Military Review

How England gave Hitler Austria

33
13 March 1938, Hitler triumphantly entered Vienna, he was greeted with applause and flowers. On the same day, the law “On the reunification of Austria with the German Empire” was published. Reich received a strategic base for the development of expansion: the capture of Czechoslovakia and the further advance in Southeast Europe and the Balkans. Austrian industry, resources and people have strengthened the potential of the German Empire.


Preparation period

В stories Germany's takeover of Austria should also be noted the role of Italy. In the early years, Hitler, not having a powerful military industry and armed forces, could not seize Austria without the consent of Italy. Mussolini himself claimed part of Austria and was considered the guarantor of her independence. Italian duce then looked down on Hitler down. He has long built his regime, created a new Roman empire. Hitler seemed then only a new leader who copies the Mussolini regime.

In 1933 - 1934 Chancellor E. Dolphus established an ultra-right authoritarian regime in Austria (Austro-fascism). Dolphus and his successor, Kurt Schuschnigg, copied much from the fascist regime in Italy, with the support of Mussolini. Dolfus was a staunch enemy of German influence, and did not intend to go under Hitler. He banned the activities of the German National Socialists (NSDAP) in Austria. However, in July 1934, Dolphus was killed by Austrian Nazis while attempting a pro-German coup.

The rebels announced the Anschluss with Germany. But did not receive support from the army and police. Loyal to the government troops surrounded the parliament building. By the evening it became known that Mussolini, who had openly supported Dolphus, in response to the attempted coup, mobilized the troops, which immediately moved through the Brenner Pass to the Austrian border. As a result, Berlin did nothing to support the rebels. They needed only to capitulate. The German government disown the rebels. Like, to know them do not know, and this is an internal affair of Vienna. Everyone pretended to believe.

But soon everything changed. The Third Reich and the regime of Hitler strengthened, won the first victory. And “Roman Empire” Mussolini was experiencing problems. In the 1936 year, Mussolini, who needed German support in the face of a difficult war in Ethiopia, refused to argue with Hitler over Austria, thereby surrendering Austrian independence. In addition, the war in Spain, where Italy and Germany supported General Franco together, brought Rome and Berlin even closer together. Duce stopped clinging to Austria. As a result, the Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg concluded an agreement with 11 on July 1936, with the Third Reich, by which Austria was actually obliged to follow German policy. For its part, Berlin recognized the sovereignty and independence of Austria and promised not to exert any pressure on its foreign policy. To confirm the provisions of the treaty, Schuschnigg appointed Austrian Nazis to various administrative posts, agreed to admit some of their organizations to the Fatherland Front, and finally, pardoned several thousand convicted Nazis.

Realizing that Italy and England will not defend Vienna, the Nazis forced their plans to seize Austria. Relying on the Austro-German agreement 1936 of the year, they launched a widespread propaganda campaign for the accession of Austria to Germany. On the borders of Austria and Czechoslovakia, paramilitary groups, the Austrian Legion, and the Sudeten Germans Volunteer Corps were put together. It was declared that these were independent volunteer emigrant societies, and Berlin had nothing to do with it. In this case, the troops received an army weapon, they were trained by professional officers. At the same time, local Nazi parties and various organizations are becoming more active in Austria and Czechoslovakia itself. Berlin not only supported and directed their activities, but exerted frank diplomatic pressure when these parties and organizations came to the attention of the police and authorities.

Hitler, feeling the weakness of Chancellor Schuschnigg, increased the pressure. He sent sharp notes to Vienna. He began to call the Chancellor of Austria to himself, as if he had been at fault for his minister. Shouted at him, threatened. Schuschnigg, seeing the lack of external support, showed "flexibility", tried to satisfy any demands. But it only got worse. Austrian Nazis felt that their time had come, and openly ravaged them, terrorized their opponents. The police closed their eyes to this. The American ambassador in Vienna, Messerschmitt, said: "The prospect of the seizure of power by the Nazis does not allow the authorities to carry out effective police and judicial actions against them for fear of reprisals from the future Nazi government against those who, even if lawfully, would take measures against them."

