Military Review

Wroclaw City, bronze gnomes and diorama of the battle of Raczawica (part 2)

97
On the subsequent events that followed these, the historian N.I. Kostomarov. in his monograph "The Last Years of the Commonwealth" reads: "Ygelstrom sent against the rebellious Madalinsky and the troops sticking to him General Denisov, who stopped in Skalmerzha, and sent a detachment to the enemy, under the command of Major General Tormasov. Reckoning that the enemy had a little more, Denisov gave Tormasov a small detachment, only two battalions and two infantry companies, six cavalry squadrons and a Cossack regiment. Kosciusko learned that Madalinsky was in danger, left Krakow and united with Madalinsky before reaching Tormasov before him. Brigade of Mangeta and Valevsky, Zayonchek with popular cavalry and 16 cannons were with Kostyushka. According to Russian news, with him were 7 battalions, 26 squadrons and 11 guns, and up to two thousand men with peaks and scythes. In addition to the troops, detachments of gentry from the ravish, Sieradz and Lenchitsky voivodeships came and were brought - young landless gentry, who had almost nothing to lose. . .


Wroclaw City, bronze gnomes and diorama of the battle of Raczawica (part 2)

Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz". Polish soldiers escort Russian prisoners.

Hostile troops met at the village of Raczawica. The deep valley divided both troops. Tormasov made an attack. At first, things went well for the Russians. Folk cavalry could not stand the attack and fled. But Kostiushko, concentrating his forces, struck at the Russians; Cosineers rushed forward — flakes armed with braids; Russian troops turned out to be smaller, and it entered the valley, where it was inconvenient to turn around. Tormasov ordered to break into bayonets. But the Poles pressed them so hard that the Russians could not stand it.


Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz". The culmination of the battle. Polish carrier attack Russian battery.


Fragment of the panorama. "Fight for guns."


Fragment of the panorama. “Desperate hand-to-hand: Russian soldiers against Polish operators”.


Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz". Russian gunners are trying to divert the gun from the position. By the way, Tadeush Kostyushko wrote about the Russian artillery the following: “The corps of Russian artillery is usually numerous. The attack of the army corps is preceded by uninterrupted volleys of this artillery. Artillerymen shoot fairly quickly, but they are poorly controlled by fire, and they don’t target well with guns. ” One could not believe it - after all, the enemy writes, but at that time many of those who served in our army wrote about the poor state of the artillery of the Russian army. So it is not surprising that the Poles could not stop the volleys of Russian guns in this battle!


Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz". Tadeusz Kosciuszko personally leads trainers to attack!


Fragment of the panorama. Tadeusz Kosciusko, in the a la man guy, heads the attacking trainers.

First ran the grenadier battalion of Count Tomatis, abandoning his gun. Tormasov moved a regiment of the Uglitsky regiment into the company, but this company followed the example of its comrades and, abandoning its rifles, fled. The third battalion held out more than the others, but at last it was mixed and ran into the forest. Colonel Muromtsev with four squadrons rushed to the enemy's cavalry, but was killed. Russian guns went to the winners. The Russians numbered killed: two staff officers, ten chief officers and privates 425. Among those killed, besides Muromtsev, was another staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Pustovalov, who was previously distinguished by his bravery. Kostiushko of two claps made an officer for the courage shown in the capture of Russian guns.


And this is a “small panorama”. In the center of the layout of the battlefield, and around the perimeter of the figure in the uniforms of the battle.

Denisov, meanwhile, was in a hurry to help Tormasov, but it was too late. Kosciuszko, defeating the Russians, retreated and became in a fortified camp near Promnik, not far from Krakow. ” (Kostomarov N.I. Last years of the Commonwealth. Historical monograph. - 2nd ed. - SPb., 1870. - SS. 708-709.) Such was the description of the battle of Raclawice - one of the first battles during the uprising of Tadeusz Kosciuszko against the Russian Empire. It happened on April 4, 1794 near the village of Raclawice in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship.


Polish infantry 1794 of the year.

For the conduct of hostilities, Kosciusko at this point was able to gather the following troops:
The number of the name of the regiment and the commander of the number of soldiers
2 battalion. Chapsky Infantry Regiment: 400 bayonets
2 battalion. Vodzitsky Infantry Regiment: 400 bayonets
2 battalion. Ozarovsky Infantry Regiment: 400 Bayonet
1 battalion. Raczynski Infantry Regiment: 200 bayonets
10 Cavalry Squadrons. Under the command of Madalinsky: 400 Sabers
10 Cavalry Squadrons. Commanded by Magnet: 400 Sabers
4 Cavalry Squadron. Under the command of Bernatsky: 160 Sabers
2 Auxiliary Squadron. Duke of Württemberg: 80 Sabers
Total: 2440 people.


Polish cavalry in 1794 uniforms of the year.

In addition, the Małopolskie Voivodeship was able to put 11 cannons and 2000 peasants to the insurgents, armed with peaks that were transformed into peaks (the so-called “cosiniers”), who had a decisive role in this battle.


