Military Review

Shock "Pace"

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The most important elements of strategic deterrence in the Russian nuclear triad are Topol mobile missile systems. But the "poplars" did not grow in one day, but the design team led by Alexander Nadiradze paved the way for them. The first step on this road was the Temp-S and Temp-2С complexes.

NEW CLASS ARMAMENT

Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze was born on August 20 1914 in the city of Gori (Georgia), but his whole life is inextricably linked with Russia. After completing his studies at the Moscow Aviation Institute, he worked in various defense design bureaus. In 1958, on the recommendation of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, he was transferred from the design bureau of Vladimir Chelomey to KB-1 and appointed chief designer of the Scientific Research Institute-1.

NII-1 was created in 1946 on the outskirts of Moscow (on Berezovaya Alley) on the basis of some repair shops in the structure of the Ministry of Agricultural Engineering in fulfillment of the now widely known Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "Questions of jet weapons" of 13 in May 1946 of the year.

NII-1 was engaged in the development of relatively small ammunition: aviation bombs, mines, torpedoes, etc. The position of chief designer before the arrival of Nadiradze in the structure of NII-1 was not.

Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze

Headed the NII-1 Director, the development of each munition was headed (supervised, coordinated) by the lead designer. By the way, it is widely known in the defense circles of NII-1 because Sergei Bodrov was its director from the moment of his foundation to death in 1961, who had been removed from the post of deputy minister of agricultural engineering by personal order of Joseph Stalin.

In 1961, Alexander Nadiradze was appointed director - chief designer of the Scientific Research Institute-1 (renamed to Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute, now FSUE Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute) and headed it for 1965 years, until his death in 26.

Since joining KB-1 and especially after 1961, Alexander Nadiradze has concentrated the efforts of his team on creating the urgently needed Soviet Army, mobile front-line tactical missiles as a means of delivering nuclear ammunition at the respective theaters of operations.

Naturally, such missiles could not, by definition, be liquid because of their low combat and operational characteristics - a long preparation period for launch, a limited time of duty in the filled state, the need to deliver fuel components to the locations of missiles and storage there. On the other hand, solid-fuel powder charges of the required power did not exist then either in the USSR or in the world.

The team of Soyuz Design Bureau, self-sacrificingly working under the leadership of Boris Zhukov, managed to create the required powder charges, but even the theoretical possibility of preserving the stability of the characteristics, especially in mass production, was in doubt.

In such conditions, the development of the Temp missile complex was started and proceeded rapidly. Under these conditions, the first brilliant character trait of Alexander Davidovich manifested itself.

Without falling into the euphoria of the first successful launches, without rubbing his glasses for military customers and the country's leadership, he insisted on the need to clarify the direction of work - the transition to composite fuel. In general, reliability, high quality pre-flight ground testing, the ability to withstand any administrative pressure such as "And what will we meet in May Day?", "How do I order to report to the Central Committee (president)?" is still the "highlight" of the team of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering.

In the shortest possible time, the Temp-S mobile missile system was developed and passed flight tests. All were manufactured and were in service with the Soviet Army from 1966 to 1987 years more than 1200 missiles.

The second characteristic feature of Alexander Nadiradze was the absence of fear of a bookmark at the beginning of the development of limiting characteristics in all respects of not only the missiles, its charges, but also all the components of the complex. And about his ability to "squeeze out" of subcontractors in the process of further work, all possible and impossible "juices" are still legendary.



I will give only one example. For the “Temp-S” complex, a team of the Minsk Automobile Plant design bureau under the leadership of Boris Lvovich Shaposhnik, specially designed the 4-axle automobile chassis MAZ-543. With its own mass of 20 tons, it had the same capacity (1: 1 ratio).

Later, dozens of weapons were mounted on the chassis of the MAZ-543 family (MAZ-543А, MAZ-543В, MAZ-543М) and are currently in service with the Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces, Rocket Forces and others. This chassis has also found wide application in the national economy. Alexander Nadiradze “paid off” with the staff of Boris Shaposhnik, not with reprimands or orders, but with apartments, residential houses, skillfully knocked them out of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus.



For the creation of the complex "Temp-S", the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering was awarded the Order of Lenin. Alexander Davidovich, as well as his first deputy Vyacheslav Gogolev and deputy director of the institute for science and design Boris Lagutin were awarded the titles of Lenin Prize Laureates.

It so happened that in the future, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering further dealt with the topic of class rockets only on paper, since the Temp-S complex did not need to be replaced by the troops. The extension of the warranty period of the complex ensured its long life activity.

In the future, Kolomna Design Bureau under the leadership of Sergei Invincible, who later created the Oka and Iskander missile systems, took on the development of shorter, army-range Land Forces for the Ground Forces.