Meanwhile, neither the United States, nor England, nor France did anything to protect Austria's sovereignty. They have already written off Austria. At the same time, Hitler's appetites, until a certain time, were restrained not only by Italy, but also by their own generals. It is worth remembering that the army in Germany had great strength, and many old-school generals despised Hitler's upstart, his party and the SS. The German generals were delighted with the policy of reviving the former military power pursued by Hitler. However, he was very afraid of a new big war. German generals thought soberly, learned the lessons of the First World War well, and remembered the dangers of war on two fronts. They knew perfectly well all the weaknesses of the Third Reich military machine, which was yet to become “invincible”. The Third Reich was extremely weak in these years, France and England could easily put the Fuhrer in place. It was enough of a threat and a military demonstration for the generals themselves to remove the Fuhrer and his entourage. Even to send troops into the demilitarized Rhine region near the borders of France in March 1936, Hitler had to grab his generals for a long time. After all, the Third Reich did not yet have a powerful army, an air fleet и tank armada. Everything was in the process of creation and formation. Therefore, the German generals were afraid. What if Germany's actions provoke a big war? Germany then could not fight, and she was in for a complete collapse in case France or England resolutely answered, and they were supported by Czechoslovakia, Austria and Poland.

It is obvious that the German generals did not know what Hitler understood - the masters of the West had already given him Austria, Czechoslovakia, all of Eastern and Central Europe, so that he organized a "crusade" to the East, against the "communist threat". Therefore, London and Paris were not going to fight with Germany. They pursued a policy of "appeasement" in order to direct the Third Reich to the East.

The generals did not know that. Therefore, among the military was a strong opposition to Hitler’s foreign policy. The generals wanted to first restore the armed forces, the military-industrial complex and only then carefully expand their sphere of influence. And before that, do not climb on the rampage. War Minister and Field Marshal-General Werner von Blomberg presented a report in which he noted that “Germany is not threatened with an attack from any side,” including from Russia. The conclusion was that Germany was not threatened with a war, therefore it was necessary to strengthen the defense and not to provoke a war with the great powers. At the November 5 meeting, 1937, von Blomberg and the Army Commander, General Werner von Fritsch (second in command, in the army) openly opposed Hitler's plans to seize the neighboring countries.

Then Hitler decided to change the military elite. However, he was not yet strong enough to simply send out generals for arguing and a different opinion. We decided to organize a provocation. The main organizers were the Reichsfuhrer SS and the head of the secret police, Himmler, along with the chief security officer Heydrich. Actively assisted and Goering, who wanted to take the post of Minister of War. Blomberg was seduced by a honey trap. On the way of an elderly widower, a cute stenographer Eva Grun suddenly appeared. She charmed the war minister. In January 1938, Blomberg married Eve. It seemed that all was well, Hitler and Goering himself were witnesses. But soon the dossier on Eve came up. Her mother held a "massage parlor", was convicted. Eva worked as a “masseuse” in her mother’s salon and in general was a girl with a “low social responsibility” and had long been noticed by the police as a prostitute, and in several cities. In addition, she was held accountable for posing for pornographic postcards. Blomberg after such a scandal had to resign.

Eliminated and the commander of the ground forces Fritsch. For this, they removed the old case of Schmidt, who was in prison. So, in 1936, the Gestapo interrogated a gay, pimp and blackmailer Otto Schmidt who was serving a sentence. His victims were mostly perverts. The Gestapo wanted information about political opponents. During the interrogation, the name of Fritsch emerged, whom Schmidt called a high officer. The Gestapo immediately decided that this was General Werner von Fritsch. Schmidt also said that this man gave him money for silence. Soon, Himmler put Hitler on the table the interrogation report of Schmidt, but he at that time did not want to hear about this “swine”. The slander found support in the fact that Fritsch did not communicate with women, was only interested in the service, and was never married. During the second interrogation, Schmidt again confirmed his testimony. Fritsch denied all charges.

During a parallel investigation initiated by Artur Nebe, the head of the criminal police, it turned out that Colonel General Fritsch had a namesake. Schmidt dealt with an elderly and retired officer. After von Fritsch joined Hitler's aggressive plans, this case was again dragged into the light. And although von Fritsch denied everything, he could not do anything. General fired "for health reasons." Soon it was revealed that the charge was false. 18 March von Fritsch 1938 was acquitted, but not reinstated. He was later reinstated to military service, but was not returned to high office.