Carpenter claps in their traditional Jupana.


And this, too, they. Some are shown in a very funny way, aren’t they?

Unfortunately, the exact description of this fight does not exist. Descriptions of different authors sometimes differ quite significantly. However, in general, we can restore its course approximately as follows. First of all, it should be noted that General Tormasov, meeting with the enemy and having at his disposal considerable forces, superior to the forces of the enemy, attacked the Polish troops, turning to them in front. Russian troops attacked the traditional closed ranks, lining up in a line, shoulder to shoulder, in several rows. That is, everything was done in the best traditions of the linear tactics of the Prussian military school of Frederick II. This system made it possible to conduct on the enemy frequent and effective fire, when the first rank gave a volley from the knee, and the second over the heads of the first. The disadvantage of such a triple system was its poor maneuverability and dependence on the terrain.


Well, these are Russian soldiers in the famous “Potemkin uniform”.

Meanwhile, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, who participated in the War of Independence 1775 — 1783, had more advanced tactics. His soldiers, like the Americans in clashes with the British, fired at the enemy, applying to the terrain, using natural shelters. While there was a firefight, the detachments of men-makers, whom Kostyushko personally commanded, were able to quietly bypass the positions of the Russian detachment and were in his rear. Tormasov did not notice this, and when the makers went on the attack it was already too late. The attack of the trainers was so rapid that they managed to capture all the Russian guns and thereby forced the Russian troops to flee from the battlefield. But, although this was a victory, Kostiushko’s forces were still too small compared with the forces of the Russian army to decide to pursue the Tormasov detachment, so that the Russian troops, after the defeat suffered, could continue their actions in the Malopolska province.


The monument to Bartosh Glovatsky, who managed to rivet one of the Russian guns.

That is, the victory at Racławice represented only a tactical success, although it contributed to raising the morale of the rebels. After him, they were joined by the majority of the Polish lands, as well as by Lithuania and Courland, after which the uprising began in Warsaw itself. It forced Russian troops to leave the city on April 17. Well, after the battle, Kosciusko noted the peasant volunteers who distinguished themselves in it, who were given the rank of cornet for their valor. And in honor of the victory in Warsaw at the parade, the kosyneri passed in their national clothes of the small peasants, that is, in the sukmanas, which were long-haired homespun kaftans. One of the serfs who participated in the battle, Bartosh Glovatsky, who riveted a Russian cannon, later became a national hero of Poland.


In the place of this battle today there are monuments everywhere ... Well, I want the small people of a small state of "great victories" over a strong neighbor. Let not now, at least in the past.

By the way, it is interesting that the caps of the “Confederate” that the troops wore during the days of this Polish uprising, and the two crossed braids during the Second World War became the emblem of the Polish 303 fighter squadron.

However, I already learned about the squadron later, and it was then that time was already pressing for me very strongly. Although three museums turned out to be right next to the diorama building: the National, Technical and Architecture Museum, and also a monument to the victims of the UPA, which I would also like to look at. But time was running out. Therefore, I looked at the map and went, and went very quickly. A glance noted how many language centers in Wroclaw, all sorts of “delicious eateries” and restaurants, there are very few foreign tourists on the streets (not at all, for example, what can be seen in Prague), really incredible cleanliness on the streets and universally new tiled roofs ...


Photographing at this speed was especially no time. But this stone cat was not impossible to capture. I hope that lovers of cats and cats, which are quite a lot on HE, will like it. It is worth it in some alley and it seems even for sale ...

To the rendezvous point - a taxi stand near the Opera House, I approached exactly one minute. I couldn’t just take a lot of things, but “my women” managed to take a whole series of photos.


For example, a photo of this street. At home, it’s just like a toy or from a fairy tale about a princess and a flint.


Well, this clock tower belongs to the old town hall. They appeared on it in 1550 year.


Here was a museum in front of which this effigy stood, which they specially photographed for me. But what kind of museum it is and who owns this effigy I never knew.

