history of Russia passed without them, even you probably won’t be able to.
          1. Lieutenant Teterin
            Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 14: 14
            +6
            Quote: Luga
            so I heard that most of them were career officers and hereditary nobles.

            I strongly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the work of Doctor of Historical Sciences Sergei Vladimirovich Volkov, “The Tragedy of Russian Officers”. The social composition of the cadre of the officer corps by 1917 and the further fate of the officers are well described there.
            Quote: Luga

            And I also heard that exclusively red volunteers fought against them in early 1918, since mobilization had not yet been carried out

            I apologize for the inaccuracy. I had in mind mobilized during the WWII.
            Quote: Luga
            after their defeat, the further history of Russia took place without them, even you probably will not be able to.

            Not Russia, but the USSR — these are still somewhat different states. They are as different as the GDR and the Kaiser Germany.
            1. Luga
              Luga 19 March 2018 14: 44
              +4
              Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
              "The tragedy of Russian officers"

              I haven’t read, I’ll look.
              But in any case, in this context we are only interested in the personnel of the Volunteer Army of the sample of the beginning of 1918, and not in the officer corps of Russia in general. If you have reliable information on this issue, I’m ready to read it.
              Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
              I had in mind mobilized during the WWII.

              It turns out that on the other hand, at the beginning of 1918, volunteers fought, but there were more Reds in 10.
              Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
              Not Russia, but the USSR

              For me there is no difference - the Russian Empire, the RSFSR, the USSR or the Russian Federation. For me, this is one and the same state, which just looked different in different historical periods, the very state in which my ancestors lived and I live. Too bad if you think otherwise.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 19 March 2018 16: 25
                +5
                Quote: Luga
                in this context, we are only interested in the personnel of the Volunteer Army of the sample of the beginning of 1918, and not in the officer corps of Russia in general. If you have reliable information on this issue, I’m ready to read


                So, back in the USSR, Comrade Kavtoradze brought the data, you can find it on the same Wiki:
                "The detachment, speaking on the night of 9/10 (from 22 to 23) February 1918 from Rostov-on-Don, included:
                242 headquarters officers (190 - colonels)
                2078 chief officers (captains - 215, staff captains - 251, lieutenants - 394, lieutenants - 535, ensigns - 668)
                1067 privates (including junkers and a high school cadet - 437)
                630 volunteers (364 non-commissioned officers and 235 soldiers, including 66 Czechs)
                Medical staff: 146 people - 24 doctors and 122 nurses)
                A significant convoy of civilians who fled from the Bolsheviks also retreated with the detachment.
                According to the calculations of the Soviet historian Kavtoradze, the 2350 ranks of the commanding staff were divided as follows:
                hereditary nobles - 21%;
                immigrants from the families of low-ranking officers - 39%;
                40% of the bourgeois, Cossacks, and peasants. "
                1. Luga
                  Luga 19 March 2018 20: 43
                  +2
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Duc, Comrade Kavtoradze brought the data back in the USSR,

                  Thank you.
                  Still, I thought that there were more hereditary noblemen, but 21% - where much.
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 19 March 2018 21: 41
                0
                Nevertheless, Russia is larger than the Russian Federation in the current version.
              3. d1975
                d1975 19 March 2018 23: 35
                +2
                Yes, no respected difference, look what remains of Russia, even within the borders of the RSFSR. Gifts of territories and a parade of sovereignty (Finns, Poles, Baltic States). The consequences are still croaking. Country device alone. Russians are not the master of their country. The word tolerance (((((((((A bunch of countries now, it’s ridiculous! Their sovereignty is false! Well, now the difference is obvious to you? And here we are all telling tales about the friendship of peoples, is it not time to put some in their place!
      2. Nikitin
        Nikitin 19 March 2018 13: 23
        +6
        Quote: Luga
        Found something to be proud of. A close-knit group of professional military men who could do nothing but kill people on an industrial scale, against yesterday's peasants and workers ...

        Professionals were on both sides: I remind you that there was a World War and the workers and peasants fought.
        Quote: Luga
        This only speaks of the narrowness of their social base, of the fact that they courageously and professionally fought against their own people.

        What kind of nonsense? The people chose their power in the ELECTION. And this was by no means the power of the Bolsheviks!
        Quote: Luga
        But life put everything in its place and as a result, Russia dispensed with them.

