Military Review

Wroclaw City, bronze gnomes and diorama of the battle of Raczawica (part 1)

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An interesting thing is our life. For example, you come somewhere and think that you will learn one thing, but you will learn something completely different, and even something about which otherwise would never have known. So this happened to me last summer, when I, together with a group of tourists from Russia, ended up in the ancient Polish city of Wroclaw. Here at VO I already talked about various interesting points related to visiting castles in the Czech Republic, the fortress and museums of Brno, Armory Chambers in Dresden, the city-museum of Meissen, and now the turn has come to Wroclaw. And, of course, with a bias in the theme of "Military Review".



The picture of Jan Matejko "The Battle of Raczawitz".

And it was so that ... for some reason I forgot to look in advance on the Internet exactly what awaits me in this city and what sights of the "militaristic orientation" should I look there. Well, somehow so spun. However, I thought, driving up to Wroclaw, there will also be a city tour and they will show me at least something interesting, and I will buy a map of the city and figure it out myself. However, everything turned out to be wrong, or rather, not quite. That is the rule that “God is his, and the devil is his,” we all must remember.

The bus dropped us off in a strange place by the huge red brick church. This is where our tour started, and, alas, there were no kiosks with tourist maps in the line of sight.


The very place from which began "my Wroclaw." How many times did he tell students about how the walls of medieval cathedrals were strengthened by counter-forts, and then ... here they are right before your eyes. And the building itself is literally saturated with the spirit of the Middle Ages.

However, nothing really terrible happened. The Pole-guide was a very pleasant and erudite person, clearly in love with his city, which turned out to be a pleasure to listen to. I note that some "just work" and I do not really like such guides. Immediately, the man clearly approached the “work with the soul” and, of course, it was very nice.

We passed to the majestic cathedral of sv. John the Baptist, destroyed during the battles for Breslau - this was the name of this city among the Germans, practically 70%, and then past the papal faculty of theology, down the Cathedral street and across the Tumsky bridge across the Oder River (or Oder in Polish) to the city center . It turned out, and personal impressions only confirmed that Wroclaw can be called the most romantic and quiet city in Poland. It is interesting because of the fact that there are entire 12 islands in the city, to which beautiful bridges lead, which makes it just an amazing place for walking and recreation.


Islands in the city connect here such bridges.

Well, the combination of the most diverse cultures and objects of architecture give it a completely unique and unique look in its own way. But the most important advantage of it, in my opinion, lies in a small number of tourists. Therefore, Wroclaw is spared from the crowd and excessive noise.

Wroclaw City, bronze gnomes and diorama of the battle of Raczawica (part 1)

Cathedral of John the Baptist.


Model of the cathedral near its entrance, allowing you to see it entirely.


One of the buildings on the Cathedral Street ...

On the way to the center, the guide told us that the search for ... dwarfs, whose miniature figures are made of bronze, awaits us and are located throughout the city in various places. I have never heard of such a Wroclaw sights, so I listened to the story of the guide with great pleasure.


By the way, there are a lot of museums in Wroclaw. There is a unique palace of medal art. There is the Military Museum, where I, unfortunately, have not already got, although there is a wonderful collection of helmets and many other weapons, including Polish nominal sabers.


And this is the Prussian Royal Palace and also a museum that tells about a thousand-year stories Wroclaw city.

According to the guide, Poland 80-ies of the XX century was an unpleasant sight: all-consuming censorship, human rights violations, empty store shelves, politicians hypocrisy and a gray suffocating reality. All this led to the birth of a small community of dissenters with the regime. But they decided to act not by force, but by the methods of the “Orange Revolution”, which is why society was called the “Orange Alternative”. Since the police immediately blinding the anti-communist slogans appearing here and there on the walls, members of the “Alternative” began to paint orange gnomes with flowers in their hands on these places.

The first orange gnome was painted on a transformer box 31 August 1982 of the year. And soon their images appeared on the streets of all five major Polish cities. So people showed that they were against power, but it was impossible to bring them to justice under serious articles. Well, it’s like now in Catalonia, where all transformer booths are written with the words “Catalonia is not Spain and“ Fuck polizia! ” Then the guards of the socialist law and order of the city of Wroclaw began to arrest activists who were distributing candy to people on Svidnitskaya street. In response to the arbitrariness of the police, the crowd began chanting “Dwarfs exist!”. And this event and entered the Polish history under the name "Revolution of the Dwarfs." Well, when the communist regime in Poland fell, on Svidnitskaya street, in memory of this event, a memorial sign was installed in the form of ... a bronze gnome. And now they stand all over the city in various places and depict dwarfs engaged in various affairs, and no one knows their exact number!