We will have to visit Wroclaw again ...
Author:
97 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Vard
    Vard 18 March 2018 07: 26
    +2
    What caught my eye ... This local success was achieved by the Polish slaves ... Peasants ... The Polish lords were not marked by anything ...
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2018 07: 32
      +3
      And you imagine that the infantry under the drum goes in orderly rows and shoots at you, and you shoot at it ... All honor to honor! And the men running with scythes run and chop them into cabbage with them. There is reason to be horrified ... There were no machine guns!
      1. Curious
        Curious 18 March 2018 10: 55
        +17
        The logic is iron. Following her, the infantry should have been re-equipped with braids and changed into lapserdaki, then all the regular troops would have fled in panic.
        There is a clear underestimation of the enemy and poor command and control.
        Kosciuszko managed to deceive General Tormasov, forcing him to step on the false position depicted by the arrows in a loose formation, and when he went from the flank and rear, he hit the Russian infantry with cosiners.
        As soon as Suvororv got down to business, everything fell into place, moreover, very quickly.
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 18 March 2018 16: 12
        +1
        a lot of German spirit left in the Polish city?
        1. kalibr
          18 March 2018 17: 03
          +2
          Everything was so mixed up not to understand where whose spirit was ... Although I saw a Jesuit college with a monument to Ignatius Laiole and the motto of AMDG. Interesting. But they all speak Polish. When we got there, a very cold wind blew, it became less than 20, and we have just come from a city where +35. I had to immediately run to the store and buy my wife and daughter warm jackets. And here it turned out that none of the sellers knew either Russian or English, and this was repeated in several stores. Finally, they somehow bought what they needed, but it was something - "bigger, smaller, the size is not the same ..." Oh ...
          1. Curious
            Curious 18 March 2018 17: 33
            +1
            Would you like to say "former Jesuit college"?
            1. kalibr
              18 March 2018 17: 59
              +2
              Yes of course. Former.
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 18 March 2018 10: 58
      +5
      This local success was achieved by the Polish slaves ... Peasants ... The Polish lords were not so marked by anything ...

      there were simply more of them. And the guns reloaded slowly. No wonder. The war ended anyway with Suvorov in Warsaw. hi and gave the easy words of the great commander a proverb: "what is good for the Russian, then the Germans - death" (regarding alcohol drunk). drinks
  2. Basil50
    Basil50 18 March 2018 07: 59
    +4
    But the author did not mention, but with what actually all these Polish performances began, how did they start? And they always began with the fact that all * non-Poles * were cut out along with their families. This is only in relation to their loved ones, the Poles are respected and respected, they always killed the rest in the most atrocious way. And all these costumes and other Oginski only welcomed both atrocities and murders, while substantiating the right to treachery and atrocities about the same as today, the justification has changed little, only the terms have changed
    The most significant * Polish * uprising was demonstrated during the * Warsaw uprising * where the Poles did everything according to centuries-old traditions: first, German hospitals were cut out, along with all the staff, then German families were killed, along with women and children. All this is for mutual responsibility, which would cut off the very possibility of giving up for the Polish second-hand bldg. , then the leaders themselves surrendered safely.
    1. Yura Yakovlev
      Yura Yakovlev 18 March 2018 08: 29
      +5
      "And they always began with the fact that all * non-Poles * were cut out along with their families."
      In Silesia, everyone can be considered non-Poles. They have a very interesting language. The roots of the words are German, and the endings are Polish. It is very difficult to “cut in”, especially since they switch to it, taking a certain dose on the chest.
      If the author was unlucky in anything, he was not alone, but with his women. If there was one, I would definitely visit a beer restaurant in the basement of the city hall. The regulars of this institution are local students with whom you can talk on any topic.
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 18 March 2018 11: 30
      +4
      Vasily, "first German hospitals cut out, along with all the staff, then German families were killed, along with women and children," they did this and do it everywhere. Remember the uprising of the country, they also “had fun” like that with the families of the colonialists, or the so-called “boxing uprising”, and in Africa there were many cases of such “heroism”. And in Czechoslovakia, after the war with the Germans, they wanted to enter the “best” traditions of the Wehrmacht. Unfortunately, cattle will always and everywhere be found and their "heroism" over the weak
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 18 March 2018 13: 09
        +1
        to the monarchist
        You are absolutely right, it’s a pity that there are just those who are enthusiastic about such manifestations of * heroism *. Even more disgusting are those who are here such atrocities are trying to heroize and are proud of it.
      2. rJIiOK
        rJIiOK 19 March 2018 00: 11
        +1
        Justify it! "Everywhere"! For some reason, the Russians are not doing this. Barbarians, apparently ..
  3. kalibr
    18 March 2018 08: 35
    +1
    Quote: Vasily50
    But the author did not mention, but with what actually all these Polish performances began, how did they start?

    What for? Each topic has its own ... "theme". Do not embrace the immense. The fable is such an "Elephant painter." Just on this subject ...
  4. Adjutant
    Adjutant 18 March 2018 09: 22
    +1
    Beautiful figures
    Thanks to the author
  5. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 18 March 2018 09: 51
    +3
    Article is good, thanks to the author good
  6. Operator
    Operator 18 March 2018 10: 40
    +1
    Some kind of crooked “museum” with mock figures of the participants in the battle, and especially a “hero” with a gun - why did the author have to drag this hacky propaganda piece to VO?

    The general impression of the old buildings of Polish cities is dullness and fading, despite the attempts of local residents to use colored (fading) plaster for walls. Plus dark paving stones, overstated floors of houses and an almost complete absence of green spaces. Plus the monotonous barracks architecture of the 18th century. Plus dirty red unplastered brickwork of individual buildings.