Hitler, against the backdrop of this scandal, shuffled the military top as he needed. The Ministry of War was dissolved, and three were created in its place: for the ground forces, the navy, and the air force. Hitler himself became commander in chief. Keitel headed the Wehrmacht High Command (OKW). The command of the ground forces was entrusted to the Prussian General Brauchitsch. Goering promoted to Field Marshal aviation entered personally for him. Wilhelm Keitel did not dare to argue with the Fuhrer and was completely obedient. In addition, several dozen generals were lost during the reorganization, and several hundred senior officers were transferred to lower positions or dismissed. Serious cleaning was also carried out at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Foreign Minister Neurath was replaced by Ribbentrop, a number of ambassadors and officials were removed.

Thus, Hitler prepared the Third Reich for entry into a new stage of its history. The opposition, which could have hampered his plans to forcefully prepare and unleash a big war in Europe, was eliminated. Germany has matured, it is time for active foreign expansion.

How England gave Hitler Austria

Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg

Anschluss

12 February 1938, the Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg, was once again summoned to the Hitler residence of Berchtesgaden. Hitler intimidated Schuschnigg. That, under the threat of an immediate military invasion, was forced to sign an ultimatum presented to him from three points: 1) the ruling coalition of Austria, the Domestic Front, was joined by the Nazi Party; 2) the leader of the Austrian Nazis, Arthur Zeiss-Inquart, was appointed by the Minister of the Interior and the head of the investigative police, which ensured the Nazis complete control over the law enforcement agencies of Austria; 3) declared a new political amnesty for the Nazis, who still had restrictions on freedom or civil rights. In fact, it was the surrender of Vienna.

Immediately, Hitler received confirmation from London that no one would save Austria. 22 February 1938 of the year, British Prime Minister Chamberlain, told parliament that Austria cannot rely on League of Nations protection: “We should not deceive, much less reassure small, weak states by promising them protection from the League of Nations and the corresponding steps from our since we know that nothing like this can be done. ” In addition, Henderson, one of the most convinced supporters of the agreement with Hitler, was appointed British ambassador to Berlin at the end of 1937. He did not try to stop the Nazis, on the contrary, he sought an excuse for them. 3 March 1938, Henderson spoke with Hitler about the agreement between the two great powers. The English ambassador made it clear to Hitler that England wishes to help in the matter of appeasing Europe, which "can be facilitated by arms limitation and pacification in Czechoslovakia and Austria." London also conveyed a desire not only to consider the colonial question, but also to move forward in its resolution. Later, before the Anschluss, influential people from Chamberlain’s entourage, when meeting with German diplomats, showed that London does not oppose the seizure of Austria. But he wants to get paid: Hitler must not touch the colonial empire of England. In addition, London insisted that the accession pass without the use of force.

Returning to Vienna, the Austrian Chancellor tried to wriggle out. 9 March Schuschnigg announced on the coming Sunday, 13 March 1938, a plebiscite on the issue of Austrian independence. The only question it had to be was whether the people wanted to have “free and German, independent and social, Christian and own Austria”, and the forms - only contain the answer “yes”. The Austrian Chancellor hoped that Berlin would not have time to react, and the West and “world public opinion” would see the true mood of the majority of the people and intervene.

But miscalculated. Hitler did not fear the intervention of the West. The Fuhrer responded to the announcement of a plebiscite with an order to mobilize the 8 Army intended for the invasion of Austria. The border with Germany in Salzburg was closed, the railway communication between the two countries was blocked. On March 10, he ordered Zeiss-Inquart to present an ultimatum to the Chancellor and begin mobilizing supporters. The next day, the abolition of the plebiscite and the resignation of Schuschnigg in favor of Zeiss Inquart demanded Goering in an ultimatum. Later in the day, Goering again confirmed him in a telephone conversation with Schuschnigg. At the direction of Berlin, the Austrian National Socialists staged a riot. 11 March Schuschnigg agreed to the abolition of the plebiscite, and in the evening, under pressure from Hitler, resigned and agreed to the transfer of power to Zeiss-Inquart. Schuschnigg announced his resignation by radio and ordered the Austrian army in the event of the entry of German troops into Austria to retreat, not engaging in hostilities.

Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas at first refused to entrust the formation of the new government of Zeiss Inquart and offered the post of prime minister to other politicians. They all refused. As a result, Miklas also capitulated. The Austrian government made a last attempt to save the country. Vienna appealed to the governments of England and France. From Paris replied that France could not do anything. And from London they said that the British government cannot give any guarantees or even advice. So the West took a deal with the Third Reich at the expense of a sovereign state.