        Russia did well without the Lenin, Apfelbaum, Rosenfeld, Goldstein, etc., who in their 47-year-old worthless life did not create ANYTHING, did not work ANYWHERE and did NOT even earn a living. Useless drones - what they are, what they are not.
        And she lost millions of engineers, scientists, doctors, teachers, workers, military - and this is a loss, yes.
        None of the countries in the world was happy about this or allowed it.
        Rejoiced at this only fool
        1. Luga
          Luga 19 March 2018 14: 28
          +6
          Quote: Nikitin-
          Professionals were on both sides: I remind you that there was a World War and the workers and peasants fought.

          A peasant or a worker who sat a year or two in the trenches - a military professional, equal to a staff officer? wassat Think what you write.
          Quote: Nikitin-
          The people chose their power in the ELECTION. And this was by no means the power of the Bolsheviks!

          Oh, our grave sins ... Is there anyone smarter here? I counted on opponents at the level of Olgovich or Teterin.
          The rest is anti-Semitic nonsense and I do not want to comment.
          Nikitin, do not write to me anymore.
          1. Nikitin
            Nikitin 19 March 2018 15: 32
            +3
            Quote: Luga
            Peasant or Worker Sat a year or two in the trenches - a military professional equal staff officer?

            three to four years in the trenches. There were almost no cadre officers — most of the wartime — from the same workers and peasants. At least find out first WHAT you write about (think, obviously not yours)
            Quote: Luga
            Oh sins our grave...

            Do not sin! lol yes
            Quote: Luga
            Is there anyone smarter here?

            You smarter, why? lol
            Quote: Luga
            The rest anti-Semitic nonsense and do not want to comment.

            Which one ?!belay fool lol
            Quote: Luga
            Nikitin, do not write to me anymore.

            lol
            1. saigon
              saigon 19 March 2018 17: 27
              +1
              Yes, many of our crystal bakery simply do not know how many nobles were in the personnel pre-war officers, and if they read somewhere, an abyss of disappointment will befall them. Well, gentlemen did not want the masses of Russia to serve as officers in officers.
              1. Nikitin
                Nikitin 19 March 2018 17: 33
                +3
                Quote: saigon
                Yes, many of our crystal bakery simply do not know how many nobles were in the personnel pre-war officers, and if they read somewhere, an abyss of disappointment will befall them. Well, gentlemen did not want the masses of Russia to serve as officers in officers

                What are you doing? belay
          2. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 26
            +3
            Quote: Luga
            I counted on opponents level Olgovich

            So this is Olgovich, he only changed his nickname. Well, he had previously been tearing up for the "secret report of the USSR State Administration", for the "bald men", for the "apelbums" who supposedly did not work anywhere. These are his songs, he has long been pulling them.
            1. Luga
              Luga 19 March 2018 21: 03
              +2
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Well this is Olgovich and he is, he just changed his nickname.

              Think so?
              No, Olgovich, it will be more intelligible ... In any case, before him rough and colloquial expressions were not particularly noticed, and he tried to argue for his position. Of course, he hates the Soviet regime, and at the same time, I would say that some kind of fierce irrational hatred is yes, but he didn’t seem to allow outright rudeness to the opponent when he first addressed him.
              So I will consider that it is not him.
      3. Serg65
        Serg65 20 March 2018 07: 24
        +1
        Quote: Luga
        This only speaks of the narrowness of their social base, of the fact that they courageously and professionally fought against their own people.

        laughing But what about the Izhevsk and Votkinsk workers? What to do with the workers of the Central Asian Railway? Yes, by the way, it was the Trans-Caspian workers who shot the 26 Baku commissars, and not the British at all! And shot not for Bolshevism, but for desertion wassat !
    3. saigon
      saigon 19 March 2018 17: 22
      +5
      But where did the red shells come from? It seems like the Imperial Army on the Germans at the front wasn’t fooling about the miracle in the rear city of the red shells like shoe polish in a factory producing shoe polish!
      What is military superiority? So talented to maneuver what to rub on the forehead without art support for fortifications. Forgive me, but in such ways, a war, not one battle, but they won’t win the war. What the whites of all stripes and shades with brilliance demonstrated.
      Yes, and morally surpassed on the steamboats, draping it of course, this is how the English drapanuv from Dunkirk and in general from France the Nazis defeated in the same year sounds in 1940.
      1. Nikitin
        Nikitin 19 March 2018 17: 38
        +3
        Quote: saigon
        But where did the red shells come from? It seems like the Imperial Army for the Germans at the front it was not horseradish and lo and behold, in the rear city of the red shells like shoe polish in a factory producing shoe polish!