COMPLEX "TEMP-2С"

In 1965, after the removal of Nikita Khrushchev, the industry-wide system of national economy management was restored. It is also well known that at the same time the so-called “nine” was created - a complex of branch defense ministries. Less well known is the consolidation of the functions of these ministries.

Without pretending to complete analysis, the author will allow himself to touch on only one aspect that is directly related to the topic of this article - the creation of mobile strategic missile systems. On the one hand, the space and combat missile topics were relegated to the newly created Ministry of General Engineering, on the other, all teams with at least some experience in creating mobile missile systems were included in the reconstituted Ministry of Defense Industry.

As they say, the circle is closed.

It cannot be said that the Ministry of General Industry did not try to deal with solid-fuel and mobile missile topics. It was developed at the end of 60-s at the Kapustin Yar proving ground that successfully passed the 8K96 complex with a medium-range solid-fuel rocket (launcher index - 15Х15) developed at Arsenal Design Bureau (chief designer - Pyotr Tyurin).

Without explanation of the reasons for the arsenal of the Soviet Army, the complex was not accepted. At about the same time, at the Plesetsk test site, flight tests of the 8K99 complex with an intercontinental missile developed at Yuzhnoye Design Bureau under the guidance of Mikhail Yangel took place.

Unlike the 8K96 rocket, the 8K99 rocket (index of the 15У21 launcher) had a mixed configuration - the first stage of the rocket was solid propellant, the second - liquid. The initial period of flight tests was marked by a number of failures, in connection with which the flight test was terminated by the relevant government decision.



Mikhail Yangel was allowed to shoot the remaining missiles, however, despite the fact that there were still some successful 10 launches, the fate of the complex was sealed.

At the same time, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who, in principle, refused, unlike Mikhail Yangel’s Design Bureau and Vladimir Chelomey’s Design Bureau, to switch to heptyl and other “poison” in liquid-propellant rocket technology, made an attempt to compete with them in combat missile themes.

The 8K98 (8K98P) mine missile system was developed with a three-stage intercontinental range solid-fuel rocket (the launch weight is 51 ton). Albeit with some difficulties, the complex passed flight tests at the Plesetsk test site in test management under the command of Colonel Pyotr Shcherbakov.



Further, since I was not a direct participant in the events, I quote from the book “Polygon of Special Importance” (Moscow, ed. “Consent”, 1997).

"4 November 1966 of the year in 11 hours Moscow time by combat crews Separate engineering test units under the command of Y. Yashin, with the technical guidance of test engineers and chief specialists of the Landfill, the RS-12 rocket was launched. training ground ...

The flight tests of the RS-12 rocket after the upgrade continued until January of the 1972 year, fifty-one launches were carried out. During the experimental duty, the test directorate carried out one hundred and forty-two combat training missiles of this class. "

The 8K98P complex was adopted by the Soviet Army and deployed mainly in the missile division in the area of ​​the city of Yoshkar-Ola.

However, the mass production of 8K98P missiles was minimal - around 60 missiles. Further attempts to return to the solid-fuel (until the end of 70-ies) and mobile (dirt) subjects of the enterprise of the Minoboshchemash were not made.

And with complete skepticism of the Minoboshchemash ("many such") and neutral indifference of the Ministry of Defense Industry ("not our profile"), Alexander Nadiradze sets himself and the team the task: "Creating a mobile soil complex with a solid-fuel intercontinental missile with a monoblock warhead."

After carrying out the corresponding pre-project and design studies, the corresponding development work receives the Temp-1967С index in 2.



As with the Temp-S rocket, all charges for the Temp-2C rocket were developed at the Soyuz Design Bureau in Lyubertsy under the guidance of Boris Zhukov and his first deputy, Vadim Hungarian. The work was hard, but confident.

The former secretary of the party committee Viktor Protasov was "seconded" to the Moscow-based Khotkovo design and technology bureau from the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, which created the country's best design and production organization for the development of fiberglass products (later carbon materials) from scratch. The engine housings, the rocket launch container, the launcher bunker are all fiberglass, and all this is KTB. And today, the Central Research Institute of Special Engineering under the leadership of Vladimir Barybin occupies a leading place in these matters not only in Russia, but also in the world.

By the end of 1968, it became clear that the rocket is working out. Two major issues remained unresolved: the decision on the launch weight of the rocket (discussed below) and the developer of the rocket control system.

The development of a control system for the Temp-2C rocket was entrusted to the Central Defense Research Institute of Automatics and Hydraulics, which, to put it mildly, did not draw on this issue. For the sake of objectivity, I must say that the Central Research Institute of Automation and Hydraulics has always been and still is the main developer of the hydraulic drive (the main designer is now, alas, the late Yuri Danilov) of all the missiles of the Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute, as well as the developer of the ground hydraulic drive for all launchers on which these rockets ever lay.

