We continue the theme of the exploits of our ancestors and the parsing of these "by bone". But in other way. Enough We too often witness the ugly attitude to the exploits of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers in World War II. Some (not the best, not the best) part of the society, clinging to the details, inconsistencies, idealization of the heroes, often casts doubt on the feat itself.
Including, unfortunately, on our website. The standard approach is to cling to trivia, and there the curve will be taken out.
And it began not yesterday. And then, when the liberals were not liberals in the modern sense of the word, and the scoundrels were called just scoundrels.
The feat in question in this article has been subjected to "critical analysis" since the 70s of the last century. No, perhaps, a person who would not have doubts about the veracity of certain facts. With all the simplicity of the feat of Alexander Matrosov, the official version looks really doubtful.
That is why today we will talk about the fact of the feat. About the mechanism of its commission, if you like. As the fact of the destruction of the German bunker in this way became possible.
The battalion of Matrosov was supposed to take the height near the village of Chernushki, Pskov region. The direction was important, and therefore the Germans prepared for defense thoroughly. It was a classic defense.
At the height of the three bunkers were arranged. They were positioned in such a way as to be able to block off the neighbor’s shelling sector and prevent the enemy from attacking from the dead zone. That is, in a “checkerboard” order, the benefit of any height, as a fold of the terrain, allows for this due to its relief. Square elevations in nature does not exist.
Next, you need to make a small excursion into the device of the German bunker of the Second World War. For many readers, the concepts of "pillbox" and "bunker" are identical. However, the differences in these structures are significant.
Dot - capital construction. It was built of concrete or brick for long-term combat. Dot (Dos) - a long-term firing point (structure) for firing from machine guns or guns.
Bunker - wooden ground firing point. You understand that the reliability of this structure is several times weaker than the dota. However, the speed of construction reduces to this disadvantage. Yes, and concrete is not needed. Everything is done with shovels and axes.
Bunker crashed into the natural fold of the area. This significantly saved man-hours and the two side walls in the most reliable way protected the calculation of the machine gun from anything. Three rows of logs and 70-100 cm of primer on top is also good.
Plus, the entrance to the strengthening of the rear side. The Germans were equipped with a solid door, which always (bold underscore) must be locked. It was to ensure that particularly clever of the enemy did not come secretly from the rear and did not arrange an exemplary shooting.
And there was ventilation in the ceiling. Since 34-th, 42-th “machine-hitting” differed by the rate of fire of up to 1200 shots per minute, it could, therefore, easily deprive the calculation of the possibility to see something, firstly, and easily poison it with powder gases, and secondly.
Yes, you could use an inlet as a hood. "Welcome, gentlemen liquidators." The Germans were not fools in any way, because the hoods were built and the doors were installed.
And one more nuance.
For the Germans (before 1944), the front wall was not raised very high above the ground. This was the standard that has been in effect since the First World War. The calculation was repelled by the fact that the machine gun was installed on the machine, which gave considerable advantages both in accuracy, reliably fixing the machine gun in the sector, and in terms of convenience.
And the loopholes were somewhat different. They were narrower and longer. Bringing a long trunk MG-43 out of the loophole did not make sense. If there was a construction of a number of bunkers covering each other, then the calculations needed only to stop yawning and stop all attempts to get around the flank.
Of course, the bunker was not something serious and from the category of "not taken." Aviation a bomb of 50 kg, a shell from a cannon with a caliber of 45 mm and higher, a mine from a 120 mm mortar (or a few 82 mm mm) - and the problem is solved. Well, of course, a tank with a gun. This is generally scrap, against which the bunker with receptions is weak.
Problems began when none of the above was on hand. It's hard to say why. In 1943, as it were, such problems no longer existed, as in 41 in terms of equipment.
But we have what we have. The advancing corps in this sector had NOTHING, judging by the way the commanders solved the arisen bunkers problem.
Why? Most likely, we will not receive the answer to this question. Probably, intelligence overlooked, and it is possible that there was no intelligence. The brigade, as it becomes clear from the documents, entered the 25 position in February, and 27 had already begun the offensive.
And in the process, the 2nd battalion came across a bunker system and lay down. No artillery at the disposal of the battalion commander. Tanks also no. Ask the headquarters for aviation support? Not the times, as it were ... And the country is not that.
It is clear that the bunkers were a very unpleasant surprise for the command. Otherwise, in the case of possessing information about the presence of firing points, something more serious would have been invented than what our fighters had realized.
Then what was not included in the official history of the battle, but can be traced through various reports and award documents.
Combat takes the only right decision. Send experienced soldiers to destroy bunkers, and the battalion to divert attention by fire through embrasures.
Senior sergeant Sharipov, Private Galimov and Private Intelligence Officer Ogurtsov went to destroy the bunkers. Since Ogurtsov had the most complicated object, a recent cadet Private Sailor was allocated to help him. Despite the fact that it was only the third day of his front, he was respected by soldiers and officers as a sufficiently trained warrior. This was already mentioned in the first part.
Next, the battle will be considered by the political report of the head of the political department of the 91 brigade.
The first to destroy "his" bunker Art. s-nt Sharipov. The crew shot from a machine gun through the ventilation and seized a machine gun. In the future, alone fought from the captured weapons. The safety of the bunker helped to temper the ardor of the Germans in the attacks on Sharipov.
The next task was performed by private Galimov. He shot "his" bunker with an anti-tank rifle and managed to occupy a fortification. Then Galimov acted in the same way as Sharipov. But then the attacks were angrier. The Germans tried to repel the bunker many times. After the battle, only officially registered more than 30 killed by the Nazis Galimov.
