Military Review

How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part one

48
The problem of identifying their own and others on the battlefield has always been very serious. At the beginning of the “epoch of chain mail” in Europe, for example, people came out onto the battlefields, dressed in gray-red armor from head to toe, almost all of them were the same, and how could anyone recognize this mass? In the battle of Hastings in 1066, William Bastard (known as William the Conqueror) had to take off his helmet so that the warriors could recognize him, and Count Eustace pointed his hand at him and loudly shouted: "William is here!"


How to fix on samurai sashimono? Part one

"Red Devils Yee" - a frame from the movie "The Battle of Samurai" (1990).

That is why shortly after that, the knights appeared coats of arms, and after them a whole science - heraldry, which can rightly be called "shorthand stories". She served primarily the needs of military affairs and why this is understandable. And in Japan, heraldry was even more widely spread than in Europe. Indeed, for centuries, Japan was a military community, the civil war lasted for five centuries there, and it is hardly surprising that the Japanese learned to distinguish their troops from the enemy by the symbols they know. Even more important than in Europe, in Japan was the individual personification. After all, the samurai was awarded for ... the heads of his enemies cut off. And the nature of the award, and its size entirely depended on the identification of a particular head (unknown heads were not particularly needed by anyone), and on the rank of the one who got it. It was also necessary to confirm from eyewitnesses who could witness the feat of the person representing the head. And in all these cases it was simply impossible to do without identification marks.


Jimbaori is a “daimyo jacket” (or “battle coat”), which was taken to be worn in a combat situation. It belonged to Kabayakawa Hideake (1582 - 1602), the famous "traitor from Mount Matsuo." Front view. (Tokyo National Museum)


The same jinbaori. Back view. The embroidered coat of arms is clearly visible - Kabayakawa mon - two crossed sickles. (Tokyo National Museum)

Heraldic signs were used to gather troops on the battlefield. And also for giving signals. Another thing is that the Japanese, unlike the Europeans, have never kissed their banners and did not swear at them. That is, they were not a shrine in the Middle Ages. The thing is important, but purely utilitarian, like horse-stirrups, they thought. They could even be thrown over the wall of the stormed castle, that is, in essence, given to the enemy. They say that our flag is already there, we climb behind it and bravely cut heads!


Jinbaori clan Kimura. Front view. (Tokyo National Museum)


Back view.

Recall that at the heart of Japanese heraldry lay Mon - a very simple but elegant sign, which was visually remembered much easier than the colorful, but complex European emblems. Monks were usually drawn in black on a white background. Any other color solution was not forbidden, but ... these two colors were the main ones. Mones were depicted on samurai banners (though not always), on their weapon, saddles and clothing.


Just richly embroidered jinbaori. (Tokyo National Museum)


Plain kimono with coats of arms. Belonged to the legendary hero of the Japanese "perestroika" Sakamoto Ryoma.

It should be noted, however, that the famous Jinbaori - sleeveless jackets that noble samurai wore over their armor, monks were depicted, but ... not always. It also happened that they were sewn from brocade or were rich in embroidery, but they did not carry any official stamps on themselves.


"Red Demons" - the warriors of the clan Yi in the battle of Sekigahara. Fragment of a painted screen. As you can see, there were a lot of flags in the samurai army. Both big and very small. And if in the West, knights in battle were distinguished primarily by the emblems on shields, by embroidered horse blankets and pennants, in Japan identification was carried out by flags.

Interestingly, the first battle flags of the era of the first emperors, which they presented to their commanders, were sheets of yellow brocade. It is known that the imperial mon - 16-petal chrysanthemum, was already known in the period of Nara 710 - 784. That is, long before the appearance of the first emblems in Europe.


Mon Tokugawa


Mon sort Hojo


Mon with the image of pavlonia on o-soda - the shoulder pad of Japanese armor. Belonged to the Ashikaga clan.

A characteristic feature of the Middle Ages was its cronyism. However, the clans in Japan meant more than again in Europe. Here a person dissolved in his clan, in Europe - he simply belonged to a certain clan, to a family, but no more than that. Clashes between clans took place everywhere, but it was in Japan that they led to the rise of the samurai class itself and the establishment of the shogunate Minatomo, the first military government in the country's history that resulted from the long rivalry between two clans - Minamoto and Tyra.


