Military Review

"Great Romania" want to build at the expense of Ukraine

In Romania, they do not lose hope to return those lands that belonged to the country before the Second World War. We are talking about the territories that became part of the Soviet Union in 1940 in connection with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Once again, the need for a parliamentary procedure for the abolition of the results of the pact was declared by the former Romanian President Traian Basescu. He headed Romania for ten years, from 2004 to 2014, and became widely known as a Pan-Romanian, a supporter of the creation of “Greater Romania” by combining “originally Romanian” lands, to which he includes not only modern Romania, but Moldova as well the territory of Ukraine.

The idea of ​​"Great Romania" was widely spread in the country in the first half of the twentieth century, which was due to the need to compensate for the offended sense of national pride. Romanian nationalists have always felt their country was wounded, forced to play a third-rate role in European politics. “Iron Legionnaires” Corneliu Codreanu and Marshal Ion Antonescu dreamed of “Great Romania”. At the end of World War I, Romania, acting in alliance with the Entente, acquired Transylvania, formerly part of Austria-Hungary, and the disintegration of the Russian Empire made it possible for Bessarabia to be annexed to Romania in the same 1918, formerly the former Bessarabian province of Russia. The period from 1918 to 1940 was the time when Romania had the maximum territory. The eastern border of Romania with the Soviet Union passed along the Dniester, that is, Romania included Bessarabia (today it is the territory of Moldova and south-western regions of Ukraine) and Northern Bukovina (Chernivtsi region of Ukraine).

"Great Romania" want to build at the expense of Ukraine

In 1939, the Soviet Union, as a result of the entry of Soviet troops into Poland, included Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. After that came the turn of Bessarabia. 26 June 1940 V.M. Molotov handed over to the Romanian ambassador in Moscow, Gheorghe Davideska, demands to return Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union. Initially, Romania tried to “show teeth”: on June 27, the king announced mobilization, but by the evening, soberly assessing the situation, decided to satisfy the demands of the Soviet Union. 28 June 1940 began the entry of Soviet troops into Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, which ended by July 3 1940, when a military parade was held in Chisinau in honor of the return of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.

August 30 1940 by decision of the second Vienna Arbitration, which was initiated by Germany and Italy, Northern Transylvania was transferred from Romania to Hungary, and September 7 by 1940, Romania ceded the South Dobrudja region to Bulgaria. Thus, by the year 1940 Romania lost significant territories, which could not but affect the national identity of the Romanians. Romania’s participation in World War II was largely motivated by the desire of the elite to regain control of the lost territories. And in the east, the Romanian army hoped to conquer all the territories up to the Dniester.

But the defeat of Hitler and his allies put an end to the invasion plans of Romania. The country had to come to terms with the existence of already defined boundaries, although the pan-Romanian sentiments in Bucharest never disappeared, even during the socialist period stories country. Nicolae Ceausescu, a communist orthodox, managed to combine his communist views with Romanian nationalism and, although he could not openly present to the Soviet Union territorial claims on Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, he did not hide his attitude to their entry into the USSR.

The collapse of the Soviet Union inevitably led to a revival of nationalist sentiments in the former Soviet republics and in neighboring states that had certain territorial claims against them. An impressive pro-Romanian lobby was formed in Moldova, where discussions about the possibility of uniting with neighboring Romania, which is linguistically and culturally related to Romania into a single state, have not yet ceased. Although unionist sentiments are not very popular among the Romanian population, they have some support from some of the political elite and business of Moldova.

In principle, there is nothing surprising or bad about Moldovan unionism, since Moldovans and Romanians are close nations with a common history, very close languages, and similar culture. But the Romanian nationalist forces claim not only Moldova to be included in Romania (without Transdniestria or with Transnistria - it depends on the radicality of specific political forces and leaders), but also on the accession of other territories that had been taken away from Romania in favor of the Soviet Union. We are talking about Northern Bukovina, which now forms the Chernivtsi region of Ukraine, and about Southern Bessarabia, which is part of the Odessa region of Ukraine. But, unlike Moldova, in Ukraine such a scenario as the return of the two regions of Romania, of course, does not provide for anyone.

Before the coup d'état that took place in Ukraine in 2014, Romania expressed its thoughts about the return of Southern Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina very carefully, but Maidan, the war in Donbas and the subsequent large-scale political weakening of Ukraine did their job - now in Bucharest they declare the need to revise the borders of the 1940 very active.