By order of Goering, with the consent of Hitler, a telegram was written with a request to send the German troops to Austria, which the new Austrian government sent on behalf of Seyss-Inquart. On the night from 11 to 12 in March 1938, German troops, previously concentrated on the border in accordance with the Otto plan, entered Austria. The Austrian army, having received the order not to offer resistance, capitulated. German troops were just crossing the border, and in Vienna early in the morning several planes landed. Arrived with a detachment of SS as the first representative of the Nazi government Himmler, accompanied by Heydrich, Schellenberg and Hess. They had lists of opponents of Nazi politicians, public figures, deputies, journalists, etc., prepared in advance. The Nazis had a lot of experience in “re-educating” the disgruntled. Thousands of people were arrested. In Austria, there was a concentration camp - Mauthausen and many of its branches.

13 March in 19 watches Hitler triumphantly entered Vienna, accompanied by Keitel. Crowds of people greeted them with ovations and flowers. Many were really happy - they again became citizens of a big and strong empire. Germany was on the rise, every year getting richer. Fuhrer, many loved. On the same day, the law “On the reunification of Austria with the German Empire” was published. Austria was declared "one of the lands of the German Empire" and now became known as "Ostmark". Speaking 15 March in the Vienna Hofburg Palace in front of people gathered in Heldenplatz Square, Seiss-Inquart proclaimed Hitler “the protector of the crown,” and Hitler himself declared: “I announce the German people about the most important mission in my life.” 10 April a plebiscite on the Anschluss was held in Germany and Austria. According to official data, in Germany 99,08% voted for the Anschluss, in Austria - 99,75%.


13 March 1938 of the year: Austrian citizens meet German troops

Results

Thus, Hitler received a strategic foothold for the capture of Czechoslovakia and further offensive in Southeastern Europe and the Balkans, the Austrian industry, sources of additional raw materials and human resources. As a result of the Anschluss, the territory of Germany increased by 17%, the population by 10% (by 6,7 million people). The Wehrmacht included 6 divisions formed in Austria. The Austrians remained loyal to Hitler until the fall of the Reich.

As for the seizure of Austria, the “world community”, completely dependent on the masters of the West, said nothing and did not bother. Only the Soviet Union cast its vote! On March 17, the Soviet government made a statement in which it was noted that the Austrian people were forcibly deprived of political, economic and cultural independence as a result of a military invasion. Moscow proposed to convene an international conference to consider “practical measures against the development of aggression and the danger of a new world war”. England immediately blocked this initiative! London regarded Moscow’s proposal as “intensifying the tendency to form blocs and undermining the prospects for peace in Europe”! That is, Hitler acted with the consent of the owners of England, France and the United States. The policy of the Nazis "prospects for peace", in the opinion of London, did not undermine.


Hitler accepts applause of the Reichstag deputies after the announcement of the "peaceful" accession of Austria
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West - "the world-vampire"
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  1. Vard
    Vard 14 March 2018 06: 07
    0
    The Englishwoman always stirs up water ... And then and now ... And for the time being, she gets away with it ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 14 March 2018 10: 50
      +4
      Quote: Vard
      The Englishwoman always stirs up water ...


      And there’s nothing else that French Prime Minister Eduard Daladier and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini were still there. And these just sat next to them and they didn’t do this “gift” to Hitler?
  2. apro
    apro 14 March 2018 07: 00
    +2
    The unification of Austria and Germany is a natural historical process. It was met with the approval of the population of these countries.
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 14 March 2018 07: 29
      +2
      And now what prevents them from uniting? East Germany was "united" after all. Austria at one time was the hegemon of Europe, not like the seedy Prussia. One language is not a reason to unite, as an example, Ukraine and Belarus.
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor 14 March 2018 07: 34
      +2
      Another example: the unification of Inner and Outer Mongolia is a much more historical process. And further down the list. Do you mind?
      1. apro
        apro 14 March 2018 07: 56
        +2
        Who prevents to unite the Germans? Angles with amers. But the Germans acted more cunningly by creating an EU. There are borders, but the currency and laws are common. And the center is in Berlin.
        About Mongolia is not interesting. People's Republic of China and so slowly will take their own.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 March 2018 07: 27
    +2
    German generals thought soberly learned well World War I and remembered about the dangers of war on two fronts. France and England could easily put the Fuhrer in place.