Modern Japanese with the flag of Hata-Jirushi

By this time, the early form of the Japanese military flag hut jirushi was formed - it was a vertically long and narrow panel attached to a horizontal crossbar on a pole in its upper part. Taira had red flags, Minamoto had white. In Tyra they depicted a black butterfly, in Minamoto - the Rindo badge - “gentian flower”. But a simple white cloth was also used without any images.


Samurai under the flag of Sashimono with the image of a Buddhist bell. (Museum of the city of Sendai)

Then fashionable ... hieroglyphic texts on white panels. For example, in Asuke Jiro, an active participant in the Nambokutyo war (the Northern and Southern Courtyards), his autobiography was written on the banner, which the samurai traditionally read before challenging the enemy to a duel. The whole inscription can be translated as: “I was born in a family of warriors and loved courage, like the young men of bygone days. My strength and determination are such that I can chop a ferocious tiger into pieces. I studied the path of the bow and learned all the wisdom of war. Thanks to the grace of heaven, I met on the battlefield with the most famous rivals. At the age of 31, despite the attack of fever, I arrived in Oyama to pursue an important enemy, fulfilling the duty of loyalty to my master and not staining myself with shame. My glory will thunder all over the world and go to my descendants, like a beautiful flower. The enemies will take off their armor and become my servants, the great sword master. Hatiman Dai Bosatsu’s will! Yours sincerely, Asuke Jiro from Mikawa Province. ”
Modest man, do not say anything!

However, it is precisely this type of identification that has proven ineffective. From the middle of the 15th century, a growing number of samurai began to fight not with a bow and arrow, but with a spear, and the ashigara infantry began to play the role of archers.

The samurai themselves began to dismount more and more often, and how in the midst of the battle was to find out who was his own and who was a stranger, if everyone wore about the same and very colorful armor. There were small flags that began to mount directly on the armor. These were the sode-jirushi - “shoulder badge” —a piece of cloth or even paper that was worn on the plates of the sode that protected the shoulders. Kasa-jizushi - “badge on the helmet”, which looked like a small flag repeating the pattern on the mind-jirushi. At the same time, kasa-jirushi could be mounted on the helmet both in front and behind. These signs and samurai servants wore vakato, so that in all this you can see the first steps towards the creation of a military uniform.


Storm by the troops of the shogun of the castle of Hara.

From the middle of the 15th century, when the samurai armies were divided into units with uniform weapons, the role of recognition increased even more. Now, in the army of one daimyu, units of ashigaru with bows, muskets, long spears, as well as detachments of foot samurai with naginat and horse with long spears could act. All these divisions needed to be effectively managed, they sent messengers to them, who also needed to be quickly identified. Therefore, the number of people wearing flags in the armies of the samurai has increased dramatically. In addition, the old khata-jirushi, whose cloths were often twisted by wind and entangled, which made it inconvenient to view them, replaced the new nobori flags - with L-shaped shafts, on which the cloth was stretched between the shaft and the vertical crossbar.


This picture shows the heraldic insignia adopted by the army of Arima Toyouji (1570 - 1642), who participated in many battles on the side of the Tokugawa clan. 1 - double ashigaru sashimono, white with a black badge, 2 - golden rays sign "sunshine" - belonged to the Arima messengers, 3 - samimonos wore a golden crescent in the form of a golden crescent gold trefoil, 4 - o-crazy jirushi (“big standard”), 5 - nobori with monom Arima Toyouji. Drawing from S. Turnbull's book “Symbolism of Japanese Samurai”, M .: AST: Astrel, 6.

There is a very difficult identification system for a European, according to which the signs are to the ashigaru, others are samurai, the third are messengers, and the headquarters and commanders have a special designation. Nobori usually served to identify individual units within the samurai army, but also simply to show strength.

Thus, in the army of Uesugi Kensina in 1575, there were 6871 people, of whom 6200 were foot soldiers. In turn, out of this number, 402 people wore flags, and there were more of them than arquebusiers!