Note that Traian Basescu is not a marginal street politician, but a former head of state who headed Romania for ten years and has a large political weight and, accordingly, support among the Romanian elite and among the population. His pan-Romanian positions reflect the point of view of a certain part of the Romanians, who rely on historical revenge and revision of borders. It is worth noting here that in Romania in general they are very sensitive to the issues of national prestige, territorial integrity, the unification of the Romanian nation. To create a united and “great” Romania is an old dream of the Romanian nationalists, which they are not going to give up in the 21st century. Moreover, now a very favorable situation has developed for the implementation of these plans. For this, it is necessary to pursue a pro-Romanian and unionist policy in Moldova, and simply put pressure on Ukraine, using the difficult economic and political situation that Kiev found itself in.

On the other hand, the Ukrainian authorities themselves are digging a hole under their feet. After all, the policy of Ukrainization, which was originally directed against the Russian and Russian-speaking population of Ukraine, also beats up numerous national minorities - Hungarians, Romanians, Bulgarians, Gagauz.

In 2017, the President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko, within the framework of the program of Ukrainization, signed a decree on the termination of teaching in schools in the languages ​​of national minorities - from 2018, all classes should be transferred to Ukrainian from 5 and older, and from 2020, the school translation program The Ukrainian language should complete completely. Meanwhile, in the Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian regions there are schools that teach in Romanian. In Bucharest, they believe that Kiev should not restrict the rights of Romanian children to receive education in their native language. Thus, Kiev itself creates the ground for the deterioration of relations with its closest neighbors - Poland, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria.

Romania, like Hungary, has an iron argument in its territorial claims against Ukraine - the protection of the Romanian population from linguistic, cultural, political discrimination. So far, the most actively criticized Kiev are engaged in Budapest, but Bucharest is on the way. Currently, at least 150 thousands of ethnic Romanians live in Ukraine. The vast majority of Ukrainian Romanians live compactly in rural areas in the southwestern part of Chernivtsi region and southeastern part of Transcarpathia. After Northern Bukovina entered the Soviet Union in 1940 and was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR, the Romanian population retained a certain cultural autonomy here - Romanian was studied in primary and secondary schools, the department of Romanian philology at Chernivtsi University operated, newspapers were published in Romanian language.

In addition to Romanians, there are Moldovans living in Ukraine, whose numbers are even higher - no less than 258 619 people. The Moldovan population lives in rural areas in Odessa, Chernivtsi, Nikolaev and Kirovograd regions. Since the Romanian nationalists do not share the Romanian and Moldovan nations, then, from the point of view of Bucharest, about half a million Romanians and Moldovans live in Ukraine. In addition, the number of “Ukrainianized” Moldovans is considerable, which in Soviet and post-Soviet times, for various reasons, preferred to attribute themselves to Ukrainians, but in the event of a change in the political climate, they may well recall their roots and return to Moldovan or Romanian identity.

Back in 1994, Romania, taking advantage of the collapse of the Soviet Union, passed a law giving the right to Romanian citizenship to all ethnic Romanians and Moldovans. Then another law was passed - “On Repatriation,” according to which residents and descendants of residents of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, who were included in the Soviet Union in 1940, received the right to Romanian citizenship.

Thus, Bucharest hoped to ensure the creeping "Romanization" of the territories of Moldova and Ukraine, which are interesting for him. After all, Romania is a member of the European Union and for a resident of Ukraine, who has proved his Romanian roots and has gained Romanian citizenship, all prospects connected with the citizenship of the European Union are opened. Naturally, ethnic Romanians, especially those living in the Chernivtsi region, rushed to acquire Romanian passports. Currently, at least 100 of thousands of Romanians live in Chernivtsi region - and these are not visitors, but locals who have passed the procedure of obtaining a Romanian passport under the laws "On Citizenship" and "On Repatriation".

In addition to granting citizenship, Romania is taking active steps to "Romanize" the information and cultural space in the Chernivtsi region. Broadcasting of Romanian radio and television, publishing newspapers in Romanian, numerous Romanian language courses, festivals of Romanian culture - all this is not just cultural charity, but components of the targeted policy of the Romanian state. The plans of Bucharest are to ensure the national Romanian revival in Northern Bukovina, which will be one of the most important preparatory stages for the rejection of this region from Ukraine and its inclusion into Romania. The Kiev authorities, pursuing a policy of Ukrainization, did not take this fact into account, which soon caused a clash of interests of Ukraine with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Poland - precisely on the problem of Ukrainization and the position of national minorities in the country.

Southern Bessarabia is a separate topic. Unlike Northern Bukovina, the purely Romanian population here is small, dominated by Bulgarians, Gagauz, Moldovans and Russians. Moreover, a significant part of the Bessarabian Moldovans is Russified and does not correlate with the Romanian nation. This is confirmed by a much smaller number of Romanian citizens in the Odessa region of Ukraine - there are just over a thousand 1 people living there, which is 100 times less than in the Chernivtsi region.