The very first memorable gnome is “a fighter with a totalitarian regime.”


But such a dwarf met me. Actually, there are a lot of them, but the main theme of this article is still military, so the topic of the dwarfs can hardly be further developed. Although a couple more show, I think you can.


And so ...


And these ... dwarf firemen.

And here I don’t remember from what place, on the opposite bank of the river, I saw a strange cylindrical building in avant-garde style and, of course, immediately asked the guide, what is it? “Oh, this,” he replied, apparently not very interested in such things, “is a panorama of the battle of Raczawitzi, where in 1794, the Polish kosyneri routed the Russian troops of General Tormasov.” I did not dare to ask any more, because I was ashamed of my ignorance. He seemed to know the whole history of the three sections of Poland, what lands to whom, when they left, that the dictator of the uprising, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, was captured in battle with the Russian troops, was kept in custody under Catherine, but was forgiven by Paul the First, and then asked Napoleon for help, Suvorov for the suppression of the Polish uprising he received the rank of field marshal, but he knew nothing about this battle. And I wanted to see her right there. Finding out where the bus will wait for us and to which hotel it will take us, was a matter of minutes, after which “my women” (wife, daughter and granddaughter) went one way, and I finally bought a tourist map, found a point on it the rendezvous near the opera house and ran off at full speed to the other - to watch the desired diorama. And looked ...


Here it is - this diorama, or rather, the building in which it is located. For some reason, like a wicker basket.

First of all, a personal impression. Back in 1962, I first saw Roubaud’s Sevastopol Panorama, and also the Storm of Sapun-Gora diorama, and they made a terrific impression on me. The panorama museum “Battle of Stalingrad”, or rather, what was painted on it, was not very much liked, but the “Battle of Borodino” - the panorama is simply amazing. Diorama "Heroic Presnya. 1905 year "seemed very original to me. There on the subject plane there are human figures, which is not typical for dioramas. But this diorama is also very interesting. It is not as crowded as the “Borodino”, but it was drawn just masterfully.

It was created in 1893 - 1894 by order of the council of the city of Lviv, then owned by Austria-Hungary, in connection with the centenary of this battle. The length of the painting canvas 114 m, height 15 m, diameter diorama 38 m.


Artist Jan Joints on the woods, working on the canvas panorama.


Artist Wojciech Kossak at work.

Its main authors were artists Jan Joyka and Wojciech Kossak. The panorama was opened for viewing on the hundredth anniversary of the battle of 5 on June 1894 of the year in the Polish national general exhibition, which was then held in Lviv.


The building of the Lviv panorama in the Stryi park.

In the 1944, as a result of the bombing of Lviv from the German invaders received damage. In 1946, it was handed over to the Polish authorities and transported to the city of Wroclaw. However, the misadventures of the panorama did not end there. They did not exhibit it, but rolled it up and hid it in the basement of the National Museum in Wroclaw.


Polish artists have repeatedly depicted episodes of this battle, and why it is so clear. Fight at Raczlawitz. Figure by Michal Stakhovich, first published in 1894.

The reason was the unwillingness of the then authorities of socialist Poland to once again demonstrate their “disloyalty” to Moscow, since the demonstration of the panorama glorifying the victory of the Poles over the Russians (even if in the era of Catherine the Great) could have been regarded as an unfriendly act. Therefore, with the decision to build a new building for her, everyone pulled and pulled. Only in 1980, the so-called Solidarity period, the opportunity to start building a new building in Wroclaw for this panorama, as well as the restoration of the canvas itself, which continued until 1985, when 14 June finally opened the panorama.

As for the history of this battle itself, after acquaintance with the complex of the panorama I wanted to get to know it in more detail. And so that eventually managed to find out about it.


Map of the battle from the history of the Akhtyrsky hussars.