    Not only did the German generals learn and remember the lessons of the WWII, but the French and British also remembered the terrible losses they suffered. They broke the French forever ..
    So that the governments of Anly and France in the military field would not take action, the people would not support them, because they did not categorically accept losses.
    the masters of the West have already given him Austria, Czechoslovakia, all of Eastern and Central Europe, so that he organizes a “crusade” to the East, against the “communist threat”. Therefore London and Paris were not going to fight with Germany. They pursued a policy of "appeasement" in order to direct the Third Reich to the East.

    If their governments wanted to fight, their own voters would dare. Therefore, they pursued a policy of appeasement: maybe it will get drunk and calm down.
    There was then no major peace force in Europe-Russia. And this is the main reason for what happened and what follows
    1. apro
      apro 14 March 2018 08: 07
      +7
      Yes, Olgovich. Reasoning ... kindergarten Bells ... how much can you do. Frenchmen in the 20s did not begin to occupy the ruhr and the Saar Rhine region. And then old phobias surfaced on you ..
      But the Angles did not react at all to the creation of the Wehrmacht. They probably decided that these were new scouts ..
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 March 2018 12: 15
        +2
        Quote: apro
        Yes, Olgovich. Reasoning ... kindergarten Bells ... how much can you do. Frenchmen in the 20s did not They began to occupy the Ruhr and the Saar-Rhine region. and then old phobias surfaced on you.

        And get out of there. Forgot? belay
        Even when WWII was in full swing in Poland, thousands and thousands of people had already died, the French all tried to pacify Hitler, and the French president said that "the French will not understand if we declare war when France itself is not in danger" ..... .
        1. apro
          apro 14 March 2018 13: 00
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          And get out of there. Forgot?

          But do not remind why?
          What the Frenchman said is not interesting France at that moment is a third-rate value. Coming for the English. You dear love to skip. Forgetting the Versailles guarantee of Austria. Munich. Links of one chain.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 14 March 2018 13: 36
            +2
            Quote: apro
            But do not remind why?

            The French economy collapsed; it received neither reparations nor recovery.
            Quote: apro
            What the Frenchman said is not interesting France at that moment tertiary magnitude. following the English

            belay lol
            Quote: apro
            You dear love to skip. Forgetting Versailles. Warranties of Austria. Munich. Links of one chain.

            What are you talking about, dear man?
    2. Bouncer
      Bouncer 14 March 2018 08: 28
      +19
      They broke the French forever

      I agree with Olgovich
      The French were afraid of blood. The color of the nation was knocked out in 1914-18, they did not want to continue.
      There was then no major peace force in Europe-Russia. And this is the main reason for what happened and what follows

      And I agree with that. Not only that, even the contours of the second front (in the person of the East) at that time were absent - Germany and unbelted. So back in the 20-30 centuries. nurtured elements of the military power of the future fascist beast at our landfills.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 14 March 2018 08: 49
        +3
        Do you think the USSR is to blame for the outbreak of World War II?
        Thanks to training grounds and military schools?
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 14 March 2018 12: 24
          +1
          Quote: hohol95
          Do you think the USSR is to blame for the outbreak of World War II?
          Thanks to training grounds and military schools?

          Thanks to Brest betrayal, which turned Russia from a victorious country into a rogue and renegade country, which stripped her of her right participation in the peacekeeping system in Europe.
          Without the participation of Russia, peace in Europe (and in the world) -Do not happen!
        2. Bouncer
          Bouncer 14 March 2018 12: 58
          +18
          hohol95 Today, 08:49 ↑
          Do you think the USSR is to blame for the outbreak of World War II?
          Thanks to training grounds and military schools?

          These are your thoughts
          I just wrote about the fact that we had a hand (how much - it’s not even important) to increase the combat readiness of the Wehrmacht.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 14 March 2018 15: 21
            +3
            Do not distort - when there were Soviet-German contacts on the military line VERMAHTA did not exist yet!
            Take, for example, a flying school in Lipetsk — it began to work in 1925 — and finished in 1932!
            Over the 8 years of the existence of this top-secret facility, more than 200 German and over 140 Soviet pilots have qualified there. In addition, our aircraft also studied at the “secret aviation school”. The “encrypted” aviation school in the history of its existence among the initiates in its activities was not at all considered to be purely “German”.
            In this regard, it is important to note that the financing and material support for the construction of the infrastructure of the aviation school was taken over mainly by the Germans - from Germany, for this purpose, compositions of building materials and equipment were being sent. The head of the Lipetsk air school was Major Walter Shtar, the commander of the German squadron in World War I.
            Historians compared the number of students in the aviation center over the years and came to the conclusion that the Germans and Soviet pilots were approximately equal then.
            Lipetsk Aviation School has never been a key training ground for the preparation and development of German aviation. The Germans illegally and no less successfully trained in other places - German secret military aviation schools gave no less successful training. Illegally, until 1932, about 2 thousand Luftwaffe pilots were trained in several such classified objects. And the main bombers and fighters of the Hitlerite Luftwaffe were created much later than the closing of the Lipetsk air school.
            It should be noted that this interaction between the two states began long before the antagonism between Germany and the Soviet Union arose - as soon as Hitler came to power, the activities of the Lipetsk air school were canceled.