        HOW can you not know anything (like you)? After all, it was VO that had a LOT of articles about this: so many shells that they used in WWII!
        Quote: saigon
        brilliance demonstrated.

        Yes, smashing the reds
        Quote: saigon
        Yes, and morally superior on steamboats

        Take a look at State Flag of Russia! yes
        1. saigon
          saigon 19 March 2018 18: 32
          +4
          So then again the question. and why there were no shells at the front?
          Having beaten the Reds, is it like pulling off a country to complete a full raid? Well then, Hitler conquered the world.
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 19 March 2018 20: 52
            +1
            Quote: saigon
            So then again the question. and why there were no shells at the front?


            What year? In 1914, 1917? Or maybe in 1941-42?
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 19 March 2018 18: 36
        0
        Saigon, you are right that in the WWII there was a shell hunger at the front, and there were a lot of shells in the rear. However, a similar situation was in the Second World War. For example, in Sevastopol there was a shortage of ammunition, and when they left the city they blew up a warehouse with thousands of tons of ammunition. About this wrote and Azarov and Manstein
        1. saigon
          saigon 19 March 2018 19: 16
          +3
          There is a nuance with Sevastopol, many shells simply didn’t fit the caliber with the existing guns, many did not go to the airborne forces and regiment guns of 3 "shells. Well, they didn’t take out 12" and other 6 "-8" I think they hoped the city would have chances.
          In and with PMV for whom and who in the rear held shells?
          . What was the purpose of this?
          The collapse and death of the Empire is a tragedy, the collapse and death of the USSR is also a tragedy.
          Yes, I don’t like whites (it’s strange at my age to change my views), yes I have a Soviet flag on the headband, only I am also proud of the Imperial Army, the army in which my ancestors served.
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 20 March 2018 12: 10
            +1
            Quote: saigon
            There is a nuance with Sevastopol, many shells simply didn’t fit the existing guns in caliber

            I grieve you, the shells in the Inkerman adits were in time for field artillery, and the ones you write about were in the adits of Sukharka and Mayachnaya ....
            Here is a photo of 122 mm. shells in the galleries of Inkerman, photo of the beginning of the 2000's


            And here are the remnants of 76-mm shells

            At the same time, 42 years have passed since 68, and thousands of people have visited these adits since 45.
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 30
          0
          Quote: Monarchist
          For example, in Sevastopol there was a shortage of ammunition, and when they left the city they blew up a warehouse with thousands of tons of ammunition.

          Ammunition ammunition strife. In Sevastopol, there were not enough shells, cartridges for small arms, and when they were smashed, sea mines, torpedoes and explosives stored in arsenals were blown up.
      3. Serg65
        Serg65 20 March 2018 07: 48
        +1
        Quote: saigon
        But where did the red shells come from?

        laughing Op !!! In all Soviet historical literature, shell hunger was written, and in 18 with red factories the Reds suddenly had a huge number of shells, miracles and only !!!!!
        Quote: saigon
        So talented to maneuver, what to rub on the forehead without art support for strengthening

        And they had no other choice, as well as the Soviet troops in 41!
        Quote: saigon
        Yes, and morally surpassed on the ships draping

        From Sevastopol draped many! After 22 years, the same thing was repeated only with the enormous losses of Soviet soldiers!
        1. saigon
          saigon 20 March 2018 17: 53
          0
          These are the squiggles, the generals with officers maneuvered so strategically and tactically that as a result, head on to the city.
          And in 1942 in Sevastopol it was worse. There, soldiers and sailors were largely abandoned, there was no evacuation as such.
    4. Looking for
      Looking for 19 March 2018 21: 09
      0
      I regret that the captured White Guards were shot. It was necessary to hang !!!. Along the roads !!!
    5. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 33
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      whites showed complete moral and military superiority.


      This happened at the beginning of the war. And by 1920, the whites "... the faith in the rightness of their cause disappeared ..." and "... new moods arose ... that were of the nature of moral surrender to Bolshevism ..." (G.N. Rakovsky) .

      We emphasize: not just the decline of spirit due to defeat, but the loss of faith in the rightness of their cause! White’s business was wrong!
  3. Cheburator
    Cheburator 19 March 2018 07: 11
    +21
    Ice trip - the legend of the White Cause.
    And the pioneers occupied the most important positions, according to the degree of participation, they were evaluated further.
    And for good reason.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 March 2018 07: 37
      +2
      Yes, the legend. Yes, evaluated.