However, the third bunker practically negated previous victories. Obviously, it was the central bunker. And the battalion could not rise in the attack. Peter Ogurtsov already on the way to the object was seriously wounded. Sailors left alone.
Then Alexander acted quite competently, but the lack of experience of the war affected. Lack of skills experienced soldier.
According to Ogurtsov, who was observing the actions of a friend, the Sailors crawled up to the bunker and threw a grenade into the embrasure. Some sources say - anti-tank.
Yes, with an ideal hit, this would have been enough, if not to destroy the bunker, then to suppress it. Just get an anti-tank grenade in a fairly narrow embrasure difficult even in training. Under heavy fire, lying down, it is almost impossible.
It is enough to see the performance characteristics of the Soviet anti-tank grenades. RPG-40 - 1,2 kg. RPG-41 - 2,0 kg. At best, the average throw range is 20-25 meters. Lying under the machine gun fire, I don’t know, but I don’t want to talk about range and accuracy at all.
Plus, you still need to get so accurately that the grenade flew into the interior of the breech and hit it about something. Otherwise, the fuse will not work. Ideally, of course - in the side wall of the bunker, closer to the machine gun to cause a collapse. But we are not talking about ideals.
However, the force of the grenade explosion stunned the machine gunner. The bunker was silent. The battalion rose to the attack. And here the bunker came to life. The task was not completed. It was then that the Sailors and closed the embrasure with his body ...
Here again, there are doubts. The fact is that technically it is very difficult to close the embrasure. The embrasure wall is almost vertical. It is constructed in such a way as to exclude the possibility of this “body closing” or blockage with any objects during shelling by artillery.
Imagine how this happens. A man stands on the ground and closes the embrasure. He dies, his legs give way and ... Everything. You can talk about any plants or staples to hold on to. Only the dead can not firmly squeeze hands. Add to this the machine gun fire. 1200 rounds per minute. With a speed of 750 meters per second. The body will drop in a couple of seconds.
So, in our opinion, Matrosov died a little differently. Using precisely the weak point of the bunker. Covered not embrasure, and ventilation. Even if not wanting to. Most likely, Alexander climbed onto the roof to use his PCA and shoot the Germans through the hood that was above the machine gun. But, apparently, he was shot either by the Germans at the rate, or from somewhere in the trenches where the other participants of this battle were defending.
Here it all comes together. Even a machine gun such as MG will not be able to lift the killed up by force of fire. The Germans were simply forced to leave the shelter to release the hood. Considering that the battalion was conducting a distracting fire on the bunker, this is still a pleasure.
It was possible for the Germans to open the door. Perhaps that is what they did. The fact is that in any case, the actions of Matrosov made it possible for the infantrymen to get close to the bunker. Where further bullets and grenades flew - into the embrasure or the open door - is no longer important.
It is important that the Germans accepted the death, most likely, a quick one, and the task was completed.
In the further interpretation of the feat, the names of Senior Sergeant Sharipov, Private Galimov and Ogurtsov are not mentioned. In the award documents on Matrosov about their exploits there is no information.
The only document where they are is the order for the brigade with the number 40. About awarding the distinguished. Sharipov received the medal "For Courage", the Galimov Order of the Red Star. The name of Peter Ogurtsov disappeared altogether.
It is clear that such feats were many. In particular, the commander of a platoon, Lieutenant Mikhail Lukyanenko, about whom nothing is known even today, accomplished the same feat on almost one day with Matrosov. Literally in the next village. And for the entire war officially registered over 200 repetitions feat Matrosov.
And this list of heroes began not Alexander Matrosov. He began his junior political director Alexander Konstantinovich Ponkratov. It was precisely the political instructor of the tank company 125 of the tank regiment 28 of the tank division (commander colonel Chernyakhovsky) of August 24 1941 of the year in battle for the Kirillov monastery on the bank of the Volkhov that was the first in the history of the Great Patriotic War to cover the enemy machine gun with his own body. A few seconds won was enough to organize the attack and the capture of the monastery by our troops ...
It is possible that the story was about the same as we described. Based on all written, we can draw the following conclusions.
If the Sailors fell on the embrasure of the German firing point, then:
1. He would not have closed it, in view of the embrasure's elevation on the ground. The fighter would get a series of bullets and fell under the weight of his own body. Physics.
2. The MG-42 rate of fire (1200-1500 per minute), the body could simply be thrown off from the embrasure. Also physics.
3. The most important point. Our soldiers were not idiots. This is a fact that is proven by the May 1945 of the year. And in 1943, they already knew how to fight. Therefore, by the way, more experienced Galimov and Sharipov survived in a similar situation. Story.
But there were plenty of examples of the curvature of the then writing brethren. The same soldiers of General Panfilov are the best (if I may say so) example. And such examples are wagons.
We are sure that there is something similar here. It was written for the "masses". And there it does not matter where this embrasure was: in the frontal or rear part. Or even on the roof. The main thing - that was. And her sailors closed. And further in the text.
But, nevertheless, an asteroid, especially in the gentlemen's garden of the “truth-hunters”.
The feat is always a feat. You can search for inaccuracies in the official version. You can catch commanders in distorting real information. But it is impossible to take away his feat from the soldier. You can select a reward. You can select papers from the archive.
But the memory of those whom he saved with his own death cannot be taken away. And really grateful descendants, the memory is also not easy to wipe.
We are confident that we were able to explain most of the controversial moments that occurred 75 years ago in the Pskov region.
And, in our opinion, the feat of the Soviet soldiers, Ponkratov, Matrosov and their followers, our conclusions did not detract.