And it was so that a considerable part of the Polish gentry, like the gentry of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, although outwardly expressing complete obedience to the Russian Empire, actually prepared to revolt, meaning that France, where the revolution was on the rise, would help fight against tyranny. Lithuanian gentry Tadeusz Kosciuszko was elected to lead the uprising. He participated in the American states' war against England for independence. The uprising began with the fact that the Polish general Madalinsky refused to disband the cavalry brigade, which he commanded, and then suddenly attacked the Russian regiment and seized his regimental treasury. After that, he dispersed the Prussian squadron, who was in Silesia, and moved to Krakow. Already 16 March 1794, the inhabitants of Krakow proclaimed Tadeusz Kosciuszko dictator, and he took a public oath to the people. Accepted immediately, the Act of the uprising gave him the authority of the supreme commander of all the armed forces of the Commonwealth and handed over to him the full power in the country. Immediately, both in Poland and in Lithuania, mutinies began everywhere. To which the Russian ambassador and the commander of the Russian troops in Warsaw, General Igelstrom, responded immediately and sent troops against Madalinsky under the command of Denisov and Τορmasov; in addition, Prussian troops also entered Poland immediately.


For which I always liked the panoramas and dioramas, so it is the presence of a substantive plan. Such great life size layouts, like here, for example. Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz".


But this cross on this very spot stood then, it stands right there and now!


One of the monuments on the battlefield, erected already in our days.

To be continued ...
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38 comments
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  1. Vard
    Vard 17 March 2018 05: 36
    +1
    The Poles are still stirring up water ... Achieving them one understandable goal ....
  2. Albatroz
    Albatroz 17 March 2018 07: 37
    +2
    I especially liked the bronze gnomes
    Thank you for your energy boost in the morning!
    1. igordok
      igordok 17 March 2018 08: 30
      +6
      Quote: Albatroz
      I especially liked the bronze gnomes

      The very first memorable gnome - “a fighter with a totalitarian regime”, for some reason resembles kakashka.
      1. Albatroz
        Albatroz 17 March 2018 09: 00
        +2
        And I think - what does he look like laughing
      2. kalibr
        17 March 2018 09: 36
        +4
        I was also very surprised why he was like that. Well, the artist sees so ...
      3. Mikado
        Mikado 17 March 2018 19: 28
        +1
        The very first memorable gnome - “a fighter with a totalitarian regime”, for some reason resembles kakashka.

        an artist who thinks with his complexes (personal, national, gender-role) will never portray something ingenious. This "sculpture" is more than vivid confirmation. soldier
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 17 March 2018 08: 59
    +18
    You can only envy the author
    In a good way, of course
    That he regularly contemplates such beauty
    It is also envy to us (again, in a good sense of the word) that we look and read such articles.
    Excellent article
    Thank you!
    1. Cat
      Cat 17 March 2018 11: 41
      +7
      There is a little catch.
      1. Vyacheslav Olegovich did not in vain pay attention to where this work was written!
      In the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. But it is especially important for us that this work was exhibited in Lviv.
      2. It is necessary to pay special attention to the year and the preparation time of the work under consideration.
      By the centenary of this victory - 1894!
      Conclusion: I will not dwell on global issues. The Austrian elite, feeding the national hatred of the Slavic peoples against Russia at the end of the century before last, has grown not only its doom, but also two world wars. It is noteworthy that the centennial toy is still playing, but on whose violin and who will be the last note? The big question!
      1. sib.ataman
        sib.ataman 17 March 2018 12: 37
        +2
        Wisely remarked ... The difference between Russians in Russia and other nations of the world is very generous, well, very good. That sometimes plays a bad joke with us. But, according to the rules of martial arts, hatred blinds and weakens. So it’s better for us to look in the future.
        1. Cat
          Cat 17 March 2018 17: 06
          +3
          There are many examples of generosity in the world! There are enough examples of rigidity within our Fatherland throughout its history.
          The exclusiveness of Russia is that initially it was not built only by Russians.
          Yes, Russians in Russia are a backbone, but not the only one. So, along with the Slavic foundation, at the root of statehood were the Chud and Izhora. Together with Smolensk, proprietors joined the State of Prophetic Oleg. Etc.
          Some of the peoples assimilated, some still live nearby: Murom, Zyryans, Mordovians, Chuvashs and many others.
          Some were knitted with blood and weapons: Tatars, Chukchi, etc.
          For centuries, some people have found a common language: the Bashkirs, the peoples of the Caucasus, etc.
          There were no identical ways to Russia, but this speaks precisely of the uniqueness of Russia, its self-identity and uniqueness. We must be proud of this!
        2. Monarchist
          Monarchist 17 March 2018 17: 33
          +2
          “it’s better to look into the future”, but not forgetting the past, and our past was different: sad, sometimes tragic and funny
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 18 March 2018 19: 27
        +1
        "The Austrian top ..." ////