      But without renewal, the forest will not grow.
    2. Moskovit
      Moskovit 19 March 2018 11: 30
      +6
      All this valor and courage only prolonged the civil war and as a result did not lead to anything but sacrifice and mutual bitterness.
      1. Gloomy
        Gloomy 19 March 2018 13: 10
        +3
        That’s true - they wouldn’t resist, they wouldn’t have to kill, right?
        1. Moskovit
          Moskovit 19 March 2018 22: 28
          0
          I don’t know, I don’t presume to judge, because in any case the Soviet government would reach many. But if these people left Russia, they would have been saved. Maybe the Bolsheviks would not be so brutal if they were not killed.
    3. saigon
      saigon 20 March 2018 17: 57
      +1
      Maybe the ice campaign looks like legends, only my grandfather and my grandmother’s brother retreated from Omsk to Irkutsk in the Siberian winter. And there, there is much more space than wide with the Kuban. Everything is relative .
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 19 March 2018 07: 36
    +12
    One thing is surprising ... how many former tsarist generals and officers served God, the tsar and the Fatherland until 1917 ... and during the civil war they began to fight for Great Finland, independent Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, Poland "from mozh to mozh" , independent Don, Kuban’s “reed”, etc. ... Few people worried about the idea of ​​the One and Indivisible ...
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 07: 56
      +7
      Dear Parusnik, a minimum of officers actually joined the ranks of the Limitrophs — Sergei Volkov writes about a maximum of 10% of the Limitrophs who entered the service. Most still fought on the side of the whites.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 March 2018 08: 06
        +1
        And in chaos there can be anything.
        And what figures. The same Mannerheim. This is what kind of reserve was the personnel officer, not yet knocked out by the war.
      2. parusnik
        parusnik 19 March 2018 12: 00
        +8
        Yes .. yes .. Mannerheim was going to fight for Great Finland .. before the Urals .. When he was offered to help in the assault on Petrograd, he put forward such conditions, I will help on conditions of complete independence and within the borders of Great Finland ... I didn’t want to empire .. into a single and indivisible ... Skoropadsky tormented such thoughts ..but not for long ... Before the November revolution in Germany ... It didn’t grow together ... I’m not a lieutenant who served whom ... I’m talking about why fled to the "national apartments" .. Servants of the king, fathers of soldiers ...
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 19 March 2018 16: 28
          +1
          What's so surprising? They served the emperor, instead of the empire, national states were formed - they began to serve them. Everything is logical.
        2. Monarchist
          Monarchist 19 March 2018 17: 53
          +1
          The joke is that Manerheim faithfully served the emperor. A good rider, scout, traveler, brave warrior. He loved Russia in his own way, but did not recognize Soviet power and voluntarily became an ally of Hitler, but treats him with contempt. Some kind of dark story with the storm of Leningrad: at least there is evidence that he "framed" his ally. This was in the d / f "Searchers". What is indisputable is that Stalin did not want to follow him. What do you think: if Stalin considered him an enemy, what would he do?
          I know only one thing: Stalin WAS A PRACTICAL MAN. If he did so, there were reasons
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 19 March 2018 18: 36
            +1
            Of course, a practical man ... Agree, Yudenich to the conditions of Mannerheim, to Great Finland, he would help Yudenich Petrograd, and so for the sake of the One and the indivisible thing to get dirty, and then it is not known who you will be in case of victory of the White movement .. already better titmouse in hand-Finland .. than a crane in the sky ...
            1. Sugar Honeyovich
              Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 17
              +2
              And Yudenich agreed. Finland - from sea to sea, Petrograd - a free city. But it didn’t help. The Red Army was all stronger! Because it stood on the defense of the state independence of Russia. Yes.
          2. saigon
            saigon 19 March 2018 18: 44
            +4
            Yes, what a dark story there, Finns were offensive to attack Leningrad, and here the broads and UR are on the way. They stumbled, puffed up, suffered losses and did not manage to break through the fortifications without normal artillery and experience of its use. Here the impulse and disappeared and dreams of a great Finland subsided bunker, he and in Africa, the bunker))))
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 19 March 2018 13: 26
        +2
        But they won, relying on the backbone of
        Russian officers, but the soldiers were from local - with high
        motivation to defend the independence of their countries.
        Result:
        Mannerheim - defended the independence of Finland.
        Yudenich - Estonian independence defended.
        But the White Guards of the South of Russia lost. They had officers
        many, but there were no soldiers. Or there were soldiers with low motivation for war.
        1. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 19 March 2018 14: 18
          +5
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Yudenich - Estonian independence defended.