Although all the indigenous inhabitants of Southern Bessarabia, according to the law “On Repatriation”, have the right to obtain Romanian citizenship, the overwhelming majority do not seek to exercise this right. Rather, pro-Russian sentiments prevail in the Odessa region, which makes possible the annexation of the territory of Southern Bessarabia to Romania very problematic and painful. If the Romanians of Bukovina would most likely support this accession, then in the Odessa region it would be met with indignation.

However, Russia, despite its uneasy relations with Ukraine, is hardly worth rejoicing at the growing territorial claims of Romania. To begin with, Romania has a very significant role in the new coordinate system being built by the United States in Eastern Europe. Together with Poland, Romania, as a large and ambitious state, should play the role of striking force in a possible confrontation with Russia. Therefore, the United States and are very condescending to the Romanian territorial claims against Ukraine. Romania for the United States is a more promising and reliable satellite than Ukraine, so if necessary, Washington will easily give the go-ahead for rejection in favor of Romania and Northern Bukovina, and Southern Bessarabia.
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  1. Ravik
    Ravik 16 March 2018 15: 03
    Do not drive the wave ... everything will collapse there soon.
    1. siberalt
      siberalt 16 March 2018 16: 16
      10 years ruled the country and she became the poorest in Europe. And where did Romanian pride disappear? request
      1. Severski
        Severski 16 March 2018 17: 54
        This is not worth saying. All the same, Romanians earn more than Russians.
        1. siberalt
          siberalt 16 March 2018 17: 58
          Earnings one thing, and what they have to spend the other. Google about life in Romania. There are laid out materials not related to "Russian propaganda." winked
          As for the earnings of some Russians, American millionaires are far from them.
          In the meantime, only two Romanians from the Forbes list took the honorable 540th place.
          1. Provocator
            Provocator 16 March 2018 19: 24
            On the whole, the ordinary Romanian people live calmer and more prosperous than the ordinary Russian people. As for the oligarchs, I don’t care about their number
            1. tanit
              tanit 17 March 2018 03: 48
              Only the Russian people, in general, do not wander in search of earnings in other countries. And yes, they live calmer. Until it comes to the fact that they are now also goal number 1, hello ABM.
            2. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 18 March 2018 10: 07
              Until what time? And when will the EU stop subsidizing? A lot of shouting that "Rossiyakormitkavkaz." And no one screams that the EU donor countries actually contain the Baltic tigers, and Romania, and Poland. And for some reason, everyone nods at the income of the average Romanian. These are bankrupt. The EU and Aless subsidies will cease, I will see how they howl. During the union, I remember with my hands torn off the products of the Romanian light industry. Is there one now? At whose expense is the banquet?
        2. K.A.S.
          K.A.S. 16 March 2018 19: 40
          how did you count? if we are in different currency systems?
    2. Vend
      Vend 16 March 2018 16: 42
      Who said that there will be no division of Ukraine? The section is already on the way since 2014 year
      1. Alber
        Alber 16 March 2018 17: 29
        Quote: Wend
        Who said that there will be no division of Ukraine? The section is already on the way since 2014 year

        let the Romanians take Northern Bukovina (Chernivtsi region) as quickly as possible. And the Hungarians with the Poles will bite off a little bit ...
        It is impossible to leave in this state the nascent fascist territory financed and directed by the Bandera Judaists
        1. 17085
          17085 16 March 2018 17: 52
          From a dead donkey ears and not OUR MALROSSIA!

          From Warsaw to Anchorage - Russian land!
          1. ul_vitalii
            ul_vitalii 16 March 2018 18: 03
            The smaller the country, the more unbridled greatness will amaze among their own kind.
        2. The comment was deleted.
          1. Alber
            Alber 16 March 2018 20: 44
            Quote: shuravi
            Quote: Alber
            Quote: Wend
            Who said that there will be no division of Ukraine? The section is already on the way since 2014 year

            let the Romanians take Northern Bukovina (Chernivtsi region) as quickly as possible. And the Hungarians with the Poles will bite off a little bit ...
            It is impossible to leave in this state the nascent fascist territory financed and directed by the Bandera Judaists

            So you have to cut off ... however, you do not have them.