        recourse The most peaceful and enlightened monarchy (relative to others) in Europe was Austrian. And at the same time, it was they who saved Europe at the time by defeating the Turkish army and stopping the advance of the Ottoman Empire to Europe (Austro-Turkish wars).
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 17 March 2018 17: 28
      +2
      I agree with you on all points
  4. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 09: 35
    +5
    In terms of their small victories, the Poles always become big Russophobes. You must always treat this with a smile and understanding, then their arrogance quickly disappears. We need to learn from them a very careful attitude towards the nuances of historical truth when it comes to their independence and patriotic education of their people.
    Many thanks to the author for the article. I was in Wroclaw in the late seventies, when the orange changes were barely noticeable, so I somehow couldn’t believe the guide’s words about the regime’s totalitarianism, but I saw something with the author’s eyes in a completely different way than I had imagined before ..
  5. Fitter65
    Fitter65 17 March 2018 12: 05
    +5
    ... According to the guide, Poland of the 80s of the XX century was an unpleasant sight: all-consuming censorship, human rights violations, empty store shelves ...

    1983-88, when I served in the SGV, it’s true in Stargard-Szczecin, but a couple of times in Wroclaw I was really not on a tour. case after 5 years, I saw in the video salons with Polish subtitles. The same "Greek fig tree", or "Emmanuel" as for hello. Auto transport, every second taxi-Merce, every first Fiat, about Peugeot, or Renault I do not even stutter .In state stores, yes, there was no roll of bread except Milenka (stewed) bread, there were myrind-fanta and salt with matches, but everything was in private stores, though here Soviet food there was sausage, canned food, and even more so chocolate candies It’s not in vain that for many Poles, getting into our Voentorg is like a wonderland (of course, the supply in the air towns was several times higher than that of the land pilots — I visited the Soviet garrison of Borno-Sulinovo — it’s like a selmag with GUM in Moscow) to say that in the NDP there were empty shelves-Grundiki, Sharp, Sony, I’m silent about the clothes and other things that could be bought in the country's stores with empty shelves, in our USSR it was possible to hand over for good money ... What we had in the late 80s and early 90s, even in the worst years of their existence, the NDP and I didn’t dream ... They just resold as always, but only when they put them with the letter ЗУ, they began to sing songs that then, people lived worse ...
    1. sib.ataman
      sib.ataman 17 March 2018 12: 53
      +1
      This is their national peculiarity — to emphasize their exclusivity by the example of their “heroic opposition to the Kremlin”. Well, that’s how Vaska gave me a drunken ear, although he himself asked for it very much, and then he restlessly hates you in his soul for the rest of his life, and, on occasion, he will surely ruffle it, and no peace will change the situation.
  6. Fitter65
    Fitter65 17 March 2018 12: 17
    +3
    since the demonstration of the panorama glorifying the victory of the Poles over the Russians (even if in the era of Catherine the Great) could then be regarded as an unfriendly act.

    So we ... "remember the Polans, our Konarmeysky blades" - it was forbidden to sing so that the Slovenian brothers did not pour "salt on sugar" laughing
    1. Yura Yakovlev
      Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 21: 51
      +1
      "So do we ..." remember the Polans, our Konarmeysky blades "- it was forbidden to sing so that the Slovenian brothers did not pour" salt on sugar "
      Your quote first of all indicates that we treated the Poles as friendly people and were not invaders on their territory. But on television, Koreyba has repeatedly stated that we are invaders with all the ensuing consequences. And where does our power only look?
  7. sib.ataman
    sib.ataman 17 March 2018 12: 29
    +2
    Quote: igordok
    Quote: Albatroz
    I especially liked the bronze gnomes

    The very first memorable gnome - “a fighter with a totalitarian regime”, for some reason resembles kakashka.