    Only people with Polish surnames can receive aesthetic pleasure from this squalor laughing
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 18 March 2018 10: 56
      +1
      Operator, do you like big cities? And I would be interested to see such houses. In modern cities, something alien, but in the old streets some nostalgia
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 11: 21
        0
        Most of all in the urban environment, I like low-rise buildings (2-3 floors), an abundance of greenery (front gardens, alleys, boulevards) and diverse architecture (rather than Polish-German squalor).

        Plus glass, metal and skyscrapers in the central part of the metropolis.
    2. Curious
      Curious 18 March 2018 12: 58
      +4
      Someone brandy stinks bugs, someone bugs smell of brandy. Accordingly, if we look at architecture through this prism, then, to a question, suppose, about Warsaw, someone will tell about the devastation, homeless people, dilapidated buildings, markets from the 90s in Prague (Warsaw district), and someone will say about Palace Square.
    3. kalibr
      18 March 2018 16: 26
      +2
      Well, are you used to enjoying our gray hacks and brezhnevka, with condoms lying under the windows, used for their intended purpose, and tied in a knot? Very impressive examples of culture. Now in our city the snow began to melt in the spring and all this "beauty" climbed out, like the abundance of dog shit. A variety of balconies and loggias with a reserve "just in case" give the houses a completely original appearance. Well, the dump sites can be photographed for hours. So whoever likes what, Andrey!
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 17: 12
        +2
        We ought to go to Red Square - look at the Khrushchev, Brezhnevka and condoms, you are our full-nosed guy laughing

        And on the shabby German houses, city dumps and broken asphalt, I saw enough from my belly in Poland in 1988.
        1. kalibr
          18 March 2018 17: 55
          +2
          The end of the scoop was difficult not only for us, but also for the Poles, and the Czechs, and the Germans, by the way. Many castles and buildings began to be restored only after 1991. So the Polish scoop of 1988 was not much different from ours. You would see how it is now, in 2017. The difference is very big. You cannot live with the past. Neither good nor bad. And there is nothing to boast of Red Square alone, it should be good everywhere, and not just in the center of the capital. The snow will come down, I’ll make a photo selection with rubber bands especially for you ...
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 18: 08
            +1
            I have already cited an example from Sochi - while preparations were underway for the 2014 Olympics, most of its residents were against reconstruction and new housing development (and not just sports facilities, as Russophobes lied).

            In 2016, I visited Sochi, so the locals spoke to me through the lip - like Muscovites came and prevented them from living comfortably in a city rebuilt from scratch laughing

            And hands will reach Penza.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 March 2018 18: 19
            +4
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, it seems to me, should not go into such extremes. Some youthful maximalism ... However, I have already discussed with you the theme of "rotten fences in them and littered balconies with us." The article is great, thanks!
            1. kalibr
              19 March 2018 07: 50
              +1
              Anton! What are you surprised at? I work with students, they are young, so young in heart!
    4. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 18 March 2018 19: 11
      +3
      "can only people with Polish surnames laughing" ////

      Ahhh ... I didn't expect ... belay You betrayed your ideals, forgot that the Poles are the most important arias?
      The leaders, as it were, of all the world Aryans with the main chromosome R1a on shoulder straps .. laughing
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 20: 34
        0
        The Poles are 104 years behind the Russians all the way - in 862, the Russian state was created in Novgorod, in 882 the principality of Kiev became part of it, and the goleted Polish state was created in Gniezno only in 966.

        Those. Poles jumped on branches when we created the largest state in Europe from Ladoga to the Dnieper and from the Western Dvina to the Northern.

        The distribution center of the descendants of the Aryans (up to 100% of R1a carriers) at that time was not in Poland (it never was there), but in the upper Dnieper, today the center is located in the Central Black Earth Region of the Russian Federation.

        Those. only Russians have the right to speak on behalf of all descendants of the Aryans, including on the members of the Israeli tribe of Levi (by the way) laughing
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 18 March 2018 23: 37
          +2
          "only Russians have the right to speak on behalf of all descendants of the Aryans" ///