          A small amendment; Yudenich categorically refused to recognize the independence of Estonia, for which he was betrayed by the Estonians.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 19 March 2018 15: 35
            +2
            He did not want to admit, but de facto created Estonia.
            Estonians refused to go with Yudenich to Petrograd.
            Therefore, his attack on Petrograd was rather courageous symbolic
            with a gesture - with its relatively small forces, a large city was not to be taken.
            Only Denikin had a real military chance to win, taking Moscow.
            But ... again. Many good officers, few good soldiers. sad .
            1. saigon
              saigon 19 March 2018 18: 48
              0
              That's interesting in the south of the officers there are not many soldiers. And Kolchak has soldiers, but the tension is strange with the officers.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 19 March 2018 19: 27
                +2
                It’s better to keep silent about Kolchak, let’s not talk about sad things.
                All Siberia was cool towards the Bolsheviks. And the workers,
                and peasants. The Socialist-Revolutionaries reigned. The Mensheviks were popular.
                Live for yourself and rule ... No, he managed to offend everyone, set everyone against himself.
                Presumptuousness and complete zero in the ground command.
                As a result, Trotsky threw the Latvians, hired the unemployed Chinese and captured Hungarians. And several trained battalions of this "Red International" smashed Kolchok's best regiments to smithereens.
              2. Gopnik
                Gopnik 19 March 2018 20: 57
                +1
                Nothing strange if you think about it
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 44
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          But the White Guards of the South of Russia lost. They had officers
          many, but there were no soldiers. Or there were soldiers with low motivation for war.

          And this is confirmation that the white army was not fighting for the interests of the Russian people.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 19 March 2018 22: 38
            +2
            Like the Red Army. The Russian people were tired of the 4-year war and wanted to calmly plow the land. But fanatics, Chekists did not. The extermination of the old elites began. Those, of course, did not want to be exterminated and began armed resistance. But, unlike the Bolshevik demagogues, they did not have a coherent program. And they lost.
            1. Crane operator Nahamkinson
              Crane operator Nahamkinson 19 March 2018 22: 52
              +2
              Yes, the Russian people were tired and did not want to fight.
              But some
              (your %%%%%%)
              fiery revolutionaries.
              (I don’t think it’s worth listing all these Yaks, Naumas and other mattes.
              Everyone already knows them).
              thought differently.
              And unleashed a bloody
              civil war.
              And they continued the bloody bacchanalia until the age of 30.
              Thanks to STALIN !!!!
              What destroyed rabid dogs.
              Yes, not everyone can be seen ....
            2. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 23: 46
              +1
              Quote: voyaka uh
              The Russian people were tired of the 4-year war and wanted to calmly plow the land. But fanatics, Chekists did not. The extermination of the old elites began.

              You have turned everything upside down. And what about the KGB? The communists distributed the land to the peasants, plow as much as you like, but in most areas came the whites, the land was taken, the peasants were flogged for the division of land. Then the reds returned, drove the whites away and again handed out the land.
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 19 March 2018 10: 24
      +6
      Welcome hi
      Quote: parusnik
      . The idea of ​​a single and indivisible few people worried ...

      Glory to the Russian liberals and socialists, for a couple of years they have corrupted everything that is possible, including officer honor!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 19 March 2018 12: 52
        +6
        But the joke itself was that somehow the Transcaucasian peoples, and their locals, didn’t really strive for the empire .. Denikin, he fought with the White Georgians, liberals and cadets versus Georgian socialists ... Mensheviks ... And when together February was done ... they were organizing power .. But as one song says: Our roads parted and we won’t meet by chance ... The Reds later sorted it out with them when their hands reached ... the same with the other nationalist separatists .. I had to wait with the Balts .. But nevertheless ... The North-West ruler Russia GUSTs (Yudenich) .. Could not start campaign against Red Petrograd until it recognized the independence of the Baltic states ... Kolchak, was very angry on this occasion ...
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 19 March 2018 16: 31
          +2
          So, former Soviet officers served the party and the government together, and then fought in their national armies against their colleagues. Remember, go, Dudaev, Maskhadov, etc.?
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 19 March 2018 18: 41
            +4
            So what ? History repeated itself .. What happened during the civil years, a lot happened after the collapse of the USSR ... the same separatism, nationalism, nobody collected the Union with only one amendment, and because of the small-town separatism approved by the Russian leadership, take sovereignty as much as you want. ..a little Russia did not fall apart ...
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 19 March 2018 21: 00
              +1
              So no one collected Russia. They collected a new state education of the USSR, which collapsed with success, because It was roughly stitched.
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 19 March 2018 19: 52
          0
          Quote: parusnik
          But the joke itself is that somehow the Transcaucasian peoples, and even their locals, did not really seek the empire .. Denikin,