To be continued ...
Author:
48 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 24 March 2018 05: 53
    +8
    In the 70s, the full-length documentary film "Japan in the Wars" was broadcast on television, not as colorful as the samurai robes in the article, but very amazing. Of course, there were inserts from feature films about ancient times, but it looked with great interest!
    1. Cat
      Cat 24 March 2018 08: 09
      +4
      Thanks for the "basting" on the film, you have to look!
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 24 March 2018 05: 57
    +3
    "That's all you have at the parade! No, in our opinion, in a simple way .." (c) lol
    1. Cat
      Cat 24 March 2018 08: 16
      +6
      Alas, with us (in our history) it was also far from easy with the system of identification and recognition of “friends” and “strangers”!
      So the banners of Russian knights, streltsy regiments are a very, very interesting topic. By the way, how to distinguish the Kasimovskys on the battlefield of the Kasimov Tatars of Ivan III and the Tatars of Kazan?
      1. Cat
        Cat 24 March 2018 14: 26
        +2
        One of the oldest banners of the Moscow state!
        In the scientific community, it is believed that Ivan the Terrible took Kazan under him.

        One of the first personal standards of Peter I.

        Both banners were attached to the “G” -shaped bars!
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 24 March 2018 07: 45
    +19
    The heraldic differences of the clans are certainly interesting
    Japan in all its glory
    1. Cat
      Cat 24 March 2018 08: 08
      +5
      Vyacheslav Olegovich thank you very much for the article, we look forward to continuing!
      1. kalibr
        24 March 2018 08: 36
        +6
        There will be two more materials for you. Lucky: the Japanese began a series of articles in the journal about this. Well, it’s a matter of technology - to scan, translate something (that’s a headache!) And write in understandable human language, and not so - "a little wand is inserted into a big one ...". I have long wanted to write about this and wrote in the book Samurai, but without the details that will be here. As they say little things - but nice. But on the other hand I climbed around the funds of the Tokyo National Museum in plenty ... So there are only a lot ... It was very interesting.
        1. XII Legion
          XII Legion 24 March 2018 09: 15
          +19
          Thank you in advance!
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 24 March 2018 09: 17
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          .Very interesting.

          Very interesting, thanks. The Scots also have a rather complicated system of identification by the colors of tartans and the colors of additional threads
  4. tanit
    tanit 24 March 2018 09: 22
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, but about the "sweeping" of Japan from all sorts of different non-Yamato will it be?
    1. kalibr
      24 March 2018 13: 52
      +1
      Do you mean the war with the Ainu?
      1. tanit
        tanit 26 March 2018 17: 19
        0
        There were not only Ainu. Ainu are the last, who at least somehow survived?
  5. Luga
    Luga 24 March 2018 11: 26
    +4
    Thanks for the article, interesting.
    In the battle of Hastings in 1066, William Bastard (known as William the Conqueror) had to take off his helmet so that the warriors could recognize him, and Count Eustace pointed his hand at him and loudly shouted: "William is here!"

    All right, and it was probably except for one. William is an English name and it is unlikely that someone from the comrades of William, Duke of Norman, could use it. However, they did not call him William either. For contemporaries, he was Guillaume. So the exclamation of Count Eustace Bouillon, most likely, sounded like this: "Guillaume e la!" smile
    1. kalibr
      24 March 2018 13: 53
      +3
      Yes of course. I just didn’t figure it out. At hand was an English source ...
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 24 March 2018 19: 15
      +1
      It is possible that the phrase was also spoken in Old Norse: "Guillaume Ker!"
      1. kalibr
        24 March 2018 20: 16
        +2
        It’s actually very interesting to ponder this. Ask knowledgeable people. But ... remember promised to find out why the spikes on the tournament spear in the Dresden Armory? Wrote! But ... did not answer !!! He promised to learn about the losses of the Germans ... I wrote to the Bundesarchive ... They answered that the calculation is difficult, that some data is in one place, others in another, that there is no exact data now, that there is a lot of work on your request, therefore, in the category of free he misses. Come and work for yourself - for free. I don’t know German. And it was all over. And now I’ll write to the carpet museum ... in Bayeux ... I will write in English, but the French do not like this language and what will they answer? But in French, through Google - it’s only to make people laugh ... Yes, and politics began to interfere ... It became more difficult to work with "them."
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 24 March 2018 20: 41
          +2
          Viktor Nikolayevich has a friend, a Frenchman, as I understand it, a great lover of medieval history, you can try to ask both to advance, well, as an option. As for the spear, perhaps museum workers themselves do not know how to recall your story with the top of a Sarmatian sword!
          1. kalibr
            24 March 2018 21: 56
            +2
            Perhaps that is so. Anyway, I hope so!
      2. Luga
        Luga 25 March 2018 11: 25
        +1
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        It is possible that the phrase was also spoken in Old Norse: "Guillaume Ker!"