Shock "Pace"


And again, Alexander Nadiradze takes courageous decisions: he increases the launch weight of the rocket from 37 to 44 tons and at the same time appeals to the country's leadership with a proposal to replace the developer of the rocket control system.

In July, the corresponding decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR is issued on 1969, the main cooperation is specified (Nikolai Pilyugin is appointed chief designer of the missile control system) and the main tactical and technical characteristics are set, the basic terms of work are established. The customer - the Missile Forces, gritting his teeth, gives out, as it was prescribed by the decree, "Tactical and technical requirements for the development of the Temp-2С mobile missile system # Т-001129".

SOME DETAILS

The previously mentioned 15U15 and 15U21 launchers for the 8K96 and 8K99 complexes were developed in KB-3 of the Kirov plant under the leadership of the deputy chief designer Nikolai Kurin on the basis of the heavy tank T-10. If you characterize them very briefly, then they performed the main task - they went and shot from them. The author, who took part as a young specialist in their creation and launching of missiles, does not remember serious complaints when conducting launches to KB-3.

At the same time, if these launchers are described as a system weapons, it can be said that they did not drive well (in particular, only off-paved roads, because they broke asphalt, the running resource was only 3000-5000 km), their operation was extremely difficult (access to many chassis elements was difficult, replacing some special systems required the dismantling of adjacent systems, etc.).

Therefore, on the one hand, the development of a tracked launcher (15У67 index) for the Temp-2С missile was assigned to the Kirovsky Design Bureau X-3 (and the task for the 37 tons launch vehicle - the KB team did an excellent job), but on the other hand, Alexander Nadiradze simultaneously envisaged the development of the Temp-2С rocket and the self-propelled launcher on the automobile chassis (index 15У68). The development of the 15U67 launcher and the ground equipment of the complex as a whole was entrusted to the same creators of the PU and chassis for the Temp-S rocket - the Volkograd Barricades design bureau (chief designer - Georgy Sergeyev), the Minsk Automobile Plant under the guidance of Boris Shaposhnik.

Now about the main thing, without which, according to the author, no one capable of carrying combat duty or mobile ground rocket complexes would have ever been created.

Here the author is obliged to cite a relatively long quotation from Mikhail Koltsov’s “Chicken Blindness” written in 1932: “I don’t know what“ complex ”is. This word, if it ever meant anything, now from the endless mention at numerous meetings, first of all in the State Planning Commission, she lost it forever. The “complex” refers to anything and more often nothing. When I say “complex,” I stop talking. I have nothing to say to the “complex”.

So, if I needed to characterize the life and work of Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze in one phrase, I would say this: "It was a genius in rocket technology and a man who perfectly understood the importance of the word" complex ".

If the task of overseeing the creation of a launcher, means of transporting, reloading missiles (the so-called CSR-service complex) was somehow cope with a small department of ground equipment of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering under the direction of Kirill Sinyagin, whose main task was to develop a transport and launch container, Nobody knew what a “complex” is at the institute.

I think that then nobody understood it in the USSR.

In any case, the regular regimental structure of the already joint flight tests of the 8K96 and 8K99 complexes consisted of six tracked launchers standing in a circle and a regimental command center located in the center of the circle, consisting of a multitude of vehicles on different types of chassis. Somewhere near the same mobile power. The fact that people need to sleep and eat, that they need to be guarded, Pyotr Tyurin and Mikhail Yangel either did not think, or thought that this was a military matter. Not sure if they understood or did justice to such concepts as “disguise,” “survivability.”

In the depths of the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering, these questions (from the point of view of sophisticated "aksakals" - minor matters) were interested only in a small group of very young engineers, organized first as the 19 sector in the structure of the SKB-1 rocket, led by Boris Lagutin, and then after the appointment the last deputy director for research and design, - in an independent department 110. What do these guys do, what they paint there, few people knew and even more understood, but since the “products” in the form of piles of blueprints, blueprints, etc., they did not give out, they sprinkled some reports, posters, etc. . p., everyone considered them, if not idlers, then, in any case, second-rate people.

And, being guided, obviously, by the well-known Stalinist principle “Cadres decide everything”, Alexander Nadiradze makes a revolutionary personnel decision.

In October 1970 of the year issued an order of the Minister of Defense Industry, which the net rocketman Vyacheslav Gogolev moves from the post of first deputy director - chief designer to the position of deputy chief designer for design, he is assigned to supervise only two departments (for rocket and propulsion systems); Boris Lagutin, 43-year-old is appointed to the post of first deputy director-chief designer.

The first order of Alexander Nadiradze after the announcement of the order of the minister in the structure of the institute creates a complex department (6 department), 30-year-old Alexander Vinogradov is appointed as its head. The 6 department becomes the head office at the institute.



"TEMP-2" AS A WEAPON SYSTEM

The main unit of the complex was the missile regiment.