          The fact is that it was not the peoples themselves who aspired to the empire or the Union, but the local elites and the bourgeoisie who wanted to protect their product market from the center by independence, so that they would not be prevented from earning their income. There was no need to protect the working people market, and therefore, as soon as the workers took power in the field, they immediately united in a single Union.
  5. Seamaster
    Seamaster 19 March 2018 11: 58
    +9
    An article based on the materials of the white press of the 20s. Part of the comments is from fans of the White Knights.
    1. Stoopet millions of red against a handful of "knights". Yes, there was no Red Army! This is March 1918. There was a decree on creation, but no army.
    2. There were crowds of armed hard workers, nonresident peasants, soldiers, Cossacks. Where did these 60 and more than thousands come from?
    3. Where does the 2 echelon of armed warlords come from if the fleet base is Sevastopol?
    4. Where did the millions of shells and ammunition come from in Yekaterinodar? And why then were they not in Novocherkassk?
    5. He writes that they shot at white from all the farms and villages. Why's that? And you read the memoirs of Denikin - you will understand. Himself horrified by the brutality of his colleagues: they hung and robbed in their path, and robbed ALL.
    6. Excellent shooting artillery reds. Like this? After all, all the officers marched in the ranks of the "bakers"? But to organize the supply, organization and shooting of artillery - this is not for you to eat Lobio.
    7. Well, and the fighting spirit of the "knights." They knocked down the red "lion with the head of a ram" (the definition of generals - colleagues Kornilov) and the white army stupidly fled. Can you imagine? During the day, all these divisions, regiments, divisions simply EVAPORATED. Like evil spirits at dawn. Once upon a time. Like a scared punks from the gateway.
    In the morning the Reds stood up to attack, but there is NO Enemy. Only mountains of grass and ammunition wallow.
    They fled to Paris to write memoirs: "Now, if there were, so we would be ...."
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 19 March 2018 13: 33
      +5
      smile Along the way, you have big gaps in the history of Russia!
      Quote: Seamaster
      2. There were crowds of armed hard workers, nonresident peasants, soldiers, Cossacks. Where did these 60 and more than thousands come from?

      Units of the former Transcaucasian Front flocked to the Kuban, in Trobzon, the RVS put on ships only those who enlisted the Red Army and sent straight to Novorossiysk, and the rest five! Naturally, there were many more people who wanted to board the ship than those who wanted to go on foot!
      Quote: Seamaster
      3. Where does the 2 echelon of armed warlords come from if the fleet base is Sevastopol?

      My friend, at that moment the brave Black Sea people for the most part did not serve on the ships anymore, wound along the Don and Kuban steppes.
      Quote: Seamaster
      4. Where did the millions of shells and ammunition come from in Yekaterinodar? And why then were they not in Novocherkassk?

      Because, Yekaterinodar, unlike Novocherkassk, was the transshipment base of the Transcaucasian Front.
      Quote: Seamaster
      Himself horrified by the brutality of his colleagues: they hung and robbed in their path, and robbed ALL.

      Strange, Denikin writes that volunteers paid money for fodder and food ...
      Quote: Seamaster
      6. Excellent shooting artillery reds. Like this? After all, all the officers marched in the ranks of the "bakers"? But to organize the supply, organization and shooting of artillery - this is not for you to eat Lobio.

      laughing so in the ranks of the Red Army not only Vanka was illiterate
      Quote: Seamaster
      In the morning the Reds stood up to attack, but there is NO Enemy. Only mountains of grass and ammunition wallow.