          AND! But what about. True arias ... thanks for clarifying. recourse Slightly changed compared to the 30s. Only the Aryans were replaced from incorrect to correct.
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 23: 46
            0
            If you are Semite (J1), Hamit (E1) or Celt (R1b), then this does not apply to you by definition.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 19 March 2018 00: 30
            +3
            I propose not to strain right away, with such statements, the “operator” - a potential client of the Simon Rosenthal Center, will be sorted out there.
            1. kalibr
              19 March 2018 07: 46
              +1
              Yes, yes, I forgot that this is the one on the haplogroups ... of that ... "Hello, what haplogroup do you have? Oh, this one ... I'm not with you!"
      2. Gopnik
        Gopnik 19 March 2018 16: 33
        0
        Why is this
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Poles - the most important arias
        ??
        1. kalibr
          20 March 2018 20: 40
          0
          And you look at the distribution map of the haplogroup Ra1 and you will see that today its carriers of about 50-60% live in Poland ... Yes, in Russia too, but also in Poland ...
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 21 March 2018 14: 40
            0
            50-60% of Poles are its carriers. About the same percentage and Russian.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 18 March 2018 11: 13
    +3
    "The Battle of Raclawica" is a good example of how NOT to fight and how to. General Tormasov was sure that he was joking to deal with the rebels and did not bother with preliminary intelligence. And most importantly, he did not think that Kosciuszko was capable of a roundabout maneuver. In the same way, self-confidence destroyed the “red Napoleon” Tukhachevsky when he was sure that he would cope with Pilsudsky jokingly
    1. Operator
      Operator 18 March 2018 11: 23
      +3
      How to fight, Kostyushko demonstrated Suvorov.
  8. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 18 March 2018 12: 21
    +2
    "Have to visit Wroclaw again ..."
    Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich, if you have the opportunity, then try to visit the ancient cities of Bydgoszcz and Torun, which are closely connected with the battle of Grunwald, on the banks of the Vistula. In Torun there are many interesting things related to the life of Nicholas Copernicus, and the Torun Treaty with the Crusaders, after their defeat at Grunwald. There are a lot of interesting topics related to Russia, Lithuania and Poland. It may be possible to find out something about the predecessor of Poland and Russia - Slavia. But in my opinion the card is in the Czech Republic.
    1. Operator
      Operator 18 March 2018 13: 44
      0
      Slavia is a literary image.

      The very first state formations of the Slavic tribes were:

      1. Itself (623, the territory of the future Czech Republic, Moravia, Slovakia, eastern Austria and Slovenia, eliminated by the Avars)

      2. Bulgaria (681, liquidated by the Byzantines in 1018, restored in 1185, liquidated by the Turks in 1422, restored in 1878)

      3. Moravia (822, the territory of the former state of Samo plus southern Poland, eliminated by the Hungarians)

      4. Russia (862, with capitals in Novgorod, Kiev, Vladimir, Tver, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Moscow)

      5. Poland (966, liquidated in 1795, restored in 1918, liquidated in 1939, restored in 1944)
      1. Yura Yakovlev
        Yura Yakovlev 19 March 2018 12: 41
        0
        "Slavia is a literary image."

        Yes Yes. This is only a piece of Slavia, and Slavia is a real state from Andalusia to Slovensk.
    2. kalibr
      18 March 2018 16: 30
      0
      Alas, Torun is not planned for this year. I was always drawn to Malbork, and Torun was not far away. Maybe I’ll go there next year. While the wife and granddaughter want to enjoy the beauties of the Adriatic.
    3. kalibr
      18 March 2018 16: 48
      +1
      But in the Czech Republic I was near Mount Tabor. This is not a mountain at all, but a hill. But it was interesting to imagine what was happening here in 1429 ...
  9. Operator
    Operator 18 March 2018 13: 08
    0
    Quote: Curious
    Palace Square

    Normal German architecture of the 18th century - quadratic, practical, buzzing.

    As for colored stucco (if you aren’t in the know), in a central European climate with numerous changes in ambient temperature through zero degrees Celsius, the stucco must be tinted and repaired annually, otherwise it turns into a bleached gray mass, crumbling with whole layers.