    I, too, for some reason had the same feeling, and thought, posed for some kind of cand.
  8. Black joe
    Black joe 17 March 2018 13: 07
    +1
    Interestingly
    Not see every day
  9. Curious
    Curious 17 March 2018 15: 50
    +9
    I wonder if there is still a city in the world that would change how many “host countries”? At different times, Wroclaw was part of the Kingdom of Poland, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, and again Poland.
    1. Yura Yakovlev
      Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 18: 36
      +1
      "I wonder if there is still a city in the world that would change how many" host countries "
      They have the whole country such a patchwork. And this should be known to our Foreign Ministry when building relations with Poland. The slightest improvement in relations between Russia and Germany results in the growth of Russophobia in Poland for Russia. And all because Germany is for Poland the most malicious and most hated enemy, and Russia is not always a reliable partner.
      1. kalibr
        17 March 2018 18: 46
        +2
        He was talking in Germany with one Pole what worked there ... He said that ... the past seems to be forgotten.
        1. Yura Yakovlev
          Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 19: 17
          +1
          Thanks again for the article, very interesting.
          To lay a neighbor in Germany is the norm. There the truth is not just a Pole, but even a German will not tell you.
          1. Cat
            Cat 17 March 2018 19: 53
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            He was talking in Germany with one Pole what worked there ... He said that ... the past seems to be forgotten.

            Vyacheslav Olegovich, the problem is not in ordinary people, but in the political elite!
          2. Curious
            Curious 17 March 2018 20: 54
            +3
            Yakovlev, You obviously lived in Germany for a long time?
            1. Yura Yakovlev
              Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 21: 42
              +1
              Thank God that no, I was only in the exercises for three days. But one of my comrade from St. Petersburg told me how he bought a house there in the XNUMXs and tried to live there, and what came of it with our Russian character.
              1. Curious
                Curious 17 March 2018 22: 11
                +1
                The character is unacceptable there. You confuse the mentality with character. They don’t go to a foreign monastery with their own charter.
                1. Yura Yakovlev
                  Yura Yakovlev 17 March 2018 22: 18
                  +1
                  Almost agreed with you. By the Russian character, I meant the mentality.
                  Not everyone agrees with this, referring to upbringing, as the main action in the formation of character and mentality, but ethno-socionics claims the same as you.
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 17 March 2018 23: 05
                    +2
                    I always explain the difference with an example. If we watch the films “The Fate of a Man”, “They Fought for the Motherland”, “Father of a Soldier”, there we see a Russian character.
                    And the performance of the central chorus of the Vladimir Central at three in the morning at the hotel is a mentality.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 18 March 2018 00: 38
                      +2
                      gold words.... what need to write down! good
                      A performance of a booby boobs chorus

                      I’ll only correct it inconsequentially, dear person .... it will be correct and tolerant: “in a system.” So, you know, somehow ... my Japanese mentality is more pleasant! laughing drinks
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 18 March 2018 01: 25
                        +3
                        Such an attractive part of the female body for you in this interpretation in Japanese will sound something like "oppai". When pronouncing, one should remember the peculiarities of Japanese accentuation.
  10. antivirus
    antivirus 17 March 2018 16: 51
    +1
    I did not understand where the essence of relations with the Poles is. apparently not necessary
    or story. only impressions
  11. Monarchist
    Monarchist 17 March 2018 17: 46
    +3
    V. O. Thank you for not forgetting about us and telling us that you saw and learned interesting things.
    However, I expected everything, but that the cute gnomes, “fighters with the totalitarian regime”, are NEW for me!
    I hope that in the future I will do without fairy-tale characters, otherwise it will become clear that Snow White is Poland, and Baba Yaga is Catherine the Great, and Koschey is a collective image of the Russian autocracy. Just kidding
    1. kalibr
      17 March 2018 18: 44
      +2
      And you imagine my surprise when I found out about this. Before that I had not even heard about it ... I was very surprised by the gnomes and the panorama. Live a century - study a century, but all the same you will not see!
  12. Mikado
    Mikado 18 March 2018 09: 48
    +2
    Curious,
    Such an attractive part of the female body for you in this interpretation in Japanese will sound something like "oppai". When pronouncing, one should remember the peculiarities of Japanese accentuation.

    I will call the other so seductive part of the girl’s bodywink
    The word "Accentuation" is associated with a personality type according to Lichko. hi
    1. Curious
      Curious 18 March 2018 10: 22
      +1
      No, this is not from psychiatry, this is from phonetics. In phonetics, accentuation is the emphasis by emphasizing individual elements in a word or phrase. The Japanese do this quite differently from us.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 18 March 2018 10: 44
        +1
        the French also always hit the last syllable. Each language has its own rattles. hi