        It's unlikely. smile
        Eustace of Bouillon was not Norman by origin and was not a subject of William (Guillaume smile ), and his ally, so to speak, an equal partner in the enterprise, at least up to 1066, until he already received from him the English king in the land in which England conquered jointly, thus becoming his vassal.
        There, by the way, it was all very difficult. Eustace himself could really claim the English crown and he had even more rights than that of Harold Godwinson or Guillaume Bastard, who disputed this crown to each other. smile
        Interestingly, in short. smile
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 March 2018 23: 55
          +1
          He tried to "squeeze it" in 1067. The right to the crown was, however, very dubious, but in that mess on both sides of La Mánche, it could well have a ride. But "bad luck" ...
          As for the phrase and the episode itself ..... We know about them from two sources, the rest has to be thought out. Let's try?
          Himself "Bastard" was born in a marriage concluded in the Norman rite, hence the nickname. Accordingly, his brothers too. Moreover, such marriages were generally not uncommon among the Normans of all classes. It must be assumed that they were not conducted in Latin at all. Therefore, the native language for these people is Old Norwegian.
          1. Luga
            Luga 26 March 2018 10: 44
            +1
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            The right to the crown was, however, very dubious

            There were no direct heirs of Edward the Confessor; there was no official will. The closest relative is the sister to whom Eustace was married, i.e. Eustace's children are the grandsons of Edward. Quite a right, what is called "by right of wife", was such a formulation in English inheritance law, was and was even used ... Yes, and in France, the law did not impose a law yet. Another thing is that the "right of the strong" is the most right, as it was left. smile
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            The "Bastard" himself was born married under the Norman rite

            And here you are right.
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Consequently, the native language for these people is Old Norse.

            But this conclusion, it seems to me, does not follow from. Already Guillaume Long Sword, the son of Robert I (Rolf the Pedestrian) had completely switched to French both in office work and in everyday communication, and more than a hundred years had passed since the landing in England. Some remnants of Old Norse could remain in the language, including, even in the first place, in commands and combat orders (well, in curses, of course smile ), but mostly Norman grandees communicated in French. But it is not even so important.
            The fact is that Eustace of Bouillon had nothing to do with the Norman nobility. The Counts of Flanders are descended from the 9th century, from the time of Charlemagne, so there are variants of the language in which Eustace could speak (or, more likely, Eustach or even Eustach smile ), not very rich smile
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Let's try?

            I understand that the issue under discussion has no significant significance for history, and the fact that no one can bring irrefutable arguments to one side or the other. But this is really interesting: to imagine how it was - the Senlak hill, the phalanx of the xuskarls of Harald (probably, after all, Harald smile Guillaume le Betar, knocked off his horse, forced to remove his helmet in a hail of rusting arrows ... Red blood, green grass, blue sky, shiny chain mail and helmets, swords of knights, axes of huskarls, horns, hisses, tramp the horses, the roar of the combatants and the thunderous voice of Count Eustache: "Guillaume e la!" picked up, growing, coming ... Beauty! smile
            It is quite possible that Earl Eustache de Bouillon did not utter this phrase, but simply spoke loudly with bad words about his knights (capons, merds, betards, etc.) and Guillaume himself for stopping into hell instead of to lead the fight, or indeed, to make Guillaume pleasant, shouted something in Old Norse ...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 March 2018 20: 41
              +1
              Thank you so much, Michael !!! I love such games of the mind! The flip side of futurology! My comment was twice as much, but somehow I “yawned” and half went on the air. By the way, why Estash, where does the Magyar-Portuguese accent come from?
              1. Luga
                Luga 27 March 2018 10: 46
                0
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                By the way, why “Eustache”, where does the Magyaro-Portuguese accent come from?