            I just wrote about the fact that we had a hand (how much - it’s not even important) to increase the combat readiness of the Wehrmacht.

            In such matters EVERYTHING IS IMPORTANT!
      2. parusnik
        parusnik 14 March 2018 10: 21
        +3
        So back in the 20-30 centuries. nurtured elements of the military power of the future fascist beast at our landfills.
        .... It turns out that in Rapallo they concluded an agreement with a fascist beast, and not with bourgeois-democratic Germany? .. By the way, D. Lloyd George, during the conclusion of the Versailles Peace, suggested strongly not to "strangle" Germany .. The Second World Child of the Versailles Accords. ..In 1935, if I’m not mistaken, measures were taken to conclude a collective security agreement, the initiator was France, the countries involved were France, England, already Hitler Germany, Italy, Poland, the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania and who torpedoed the conclusion yes nnogo agreement, was the main initiator? Poland ... If only Germany had not signed this agreement, there would be no big trouble ...
      3. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 14 March 2018 11: 29
        +4
        Quote: Bouncer
        So back in the 20-30 centuries. nurtured elements of the military power of the future fascist beast at our landfills.

        Quite the opposite: the Germans in the USSR nurtured elements of the military power of the Red Army at our training grounds. smile
        The military power of the future Wehrmacht was nurtured at the training grounds of Germany. And the scale there was not an example of "Kame" or Lipetsk. For example, the first reinforced regiment-sized campaign groups began to run in during exercises in the late 20s.
        And also von Sect turned the Reichswehr not only into the army of commanders, but also into the school for training the reserve of the future Wehrmacht, dismissing a part of the military personnel to the reserve long before the deadlines set by Versailles.
        Although the Reichswehr servicemen were supposed to serve for twelve years, and officers for twenty-five, a program was developed for the regular dismissal of soldiers and officers until they reach their maximum service lives. This helped the Reichswehr build up a stock of well-trained soldiers and officers whose reliability was undeniable. By 1926, the percentage of layoffs of rank-and-file personnel increased from 13 to 25. Officers were also allowed to leave the service and go to the reserve.
        © Corum J.S. The roots of the Blitzkrieg: Hans von Zekt and German military reform.
        ICH, the guarantors of Versailles looked at this outrageous violation of the contract through the fingers. But the term of service in the Reichswehr was one of the main provisions of the agreement, which guaranteed the impossibility of Germany creating a reserve of personnel for a large army.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. kipage
          kipage 14 March 2018 12: 54
          +17
          Most likely not
          Exactly the opposite

          And in parallel
          Any exchange is mutual and mutually beneficial.
          In any case, we were an outlet
          And what more!
        3. Olgovich
          Olgovich 14 March 2018 13: 45
          +1
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Quite the opposite: Germans in the USSR cultivated elements of the military power of the Red Army at our training grounds

          What have they "nurtured" in us? Did the Germans seem to offend themselves? request
          It was tested around twenty types of German aircraft - fighters, reconnaissance, bombers.
          In addition to aircraft, a test station in Lipetsk studied bomber sights, aerial photography equipment, small arms, various aerial bombs, on-board radio equipment, and navigation systems.
          Germans about Lipetsk school:
          : “We should express our thanks country hospitality which we used for eight years. During the time when all states are hostile belonged to Germany, The USSR gave us the opportunity to resume our flight activity here.b. Willingness to always provide assistance, the Red Army and, in particular, Air Fleet, have patronized our work "http://www.vokrugsveta.ru/telegraph/history/567/.

          The USSR made its small but feasible contribution to the restoration of the Luftwaffe
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 14 March 2018 14: 44
            +2
            Quote: Olgovich
            What have they "nurtured" in us?