      what can you give more details where and when was it?
      1. saigon
        saigon 19 March 2018 18: 51
        +1
        So at the front of the shell hunger! Where did the Reds come from, or did the logistics of the ray work for them?
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 19 March 2018 21: 00
          +1
          Shell hunger for several years now ended
          1. saigon
            saigon 20 March 2018 18: 01
            +1
            It seems like we’ve been discussing the year 18, and in your opinion, shell hunger for several years ended.
            Can you specify in which year it ended, probably if the years are not how much somewhere 14-15 years?
        2. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 20 March 2018 15: 41
          +1
          Quote: saigon
          or their logistics worked


          Quite possible. There were no shells in the 1st MV because “invisible hands were in charge of the artillery supply”, as a result of which shells sent from the warehouse to the front, instead of the front, fell to another warehouse. Roughly the same thing happened with rifles, cartridges, etc.
      2. Seamaster
        Seamaster 20 March 2018 10: 52
        +1
        1. About RVS in Trabzon in February-March 1918 - in more detail, pzhlst.
        2. About sailors in the steppes of Stavropol in March 1918 - in more detail, pzhlst. Since 1919 did not confuse?
        3. Yekaterinodar - the transshipment base of the Caucasus Front? You have not confused with the Keihin complex (Tokyo-Yokohama)? What kind of transshipment base is 1000 km from the front?
        4. Money? Where, Zin? Starting the Ice Campaign, white begged for funds from Novocherkassk and Rostov Pinocchio. Not allowed.
        5. As for the artillery of red and white. I remind you that there has never been a RED ARMY !!!!!. And the participants of the Ice Camp are almost the only officers.
        6. They fled the night after the death of Kornilov. You see, I have lived all my life in Krasnodar, and I visited the museum and libraries. And near the monument at the site of the death of Kornilov (even before the war was set) I drive almost every day.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 20 March 2018 13: 12
          +2
          Quote: Seamaster
          I, you see, lived in Krasnodar all my life

          Wow! Those. you probably know in principle that the Black Sea Group of the Caucasian Front was supplied with sea from Novorossiysk? And you probably know that, in those days, the port of Novorossiysk was sharpened for the export of grain and storage facilities, except for elevators, almost had?
          Quote: Seamaster
          the participants of the Ice Camp are almost the only officers.

          These officers, generals, the Emperor, Kerensky, Lenin, Sverdlov, Trotsky, Stalin, Mironov, Tukhachevsky, Zhukov, Beria, Khrushchev, Andropov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Putin - this is all the story of my country, my people! The time had come to leave the tsar and the king had left, just as the white had left, the red ones behind them, just like the liberals had gone, tearing his hair out, blaming someone was pointless! Our main task is to soberly, without emotions, evaluate this story and not repeat the mistakes of our ancestors !!!!
          1. saigon
            saigon 20 March 2018 18: 03
            +1
            But the liberals have not yet left unfortunately.
        2. Cheburator
          Cheburator 22 March 2018 16: 42
          +15
          As for the artillery of red and white. I remind you that there has never been a RED ARMY !!!!!. And the participants of the Ice Camp are almost the only officers.

          The artillery units of the old army are better preserved than others.
          The same ghoul novel recalled how volunteers took a red battery that fought to the last and was led by officers.
  6. Laurus
    Laurus 19 March 2018 12: 57
    +8
    Quote: Seamaster
    An article based on the materials of the white press of the 20s. Part of the comments is from fans of the White Knights.
    1. Stoopet millions of red against a handful of "knights". Yes, there was no Red Army! This is March 1918. There was a decree on creation, but no army.
    2. There were crowds of armed hard workers, nonresident peasants, soldiers, Cossacks. Where did these 60 and more than thousands come from?
    3. Where does the 2 echelon of armed warlords come from if the fleet base is Sevastopol?
    4. Where did the millions of shells and ammunition come from in Yekaterinodar? And why then were they not in Novocherkassk?
    5. He writes that they shot at white from all the farms and villages. Why's that? And you read the memoirs of Denikin - you will understand. Himself horrified by the brutality of his colleagues: they hung and robbed in their path, and robbed ALL.
    6. Excellent shooting artillery reds. Like this? After all, all the officers marched in the ranks of the "bakers"? But to organize the supply, organization and shooting of artillery - this is not for you to eat Lobio.
    7. Well, and the fighting spirit of the "knights." They knocked down the red "lion with the head of a ram" (the definition of generals - colleagues Kornilov) and the white army stupidly fled. Can you imagine? During the day, all these divisions, regiments, divisions simply EVAPORATED. Like evil spirits at dawn. Once upon a time. Like a scared punks from the gateway.
    In the morning the Reds stood up to attack, but there is NO Enemy. Only mountains of grass and ammunition wallow.
    They fled to Paris to write memoirs: "Now, if there were, so we would be ...."