The regiment consisted of the 3 division and a mobile regiment command post.

Each 9 division of machines: 2 self-propelled launchers on the 6-axle MAZ-547A automobile chassis, machine preparation and launch on the MAZ-543А chassis, 2 machines-diesel power plants (in each 4 diesel-unit with a power on 30 kw) on the chassis "MAZ-543", 2 domestic supply machines (machine-dining room, car-hostel) on the chassis "MAZ-543В", 2 guard machines (machine of duty shift of the guard on the chassis "MAZ-543" and machine battle post based on the BTR-60 chassis).

The regiment's mobile command post also includes 9 vehicles: combat control vehicles and communications vehicles on the MAZ-543-A chassis, tropospheric communication machines on the MAZ-543В chassis, 2 diesel-electric power stations, 2 domestic services machines and 2 security cars.



All machines were developed as part of the development of a single Temp-2C rocket complex, underwent joint flight tests in its composition and were adopted by the Soviet Army with a single resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers.

The complex also included equipment that ensures the life cycle of missiles and ground equipment units: means of transporting and reloading missiles, storing them at arsenals, procedural and training facilities.

Joint flight tests of the Temp-2C complex (PC-14 complex) were launched by launching the first 14 rocket in March 1972 of the year at 21 an hour of 00 minutes from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. The flight design stage in 1972 was quite difficult: the launch 2 (second and fourth) of 5 were unsuccessful.

However, there were no further failures. In total, 30 launches were conducted during flight tests. The joint flight tests were completed in December of the 1974 by launching 2 missiles with a salvo.

The Temp-2C mobile ground-based missile system was adopted by the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1976 for the Soviet Army. However, in accordance with the Treaty on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, it was considered as if not deployed.

All 42 serially manufactured Temp-2C missiles were on combat duty at the Plesetsk test site at a permanent deployment site in the vaults.

For the creation of the complex, the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering was awarded the second Order of Lenin. Alexander Nadiradze was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.

Two employees of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (Alexander Vinogradov, Nikolai Nefedov), the chief designer of the Minsk Automobile Plant Boris Lvovich Shaposhnik, the first deputy chief designer of the OKB Volgograd Barricades plant (at the time of assigning the title to the chief designer - the OKB-1 plant) Valerian I, I, I, I, I, I, have not been the first time - Test Designer of the Research Institute of Automation and Instrumentation Igor Zotov, as well as the chairman of the State Commission for the conduct of joint flight tests of the gene The eral-lieutenant Alexander Brovtsin was awarded the title of laureate of the Lenin Prize.

More than 1500 workers of cooperation, which created the complex "Temp-2С", were awarded government awards, around 30 were awarded the title of laureate of State Prizes of the USSR.

Despite the seemingly relatively modest deployment of the Temp-2С complex, it should not be forgotten that it was not only the basis for the further development of mobile missile themes in the USSR, but also allowed for the accumulation of operational experience and the training of both civilian and military personnel. I hope that I will still have the opportunity to talk about civilians in the future, but concluding, I will mention only the further service of some military specialists from the Plesetsk test site who were directly involved in conducting joint flight tests of the complex.

The head of the landfill, Lieutenant-General Hero of the Soviet Union, Galaktion Alpaidze, after retiring 1975 in the year, was Deputy Director of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering for warranty supervision for about 20 years and made a worthy contribution to the deployment and operation of the Pioneer and Topol complexes.

The head of the test unit, lieutenant colonel Nikolai Mazyarkin with the rank of lieutenant general, commanded the Kapustin Yar test site. He died in retirement in the city of Minsk.

The head of the integrated department of the test management, Lieutenant Colonel Gennady Yasinsky, was assigned by the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU to the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering in 1973. Major General, permanent technical test manager, in 1992-1997, first deputy general designer and director of the institute, from 1997 to the present, first deputy general designer for testing and warranty supervision.

His deputy, Lieutenant Colonel Mikhail Zholudev, and the head of the group, Major Albert Zhigulin, Major Generals, completed the service as deputy commander of the Plesetsk test site.

Major Vasily Kurdaev, Lieutenant Alexander Bal, commanders of the first combat crews, lieutenants Dmitry Bespalov, Yevgeny Rezepov resigned from various command posts in the central office of the Ministry of Defense and the Plesetsk training ground in the rank of colonel.

Excuse me those who did not name.

In conclusion. The author is eternally grateful for the life school honorary director - honorary general designer of the Moscow twice order of the Lenin Institute of Thermal Engineering Boris Nikolaevich Lagutin and Alexander Konstantinovich Vinogradov who left us untimely.

The author hopes that he will still be able to persuade Boris Nikolayevich Lagutin to write memories of Alexander Davidovich Nadiradze in a book that the veterans would like to publish long before the 100 anniversary of his birth.
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