            Personnel - military, technical and, most importantly, teaching. The same "Kama" and Lipetsk were joint schools, including graduating from the Red Army commanders. Perhaps the most famous Kama graduate is Semyon Moiseevich Krivoshein, Lieutenant General of Tank Forces, GSS (Krivoshein-Brestsky smile ).
            Here are the results of the Kama:
            In general, classes at the tank school took place systematically, in accordance with the previously approved curriculum. In the years 1929-1931. 65 "TECO courses" trained XNUMX personnel of the tank and motorized units of the Red Army. Most of them were combat commanders and teachers of armored universities, the rest of the officers were engineers (tankmen, artillerymen, radio operators).

            The extreme usefulness of the Kama facility for the USSR was reflected in the work report:
            ... the main purpose of the Red Army Mechanization and Motorization Administration regarding the use of TECO was to familiarize the Red Army commanders with the design features of German combat vehicles, to study the tanker’s rifle training technique and machine and fire control devices in battle, to study the combat use of tank units and Along the way, master the technique of driving combat vehicles to perfection.
            ... in general, the work of TECO is still of interest to the Red Army both in terms of purely technical and tactical. The new principles of machine design and especially of individual units, weapons and small arms, the ideally resolved problem of observation from the tank, the practically resolved problem of control in the tank and tank divisions is still an area that needs to be studied and transferred to our base.

            The arrived German equipment was carefully studied by our specialists - EMNIP, uv. M. Svirin wrote that when creating the T-28, technical solutions of German "tractors" were used.
            But there were also German design bureaus on military equipment and weapons, which not only designed weapons, but also trained engineers for domestic design bureaus. The same M-30 inherited quite a lot from the German "splint", and the development and production of the M-10 was based on previous experience of German howitzer howitzers.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 14 March 2018 16: 39
              +1
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Personnel - military, technical and, most importantly, teaching.

              Most importantly, pilots and aircraft technicians were trained in Lipetsk, not teachers. Already about ... 200 people. Flight "training" was as much as 8,5 hours.
              German technology was carefully studied by our specialists - EMNIP

              . The commander of the Soviet air group in Lipetsk, A. M. Thomson, reported: ““ Friends ”sometimes try to hide something or give“ ceremonial ”explanations, which does not satisfy us. There are moments where they refer to the patents of the plant and kindly refuse to give photographs or drawings. ”
              Quote: Alexey RA
              , uv. M. Svirin wrote that when creating the T-28, technical solutions of German "tractors" were used.

              "Great" benefit, yes, to restore the eternal enemy, rejoicing overwhelming crumbs. fool
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 14 March 2018 17: 46
                +3
                Quote: Olgovich
                Most importantly, pilots and aircraft technicians were trained in Lipetsk, not teachers. Already about ... 200 people.

                The backlash from Lipetsk also received just a huge release: for the entire time the center was in existence, the Germans prepared as many as 120 of their pilots.
                Quote: Olgovich
                "Great" benefit, yes, to restore the eternal enemy, rejoicing overwhelming crumbs.

                And what were the options? Someone else was eager to train the commanders of the Red Army design features of combat vehicles, the technique of shooting tanker training and control devices for vehicles and fire in battle, issues of combat use of tank units? wink
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 15 March 2018 09: 07
                  +1
                  Quote: Alexey RA
                  The backlash from Lipetsk also received just a huge release: for the entire time the center was in existence, the Germans prepared as many as 120 of their pilots.

                  200. It's not about the pilots, but the possibilities test their planes and equipment.
                  In other places, it was very problematic.
                  Quote: Alexey RA
                  And what - were there any options? Someone else was eager to teach the Red Army commanders the design features of combat vehicles, the methodology of shooting tank training and control devices for vehicles and fire in battle, the combat use of tank units

                  Result-June 22-Are you satisfied?
                  1. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 15 March 2018 10: 30
                    +1
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    It's not about the pilots, but the ability to test their aircraft and equipment.
                    In other places, it was very problematic.

                    Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Lithuania - where German Aviation Design Bureau did not crawl in search of a roof for their work. They even managed to test the cars forbidden by Versailles in Germany itself - calling them as neutral as possible.
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    Result-June 22-Are you satisfied?

                    The result of June 22 is the merit of von Sect with its 100th "army of commanders." And not 200 pilots / technicians and 30 tankers of Lipetsk and Kama.
                    And these joint centers have given us much more.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 17 March 2018 08: 51
                      0
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Lithuania - where German Aviation Design Bureau did not crawl in search of a roof for their work.