    Glass, metal, ceramics, in extreme cases, monolithic cement with epoxy paint - that's all.
    1. Curious
      Curious 18 March 2018 16: 20
      +6
      If you are not in the know, better not write. In the architectural ensemble of the Palace Square in Warsaw, everything that you wrote is not even a square, since it is triangular. And the XNUMXth century is not there. You are in architecture, I think the "teapot", but you have aplomb, like a bucket samovar.
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 17: 16
        0
        How about understanding the written text? Do you confuse the layout of the area (triangular) with the architecture of the buildings (square), the "bowler"?
        1. Curious
          Curious 18 March 2018 17: 44
          +4
          My understanding of the text is much better than your understanding of architectural planning and architectural and artistic solutions.
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 17: 53
            0
            How can such a refinement of perception confuse a triangle with a square? laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 March 2018 18: 25
      +2
      I see, you are a major specialist in the field of construction technologies, probably, like those whose plaster is "showered with whole layers."
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 20: 47
        0
        When you build your own concrete base for a country house, you don’t even learn about building technologies.
        1. Curious
          Curious 18 March 2018 21: 15
          +3
          You wrote about the concrete base as if it were at least the Aswan Dam. Although, of course, it's nice to do something with your own hands. Did you make concrete yourself?
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 21: 26
            0
            Concrete plant near our village.
            1. Curious
              Curious 18 March 2018 21: 51
              +3
              And how did you control the quality of concrete? Suddenly they slipped the broken rubble to you?
              1. Operator
                Operator 18 March 2018 21: 53
                0
                The reputation of the manufacturer is the best guarantee of quality.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 18 March 2018 22: 20
                  +3
                  And where did you apply the knowledge of building technologies if the quality issue was not controlled?
                  1. Operator
                    Operator 18 March 2018 22: 53
                    0
                    You have troubles with logic - you confuse the technology of manufacturing building materials with the technology of their use in construction.
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 18 March 2018 23: 24
                      +3
                      With logic, everything is fine with me. It is precisely on the basis of your answers that allows you to conclude that in construction technologies you are the same "teapot" as in architecture, but aplomb, as in ABS.
                      You’re better off running us about the Aryans, the heirs to the throne of the Emperor of Antarctica. There you are a specialist.
                      1. Operator
                        Operator 18 March 2018 23: 31
                        0
                        Don't bother looking for logic in your marginal brain.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 March 2018 23: 21
          +2
          I’ve been practicing these technologies every day for 25 years. Pens, dear, pens! Want to debate?
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 23: 26
            0
            For 60 years I have been seeing your plastering technologies in life - with eyes, dear, with eyes.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 March 2018 23: 41
              +4
              And my plaster is not "showered in layers", unlike many building "masterpieces" of contemporary "socialist realism" to you and, to be honest, contemporary "gastarbeiterism". And if you do not understand the subject, do not drive the blizzard.
              1. Operator
                Operator 18 March 2018 23: 49
                0
                I believe, I believe, why not believe it: your stucco is stucco to all the stucco - like the load-bearing walls will fall, but it will remain laughing
                1. kalibr
                  19 March 2018 07: 43
                  +2
                  Anton, a builder, and not just a builder, but for many years. So you should not question his words.
                  1. Operator
                    Operator 19 March 2018 15: 42
                    0
                    So we, homespuns, of that - we believe that Anton has the same alien technology, which:
                    - provide absolute adhesion of the plaster and the supporting wall;
                    - repel moisture (both internal and external) from the word at all;
                    - do not allow moisture to accumulate in the plaster;
                    - provide non-freezing moisture in the plaster;
                    - have absolutely the same coefficient of thermal expansion of both the components of the plaster and the supporting wall;
                    - etc. etc.

                    Anton we have a Martian, it’s a matter laughing
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 19 March 2018 21: 32
                    +4
                    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! You know, there was such an episode in the history of Russian rock music. For a year in the 89th "DDT" toured the United States. Interlinear translation of texts was for the English-speaking audience. One of the compositions sounded the phrase: "... he will finish off any Kung Fu theorist." The aborigines were perplexed, and Shevchuk cursed dejectedly, well, how, how can they explain that in our country, every third is a kung fu theorist. And so in everything !!!! There, the "Operator" cited some specifications for the use of stucco mixtures, I will not answer, too lazy, and I feel sorry for the beads. In one he is right, I am a Martian.
                    "... I never liked this planet." (O. Divov)
                    1. kalibr
                      20 March 2018 07: 19
                      0
                      I completely agree with you. Due to the fact that he painted a wooden shower stall in my country house, I did not become a painter at all ...
    3. Yura Yakovlev
      Yura Yakovlev 19 March 2018 08: 49
      +1
      "... in a Central European climate with numerous transitions of the ambient temperature through zero degrees Celsius, the plaster must be tinted and repaired annually"

      This is their stucco. In the St. Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod, the fresco "Konstantin and Elena" stood for more than 900 years, only recently it was sent for restoration.
      1. Yura Yakovlev
        Yura Yakovlev 19 March 2018 15: 11
        0
        In order for the plaster not to crumble, the lime must be extinguished for forty years, otherwise everything is useless, it does not stick to the old one. And be sure to add eggs to the solution.
  10. vindigo
    vindigo 18 March 2018 14: 22
    +4
    There was a familiar Pole from Western Ukraine. Also rushed with Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Until one knowledgeable guy broke it off: “Ahh. We know Kosciuszko. It was him who defeated him!”
    1. Yura Yakovlev
      Yura Yakovlev 19 March 2018 15: 23
      0
      I also had a similar case regarding Polish marshals. Like Marshalek Pilsudski - our marshal, and Marshal Rokosovsky is not our marshal. And I’m telling them - "Shit, your marshal. What did you get from him? Khatyn, Katyn, the Second World War, six million ruined lives of Poles and spoiled relations with Russia. Rokosovsky even created a new army for you." So the languages ​​immediately stuck in one place.
  11. Cat
    Cat 18 March 2018 16: 02
    +5

    Special thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich for the cat!
    In response, I give the Orsky cat Bayun, along with Pushkin (Local Drama Theater).
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2018 16: 35
      +2
      As I saw this cat, I immediately remembered about you. Clicked and ... run on. But the photo came out good. And the cat is good! But I liked your photo with Pushkin. Moreover, the cat is larger than Pushkin. The poet is disproportionate, and the cat ... is impressive!
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 18 March 2018 17: 24
        +2
        the whole nature of Lukomorye and all Russian (more of Pushkin's) poetry were instilled in the cat.
        In short-- a symbol of the riddle (not all of Russia yet)
  12. sib.ataman
    sib.ataman 18 March 2018 16: 26
    +2
    The sculpture with Bartosh (judging by the name of the Magyars?) Reminded me of a Buyan peasant with huge Faberge and a weakened sagging member ** m, maybe it only seemed?
  13. kalibr
    18 March 2018 16: 45
    0
    Quote: Operator
    Most of all in the urban environment, I like low-rise buildings (2-3 floors), an abundance of greenery (front gardens, alleys, boulevards) and diverse architecture (rather than Polish-German squalor).