                Eustache is written in French, and in Russian letters it is difficult to transmit French phonetics smile There is probably something in between “e” and “o”, it seemed to me, “e” is a bit closer.
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Like the mind games!

                It is really fascinating and interesting, if sufficiently familiar with the subject. The Battle of Hastings is one of the most famous and well-developed events in history, so it’s easier with it. smile
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 27 March 2018 21: 11
                  +1
                  It is clear: Eustace - Eustache - Eustachius - Ostap.
                  1. Luga
                    Luga 27 March 2018 22: 51
                    +2
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    It is clear: Eustace - Eustache - Eustachius - Ostap.

                    Osip - Joseph smile
  6. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 24 March 2018 11: 29
    +3
    There are good films about the armies of the samurai and how they led their warriors, in addition to the famous "Run" and "Seven Samurai": "Heaven and Earth", "Banners of the Samurai" (a feature film of the 60s and a modern series based on) Ten Heroes of Sanada, Shadow of the Lord, Shogun Maeda, Battle of the Samurai, 47 Ronin, Owl Castle, Floating Castle, Yamada: Nagasama Samurai, etc. Look here: http://history-films-online.ru/filmy-istoricheski
    eo-samurayah /
    1. Cat
      Cat 24 March 2018 14: 17
      +2
      Thank you! hi
      And then, in addition to Japanese classics and 47 ronin, I did not bother to look at anything.
      1. Monster_Fat
        Monster_Fat 24 March 2018 14: 35
        +1
        Please, this site with historical films is just great. I advise you to install the Browsec extension (absolutely free) on your browser to bypass all kinds of viewing restrictions.
      2. kalibr
        24 March 2018 16: 15
        +2
        Watch the Shogun series - it's worth it!
        1. Monster_Fat
          Monster_Fat 24 March 2018 16: 16
          +2
          I agree, the series is excellent, like the book.
          1. Cat
            Cat 24 March 2018 17: 18
            +3
            At one time, bothered to read the book "Shogun." I watched the film in fits and starts when the latter went on TV. The general impression is that the book is an order of magnitude stronger than the film.
            1. Monster_Fat
              Monster_Fat 24 March 2018 18: 43
              +3
              You know, books are always “better” than screen versions, because reading takes a long period of time, it’s much more than watching a movie and in the process of reading, the reader seems to think of what is happening on the pages of the book, as if he passes what is happening on the pages through his vision of the situation (there’s time), but in watching the movie you still pay more attention to what the director picks you up. Therefore, only the ingenious creations of directors are truly deposited in memory. IMHO of course.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 24 March 2018 20: 47
                +4
                “And trees grow on stones” is a magnificent film with a rather mediocre source “Kuksha from the Domovich family”.
                1. Cat
                  Cat 24 March 2018 21: 22
                  +4
                  Straight from the language removed!
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 24 March 2018 21: 43
                    +2
                    Yes, there are many examples, Gone With the Wind, Pride and Prejudice ...
                    1. kalibr
                      24 March 2018 21: 52
                      +2
                      "Pride and Prejudice" is an English series and an American. The latter is not worth watching, but English is accurate to the smallest detail. In fact, the British made a lot of great series: “With swallows at Kendelford,” “Downton Abbey,” “House of the Elliot Sisters,” “Tom Jones Foundling's Story,” “Vanity Fair,” “Lady's Happiness,” mostly Air Force and very high quality and without vulgarity. From the NF - "Leks". And among American TV shows, I like “Perry Mason” and “Perry Mason Returns” and the series about Niro Wolfe.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 March 2018 22: 07
                        +2
                        I'm talking about the one in which Colin Firth played. In general, the British "costume" dramas are very good, in particular, for their meticulous "costume".
                    2. Cat
                      Cat 24 March 2018 21: 57
                      +4
                      Dear Anton! Here I can bet. The book "Gone with the Wind" is strong and in no way inferior to the "film".
                      The same situation with the book of Leo Tolstoy and with our film "War and Peace"! In a word, a movie is worth a book and vice versa.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 March 2018 22: 48
                        +2