                      It's about testing, not design.
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      June 22 result

                      June 22 - the result of the so-called a “peace decree” and Brest betrayal — which excluded Russia from Versailles, deprived her of her right and ability to control Germany.
                      The Bolsheviks FIRST fed the occupier and aggressor with gold, bread and a diplomatic deblockade.
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      And not 200 pilots / technicians and 30 tankers of Lipetsk and Kama.

                      This is a trifle, yes. The main thing is what is listed above.
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      And these joint centers have given us much more.

                      THANKS given:
                      «We should express our gratitude to the countrythe hospitality of which we enjoyed for eight years. At a time when all states were hostile to Germany, the USSR gave us the opportunity to resume our flying activities here. Willingness to always help, The Red Army, and especially the Air Fleet, patronized our work»

                      yes
                      They did NOT thank for what? belay
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 14 March 2018 07: 41
    0
    German generals thought soberly, learned the lessons of the First World War well and remembered the dangers of war on two fronts.
    .... Of course, they remembered, especially in the East, Germany had a reliable ally at that time, Poland ....
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 14 March 2018 07: 50
    +1
    "Wilhelm Keitel did not dare to argue with the Fuhrer or was completely obedient" at that time Keitel’s surname was converted to Lackeytel
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 14 March 2018 07: 52
    +2
    Chercell has an interesting description of the state of the Wehrmacht at that time.
  7. Bouncer
    Bouncer 14 March 2018 08: 24
    +18
    Not so simple
    Anschluss was preceded by a difficult diplomatic struggle
    The fault is not only the actions of England.
  8. Snakebyte
    Snakebyte 14 March 2018 15: 42
    +1
    - What's happening?
    - Calm, you are capturing Austria.
    From the movie "The Great Dictator".
    Obviously, the German generals did not know what Hitler understood - the masters of the West had already given him Austria, Czechoslovakia, all of Eastern and Central Europe to organize a “crusade” to the East, against the “communist threat”.

    Again an old tale. Tensioning the situation of 1945 to 1938.
    In 1938, the "masters of the West" did not care about the USSR. It was evaluated at the level of Poland.
    England really strengthened Germany, but not against the USSR, but against the strongest power of continental Europe - France. Everything is in the spirit of gentlemen, there are no permanent allies, only permanent interests.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 14 March 2018 18: 01
      +1
      Quote: Snakebyte
      In 1938, the "masters of the West" did not care about the USSR. It was evaluated at the level of Poland.

      Judging by Munich, it’s not even lower than Poland. The owners of life divided an independent European state, and the country with which it was connected by a mutual assistance agreement did not even bother to invite.
      Quote: Snakebyte
      England really strengthened Germany, but not against the USSR, but against the strongest power of continental Europe - France.

      But at the same time, their lordships often fell into sheer insanity. The Anglo-German naval agreement, which officially permitted the Reich to build submarines prohibited by Versailles, is beyond comprehension. There were few Limes of unlimited submarine war in WWI ...
      And most importantly - in addition to limes, cousins ​​from across the ocean actively pumped the Reich industry with money in addition to the European brawl. The same IG Farben was raised by Morgan and Dupont. Opel - General Motors and Dupont again. The bonfire of the future great European war was to be supplied with plenty of fuel ...
      1. Snakebyte
        Snakebyte 15 March 2018 08: 31
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        But at the same time, their lordships often fell into sheer insanity. The Anglo-German naval agreement, which officially permitted the Reich to build submarines prohibited by Versailles, is beyond comprehension. There were few Limes of unlimited submarine war in WWI ...

        This is not insanity. They needed the German fleet to confront the French, in case of conflict with the coalition of France and the United States. And with the submarine, as was believed, have already learned to fight. Moreover, in the event of a conflict with Germany, the French fleet would also have opposed them. Nobody expected such a quick defeat of France.
        Quote: Alexey RA
        And most importantly - in addition to limes, cousins ​​from across the ocean actively pumped the Reich industry with money in addition to the European brawl.

        If you delve into, the Americans actively invested anywhere, if only they asked. They had to get out of the Great Depression. And as if the Americans did not finance the Reich, if not for the political will of the British, who gave the Ruhr to the Germans ...
  9. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 14 March 2018 20: 37
    +1
    Still, the lack of a sense of proportion ruined Hitler.