            Apparently you are Shmuravi judobandera! Your destiny to be hanged on a tree, for one place.
            And yes, take care of your children ....
  2. sib.ataman
    sib.ataman 16 March 2018 15: 36
    There are more and more reasons for a big pan-European fight. Each claims to be at the expense of the other. Well, how not to profit from muddy water!
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor 16 March 2018 15: 43
    Well, the Romanians are good fellows, they give citizenship to everyone who wants to, even though a drop of Romanian blood is a bang and you're done. The damned EBN at one time equated ethnic Russians from the CIS with foreigners with a 5-year period of residence in Russia for citizenship, here's a dog! What people just don't They went because of this: fictitious marriages, fictitious buying of real estate, it’s more or less “law-abiding” and poor! For example, my grandmother was copied to my son for two years, he was tormented for only two years (2002).
    1. Severski
      Severski 16 March 2018 17: 57
      There is not a drop of blood but citizenship. Russians from Bessarabia can make themselves Romanian citizenship. But there are no Romanians from Serbia, because their ancestors have never been a part of Romania.
  4. solzh
    solzh 16 March 2018 16: 07
    Great Romania, the Romanians, can not see and not build. Instead, they can only rely on Velikaya.opa. And so, let the Romanians dream, they are the descendants of the Romans. laughing
  5. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 16 March 2018 16: 55
    When they start tearing from the west, we need from the east, we need a border along the Dnieper
    1. solzh
      solzh 16 March 2018 17: 15
      Why the Dnieper? Minimum to the border on 01.09.1939/1991/XNUMX. And the maximum for XNUMX
      1. Severski
        Severski 16 March 2018 17: 59
        In 50 years, there will be 100 million Uzbeks, 30 million Kazakhs, 20 million Tajiks, Kyrgyz and Turkmens each. Russia cannot stand so much prayer.
        1. Lev Bronsch
          Lev Bronsch 16 March 2018 20: 12
          Strange, an article about Romania / Moldova, and you care about Kazakhs and Tajiks?
          And in general, in the comments under the rank-and-file article, provocateurs came running, he took the hell out of it! am
          For your reference - - look, and then star !!
          1. Severski
            Severski 17 March 2018 16: 22
            You should first read what people write about. Yes, even think about if there are brains. It would be much better than just being rude.
            And to show the population pyramid to a specialist in the population is how you show the letter a and say: look, and then make a sound !!
            Please look at the growth rate of the indigenous population of Central Asia for the period 1989-2017 and you will understand what I mean.
            Although not. Better not look. Everything is smooth, to no purpose.
    2. captain
      captain 16 March 2018 17: 40
      Quote: Siberia 9444
      When they start tearing from the west, we need from the east, we need a border along the Dnieper

      You may need the Dnieper, and the rest of Russia is needed or not? Who asked about this. I understand the return of the South-East of Ukraine; these lands were conquered by Russia from the Kramsk Khan, from the Ottoman Empire, part of the Donetsk, Lugansk and Kharkov regions. was the territory of the Don Cossack Army. Lenin gave these lands to the state he created for Ukraine. And the rest we do not need, there are no longer people loyal to the Russians. Yes, a small percentage still remains, but the bulk of the population is against Russia. So we don’t need along the Dnieper, the fifth column will be too big.
  6. Evdokim
    Evdokim 16 March 2018 16: 55
    The idea of ​​"Greater Romania" was widely spread in the country in the first half of the twentieth century. The period from 1918 to 1940 was the time when Romania had the maximum territory.

    Something divorced the Great Powers. The Great Rzeczpospolita "From Mozh to Mozh", Great Ukraine with the greatest history, and here is Great Romania. Hmm, Russia looks like a dwarf against their background. wassat
  7. Sergey Gorn
    Sergey Gorn 16 March 2018 16: 57
    Empty reasoning of a retired politician. Romania will not do this, since it is bound by obligations to the EU and NATO. Post-war borders are sacred, and to dream of changing them is a waste of time.
    1. Ravik
      Ravik 16 March 2018 17: 04
      There is nothing sacred. Suffice it to recall Serbia.
  8. Terenin
    Terenin 16 March 2018 17: 04
    "Great Romania" want to build at the expense of Ukraine. To build is unlikely, but Romania will definitely have to sit down. yes There is no doubt.
    1. Sergey Enoktaev
      Sergey Enoktaev 16 March 2018 17: 32
      There’s nothing to get in with your gas. Let them figure out their territories first.
    2. captain
      captain 16 March 2018 17: 42
      Quote: Terenin
      "Great Romania" want to build at the expense of Ukraine. To build is unlikely, but Romania will definitely have to sit down. yes There is no doubt.

      I think that they will build it if the US wants.
      1. Terenin
        Terenin 16 March 2018 17: 48
        Quote: captain
        I think that they will build it if the US wants.