                        Sorry, Vladislav, as for me - a ladies' novel, such as "Jane Eyer." The fact that the events of the novel take place against the backdrop of a national drama does not make it a more epoch-making work. Tolstoy, again, in my opinion, is more appropriate to compare with Dreiser.
                        And of all American novelists, I like Irwin Shaw more.
                2. kalibr
                  24 March 2018 21: 55
                  +2
                  Yes, I reviewed it twice and each time noted that it was done well. Of course, it’s amazing how they set fire to the ship with a pot of resin ... I would have thought more interestingly how it was arranged, but ... okay ...
            2. kalibr
              24 March 2018 20: 18
              +2
              I don’t know what kind of translation you had. I have a bad one! There Blacksorn walked in a codpiece and in a coat! I liked the movie more than a book ...
              1. Cat
                Cat 24 March 2018 21: 25
                +2
                Unfortunately, I don’t know whose translation. But definitely there were no cartoons with a coat. In the afterword there was a good dictionary, to which I often turned.
  7. Curious
    Curious 24 March 2018 15: 39
    +3
    "It is known that the imperial mon - 16-petal chrysanthemum, was known already in the Nara period 710 - 784 years. That is, long before the appearance of the first emblems in Europe."
    The thesis misleading the reader because of its incomprehensible interpretation. Yes, the chrysanthemum has been known since the Nara period, but this is nothing more than a fabric color pattern - chrysanthemum, wisteria, paulonia, peony, “seven stars” and “nine stars” patterns, as well as a number of others. It is impossible to establish the exact time of their appearance, but it is known for certain that already during the second half of the Heian period, many patterns were used by certain aristocratic houses. Functionally, this made them close to the first family emblems, a camon, although in reality they were not yet them.
    According to the International Heraldry L.Zh. Payna, the earliest record of the use of “mon” dates back to 1156, when two fighting clans inscribed them on their banners. By the end of the next century, the location of the mon was strictly determined - it was depicted on the sleeves, back and twice - on the chest. Later, their location was changed - once he was portrayed on his back under the collar and once on the sleeves.
    Those. the appearance of the European Coats of Arms and Japanese "Kamon" occurred at about the same time.
    As for the 16-petal chrysanthemum, starting from the Kamakura period, it has been used as the imperial seal. As such, it was first used by the emperor Go-Toba. But she became a monk of the imperial house only in 1869.
    1. kalibr
      24 March 2018 16: 17
      +3
      Some of this was supposed to be in 3 parts, where it will be about the monk. But thanks anyway, an interesting addition.
  8. Curious
    Curious 24 March 2018 16: 29
    +3
    "After all, the samurai was awarded for ... the heads of the enemies cut off by him. Both the nature of the award and its size depended entirely on the identification of this or that head (unknown heads were not especially needed by anyone), and on the rank of the one who got it. "We also needed confirmation from eyewitnesses who could testify to the feat of the person who represents the head."
    I wonder where it comes from? I imagined how, after the battle at the shogun’s headquarters, crowds of winners wander around, dragging bags of heads on themselves and accompanied by a dozen witnesses of valiant gaze.
    In fact, they awarded the samurai for completely different valor.
    "You may be surprised by the fact that my successful journey to the pinnacle of leadership was built on the basic concepts of loyalty, gratitude, hard work and determination in action." These are the words of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
  9. kalibr
    24 March 2018 20: 20
    +3
    Quote: Curious
    I imagined how, after the battle at the shogun’s headquarters, crowds of winners wander around, dragging bags of heads on themselves and accompanied by a dozen witnesses of valiant gaze.

    That is exactly what happened. There are illustrations where it is depicted, descriptions of the ceremony and who and how were awarded for it. And at the scene of the battle of Sekigahar there is a place where Ieyasu was just examining the heads ...
    1. Curious
      Curious 25 March 2018 00: 55
      0
      Yes, I, obviously, did not articulate the idea clearly enough. I wanted to say that cutting off the head is not the primary goal, but only proving the virtues of the samurai, for which they are awarded and which allowed the enemy to be defeated. Honorary military trophy.
      By the way, the custom of cutting off the head of an enemy is by no means a monopoly of the Japanese. Circassians until the mid-XNUMXth century cut their heads.