    Then go to Spain in the Costa Bravo and Costa Dorado. There along the coast are many small towns with houses on two floors, many of which are literally buried in greenery and flowers. Malgrad de Mar, Blanez, Costa del Mar, Calella, Pineda del Mar - there are dozens of them and all are just like that. I really like one long modern house in Malgrad de Mar - two floors, on the first garage and a lawn in front of it, a second balcony and the apartment itself. Behind the house, the gardens of its owners are very large and long. On the outskirts of the shed and there is a watchman!
    1. Operator
      Operator 18 March 2018 17: 21
      0
      I was in Spain and, in particular, on the Costa Bravo, but I had in mind the residential areas of Washington and the business center of Manhattan.

      Moscow City and Moscow suburbs are moving in the right direction laughing
  14. kalibr
    18 March 2018 16: 54
    +4
    Quote: Operator
    Some kind of crooked “museum” with mock figures of the participants in the battle, and especially a “hero” with a gun - why did the author have to drag this hacky propaganda piece to VO?

    Each nation has its own heroes and why not get to know them? For me, for example, the Wroclaw gnomes were a revelation - I did not even know about them, and this same battle - I had never heard of it before. I am sure that many readers of VO have not heard, the more so the battle ... so-so. But I wonder how it is served from the point of view of art. No wonder the diorama was not destroyed, but by permission they allowed the artists to visit the battlemen and study on it. And who won over whom, who cares now, who wants to be comforted by the past, I personally am much more interested in the size of today's pensions and salaries, and why not look at the beautiful.
  15. Operator
    Operator 18 March 2018 17: 25
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    why not look at the beautiful

    Well, if only from the Penza point of view laughing
    1. kalibr
      18 March 2018 17: 48
      +1
      From the point of view of every normal and cultured person!
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 17: 59
        0
        If Tsereteli is accepted as the norm, then you are right

        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 March 2018 18: 50
          +2
          "The unity of peoples and races is growing!
          Leda and the swan are looking at us! "
          1. Operator
            Operator 18 March 2018 20: 48
            0
            Georgia forever laughing
  16. hohol95
    hohol95 18 March 2018 22: 19
    0
    Air Force Russian Service
    Battle of Raslavitsy - Pyrrhic victory of Polish liberties
    Artyom Krechetnikov
    BBC, Moscow
    April 3 2014
    On November 4, Suvorov’s troops occupied the outskirts of Warsaw, Prague on the right bank of the Vistula, and committed a pogrom there: they raped Catholic nuns and raised Polish children with hostility.
    Eyewitnesses recalled this event in different ways. Prince Adam Chartorysky, who later worked at the court of Alexander I, claimed that the Cossacks were atrocious and the grenadiers tried to protect the inhabitants. Prince Jozef Poniatowski, who served Napoleon, did not make a difference between the arms of the Russian forces.
    Of course, Suvorov did not give such orders, but neither in the course of the Russian-Turkish wars, nor in the Italo-Swiss campaign did his subordinates atrocities over the civilian population. Apparently, the Poles were really treated not as enemies, but as rebels against the "Mother Queen", who, until the end of her days, spoke Russian with an accent.
    1. Operator
      Operator 18 March 2018 22: 57
      0
      Quote: hohol95
      Air Force, Artem Krechetnikov: "Witnesses remembered this event in different ways"

      "D. Bily", - S. Lavrov (C)
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 March 2018 23: 12
        0
        The order of A.V.Suvorov to storm Prague:

        "To walk in silence, not to say a word; going up to the fortification, quickly rushing forward, throwing a fascist into the ditch, descending, putting stairs to the shaft, and knocking the enemy on the heads with arrows. Climbing very fast, pair by pair, to defend a comrade; if the staircase is short — a bayonet into the shaft, and climb another, third. Do not shoot without need, but beat and drive with a bayonet; work fast, bravely, in Russian. Keep your middle, keep up with your bosses, the front is everywhere. Do not run around at home, asking for mercy - spare, do not kill the unarmed, do not fight with the women, . Aloletkov not touch Who kill - the kingdom of heaven; a living - glory, glory, glory ".