    It’s a pity you can’t "like" about ten times. Very briefly and very accurately everything is formulated, I applaud while standing.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 19 March 2018 15: 52
    +2
    Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
    Quote: Vasily50
    About seven million people emigrated. At the same time, they emigrated to China and Afghanistan, and to Turkey and to the Balkans and to America and to the southern and northern, it’s only those who were able to register as emigrants,


    Can you name the source of these amazing revelations?

    Now it’s hard to remember the author of this myth
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist 19 March 2018 17: 22
    +2
    In fact, Comrade Corsair below correctly said: "the forces were not equal." And L. Kornilov forgot army science: before starting a battle it is advisable to know the size of the enemy and who his commander is.
    Now it’s easy for us to talk about Kornilov’s mistakes: he didn’t find out exactly what the number was, he didn’t prepare for the assault, etc. But in principle, he could succeed, but a coincidence.
    Now I looked at Vika, who commanded the Reds: Avtonomov, from a respected Cossack family, coronet, about a lieutenant. Subsequently, he was bitten by the local revolutionary committees and Trotsky, removed from command of the army (he was replaced by General Snesarev), and on the recommendation of Ordzhonikidze, he was appointed commander of the army, but they did not want him to command them. He was the commander of an armored train, then died of typhoid in 1919.
    Sorokin, a native of the village of Pavlovsky in the Kuban region, military assistant, was awarded 2 St. George Crosses for his courage, was beloved by the Red Army for his dashing. He was also bogged down with the local Central Election Commission and their brand .. He was killed under not very clear circumstances.
    The storm of Yekaterinodar in 1918 is well written by the Firstborn "Over the Kuban"
    1. saigon
      saigon 19 March 2018 18: 58
      +3
      That's how the red coronets and the felsher command the number, and the white ones have generals, colonels and other officer ranks. And the Reds and the shells and the ammunition did not measure, the defense of the organized unit was pulled to the rescue, and the White’s generals, yes the colonels, and the captains, lieutenants, had forgotten the masses only.
      That's the number.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 March 2018 20: 41
        0
        There are definitely more people.
        Bread organized by food service. This topic has already been closely discussed.
      2. Snoop
        Snoop 31 March 2018 17: 57
        0
        At first, yes, and so many former generals with colonels, all of whom were barons and backgrounds, served in the Red Army. The composition of the leadership of the Revolutionary Military Council, in addition to the Bolsheviks themselves, included two former tsarist colonels: II Vatsetsis. and Kamenev S.S., one Admiral Altfater V. The field headquarters of the Red Army were headed by former tsarist generals, their excellencies N.I. Rattel, F.V. Kostyaev, M.D. Bonch-Bruevich and P.P. Lebedev.
        We go further on the list, and from the gold miners in our eyes will charge. The assistant to the Chief of the Field Headquarters was the former General G. Khvoshchinsky, the heads of the departments were the former generals Mikhailov V.I., Zagyu M.M., the heads of the departments were the former generals Afanasyev V.A., Volkov S.M., Myslitsky N.G. ., Savchenko S.N., Ushakov K.M., the former general Peterson was among the assistant department heads, and the generals Neznamov and Segerkranz among the department heads. The Procurement Inspector under the Head of the Field Headquarters was former General N. Suleiman. This, not counting the number of officers who served there, with ranks in the imperial army below the general's.
        Interestingly, such generals served for reasons of principle. Since at the hands of whites except General A.A. Taube, A.V. Pali Stankevich, A.P. Nikolaev, A.V. Sobolev. It is known that A.V. Stankevich, who voluntarily joined the Red Army in 1918 and commanded the 55th Infantry Division there because of the treachery of the chief of staff of this division, former General A.A. Lauritsa was captured by the White Guards and categorically refused the offer to switch to their side. Therefore, A.V. Stankevich was hanged by them, but then in 1919, by order of the Revolutionary Military Council, he was reburied in Red Square. In 1920, he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
        A similar fate awaited the former General A.V.Sobolev, who commanded the 7th Infantry Division and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner in 1919. In February of the following, 1920, he was also captured by the whites and, refusing to go to their service, was shot. Another former Major General A.P. Nikolayev, who commanded the brigade, was captured by the whites in May 1919, and they were executed by them for refusing to go to their service. In 1920, he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Red Banner.