        USA and progressive construction outside the USA? especially in Europe? Can the United States also for political stability? Maybe I don’t know something. repeat
  9. Dimy4
    Dimy4 16 March 2018 17: 41
    Anyway, Washington needs a massacre in Europe, and it doesn’t matter who with whom. The main thing is to start, and there you look and go into the world carnage. It’s just that it’s not possible to sit out for the seas-okiyans this time.
  10. Severski
    Severski 16 March 2018 17: 54
    Everything is far-fetched. Basescu is a former president, like no one. Like humpbacked for example. It can only earn with language. If the Romanians wanted to tear Ukraine away, they would have done it in 2014, together with Russia. Ukraine then had no army, nothing. In addition to education in Romanian, they never demanded anything. So the author is greatly exaggerating.
  11. Proton
    Proton 16 March 2018 17: 57
    Looks like porridge will brew again not weak in Europe
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Cotnik
    Cotnik 16 March 2018 18: 06
    ... greed is bad as if not choking on romance.
  14. iouris
    iouris 16 March 2018 20: 50
    Due to the USSR. The successor of 25 years did nothing and looked at how the historical conquests of the ancestors fall from the cart of history.
  15. VladGashek
    VladGashek 16 March 2018 21: 51
    It is not possible to agree with all the theses of the author about the proximity of Moldavians and Romanians. Moldavian statehood is historically rooted in the 14-15th century, while Romanian is the result of congresses of the 80s of the 19th century. Moreover, the Romanian ethnicity was more exposed to Austrian and Hungarian influence. Moldavian ethnicity is the result of Slavic influence. indeed the Wallachian dialect, which formed the basis of the Romanian language and evolved on the basis of Latin graphics. And from here features and phonetics and vocabulary. The Moldavian language was originally formed on the basis of Cyrillic graphics and Slavic vocabulary. But a truly consistent Romanian process of language and thought can form a single Great Romanian nation. We know examples of the ethnic history of Germany, France, Spain, and Russia. However, there are reverse examples of ethnicization. for example, Ukraine. So time will tell what the former Bessarabia will come to.
    1. Severski
      Severski 17 March 2018 16: 38
      Until 1862, the Cyrillic alphabet was used in Moldova and Wallachia. Moreover, in Wallachia, the Cyrillic alphabet was used earlier than in Moldova. Closer Bulgarian influence affected. After the unification of these countries and the creation of Romania, they switched to Latin.
  16. Antares
    Antares 16 March 2018 23: 56
    yes yes .. Romanians Odessa region ... I’m afraid to meet them not very well ... Something even I have a not very good attitude towards them for their actions 70 years ago. Yes, and no one here likes modern ones ... Neither the Bulgarians nor the Gagauz nor the Ukrainians .. not Russians ..
    However, there are only 160 thousand of them and this is ethnic (not necessarily supported), and local Moldovans are definitely not very Romanians. In general, 160 thousand ethnic Romanians are several million Ukrainians.
    Yes, and the consolidation has passed - it’s clearly impossible to take. A quiet "Romanization" a lot of fun supporters they failed. It’s bad like that with them. The Romanian idea is somehow going badly ...
    For the USA, the Ukraine buffer is much more profitable than dividing it. This is the bonanza of problems for the Russian Federation. The perfect training ground. And the proximity of Kharkov and Sumy to Moscow and the Urals ....
    Still, in this way the Russian Federation got rid of Belarus (the same as it got rid of Ukraine) and then it would be good.
    1. lance
      lance 17 March 2018 05: 53
      if, due to dill, it turns out to be a serious srvnr collapse, then everyone will have to put up with Little Russia to the Dnieper. and to this stupid Yankees and push, forgot Georgia.
  17. reibert
    reibert 17 March 2018 09: 24
    Kirkorov's presidency good good laughing
  18. Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 March 2018 10: 47
    [quote] We are talking about the territories that became part of the Soviet Union in 1940 in connection with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact [/ Quote]
    Absolutely false statement: These territories became part of the USSR according to the results of the SECOND WORLD WAR, when there was no mention of a pact.
  19. Bulrumeb
    Bulrumeb 17 March 2018 13: 25
    Romania, like Hungary, has the iron argument in territorial claims against Ukraine - protecting the Romanian population from linguistic, cultural, political discrimination.

    Actually, as with us, only we never use these arguments
  20. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 17 March 2018 19: 47
    Something for a long time they all (geyropa) rot and fall apart! May I help ?
  21. Normal ok
    Normal ok 26 March 2018 17: 13
    In Romania, do not lose hope return those lands that belonged to the country before World War II

    In how, in the plural "do not lose." In Romania, there are fewer such "people" than in lol And these are political marginals. Even in Moldova, nothing comes of it.
    But, even if there were many, then who will give them lol