        In the report of A.V. Suvorov said that the number of Poles killed was 13340, 12860 prisoners. The Russians lost 580 killed and about 1000 wounded.
  17. kalibr
    18 March 2018 22: 38
    +2
    Quote: Operator
    Those. only Russians have the right to speak on behalf of all descendants of the Aryans, including on the members of the Israeli tribe of Levi (by the way)

    Oh my God...
    1. Curious
      Curious 18 March 2018 22: 45
      +4
      Not just talking. And to claim the title of Emperor of Antarctica, too.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 March 2018 23: 57
      +4
      This is how you read some comments, and the shadow of Torquemada reassuringly stands behind him.
  18. Operator
    Operator 18 March 2018 23: 02
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Oh my God

    The source must be quoted in full: "... (by the way) laughing "
    1. kalibr
      19 March 2018 07: 40
      +1
      The primary source is myself, just no more words were found after reading.
  19. Curious
    Curious 18 March 2018 23: 51
    +1
    Operator,
    So we came to the absolutely logical conclusion of the process. You have nothing to answer, therefore you are rude. Rudeness, as a rule, is concealed by complexes with which a person cannot cope on his own: self-doubt, weakness, ignorance, low self-esteem.
    Hence your inability to admit that you are wrong, and the arias that you see yourself as the heir to. Your load is heavy. Good luck in carrying.
  20. kalibr
    19 March 2018 07: 48
    +2
    Quote: Operator
    In 2016, I visited Sochi, so the locals spoke to me through the lip - like Muscovites came and prevented them from living comfortably in a city rebuilt from scratch

    And they did it right. And they could also give a hernia ...
    1. Operator
      Operator 19 March 2018 15: 50
      0
      We Moscow people are simple and peaceful, we beat Poles (according to relatives) - this is such fun here. And sho you so inflamed - for Matka Polska it became insulting? bully
      1. kalibr
        20 March 2018 07: 10
        +2
        And why did you decide that Poland is my mother? It’s just that I’m always, let’s say, didn’t like people sadly limited by their arrogance. And in my opinion, just the Muscovites at one time fell under the Poles quite "normal". This Nizhny Novgorod militia knocked them out of Moscow, and then they clung to him to the heap .. Or am I confusing something? So do not boast about living in Moskvabad ...
        1. Operator
          Operator 20 March 2018 07: 40
          0
          Do you want to tell us about your “historical homeland”? laughing

          Penza does not suit you, you perceive Sochi from the Armenian point of view, the word "Moscow" is wrinkled until you turn blue, then take a closer look at your native Haifa - there are no shards and stalins by definition, it’s warm, the sea again.

          One thing is not clear - what are you doing in the Russian VO, if you are so attached to everything Israeli, Polish, Turkic and Finno-Ugric, are you our teacher of history of the CPSU?
          1. kalibr
            20 March 2018 20: 22
            0
            I already wrote above about what is sad when a person is so limited by his arrogance. And now I see how far limited. Why do you suddenly remember the CPSU, when it happened ... And I also taught in a rural school, what else? Remember, the very last thing to identify a person by his last name. And anyone will tell you that. And regarding my sympathies, I will tell you such a funny fact: Mayakovsky came to Penza with a lecture on futurism. With a carrot in the buttonhole ... Well, they don’t listen to him, the noise in the hall. And suddenly, like that, like yours, a cry from the floor: "Are you not a Jew?" Mayakovsky in response and says - I'm Jewish - a Jew. With Russians - Russian, with Armenians - Armenian! ”He was from the audience:“ And with fools? ”“ And with fools I’m for the first time! ”Here I am also like Mayakovsky. Only I, unlike him, were not so lucky. Even here and you have to meet with them in. Not so often, fortunately, but it happens.

            P.S. It turns out that you have an amazing ability to see other people turn blue on your computer screen. You need to ... But you’ll take a closer look: maybe I, on the contrary, is red as cancer from the excitement caused by your “disclosures”? And why should this mean me from the words Moscow and Moskabbad? It’s ridiculous. Both that and another name today an entrance.
            1. Operator
              Operator 20 March 2018 21: 30
              0
              There are no former teachers of history of the CPSU laughing

              I’m interested in something else: for example, being in a solid mind and sober memory, I can’t afford to contort the name of the capital of the country while on the website of the same country, especially if the website positions itself as patriotic (and even more so if my opponents refers, for example, to the titular nation, but I, for example, do not).

              But many of our "compatriots" (not all) consider this permissible - probably because of the feeling of their "God's chosen people."
  21. Operator
    Operator 19 March 2018 16: 31
    0
    Quote: Yura Yakovlev
    In the St. Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod, the fresco "Konstantin and Elena" stood for more than 900 years

    Before the spread of modern stucco based on cement, stucco based on slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) was used, which differs from cement in that it almost completely releases internal moisture if it has been in a heated room for several years. After that, lime plaster can stand for hundreds of years already in an unheated room.

    Plus a good addition to the lime plaster - egg yolks (natural polymer).

    The same applies to the limestone masonry of medieval brick walls, which withstands more temperature transitions through zero than the highest quality cement (Roman invention for the warm climate of the Apennines).