The picture of Jan Matejko "The Battle of Raczawitz".
And it was so that ... for some reason I forgot to look in advance on the Internet exactly what awaits me in this city and what sights of the "militaristic orientation" should I look there. Well, somehow so spun. However, I thought, driving up to Wroclaw, there will also be a city tour and they will show me at least something interesting, and I will buy a map of the city and figure it out myself. However, everything turned out to be wrong, or rather, not quite. That is the rule that “God is his, and the devil is his,” we all must remember.
The bus dropped us off in a strange place by the huge red brick church. This is where our tour started, and, alas, there were no kiosks with tourist maps in the line of sight.
The very place from which began "my Wroclaw." How many times did he tell students about how the walls of medieval cathedrals were strengthened by counter-forts, and then ... here they are right before your eyes. And the building itself is literally saturated with the spirit of the Middle Ages.
However, nothing really terrible happened. The Pole-guide was a very pleasant and erudite person, clearly in love with his city, which turned out to be a pleasure to listen to. I note that some "just work" and I do not really like such guides. Immediately, the man clearly approached the “work with the soul” and, of course, it was very nice.
We passed to the majestic cathedral of sv. John the Baptist, destroyed during the battles for Breslau - this was the name of this city among the Germans, practically 70%, and then past the papal faculty of theology, down the Cathedral street and across the Tumsky bridge across the Oder River (or Oder in Polish) to the city center . It turned out, and personal impressions only confirmed that Wroclaw can be called the most romantic and quiet city in Poland. It is interesting because of the fact that there are entire 12 islands in the city, to which beautiful bridges lead, which makes it just an amazing place for walking and recreation.
Islands in the city connect here such bridges.
Well, the combination of the most diverse cultures and objects of architecture give it a completely unique and unique look in its own way. But the most important advantage of it, in my opinion, lies in a small number of tourists. Therefore, Wroclaw is spared from the crowd and excessive noise.
Cathedral of John the Baptist.
Model of the cathedral near its entrance, allowing you to see it entirely.
One of the buildings on the Cathedral Street ...
On the way to the center, the guide told us that the search for ... dwarfs, whose miniature figures are made of bronze, awaits us and are located throughout the city in various places. I have never heard of such a Wroclaw sights, so I listened to the story of the guide with great pleasure.
By the way, there are a lot of museums in Wroclaw. There is a unique palace of medal art. There is the Military Museum, where I, unfortunately, have not already got, although there is a wonderful collection of helmets and many other weapons, including Polish nominal sabers.
And this is the Prussian Royal Palace and also a museum that tells about a thousand-year stories Wroclaw city.
According to the guide, Poland 80-ies of the XX century was an unpleasant sight: all-consuming censorship, human rights violations, empty store shelves, politicians hypocrisy and a gray suffocating reality. All this led to the birth of a small community of dissenters with the regime. But they decided to act not by force, but by the methods of the “Orange Revolution”, which is why society was called the “Orange Alternative”. Since the police immediately blinding the anti-communist slogans appearing here and there on the walls, members of the “Alternative” began to paint orange gnomes with flowers in their hands on these places.
The first orange gnome was painted on a transformer box 31 August 1982 of the year. And soon their images appeared on the streets of all five major Polish cities. So people showed that they were against power, but it was impossible to bring them to justice under serious articles. Well, it’s like now in Catalonia, where all transformer booths are written with the words “Catalonia is not Spain and“ Fuck polizia! ” Then the guards of the socialist law and order of the city of Wroclaw began to arrest activists who were distributing candy to people on Svidnitskaya street. In response to the arbitrariness of the police, the crowd began chanting “Dwarfs exist!”. And this event and entered the Polish history under the name "Revolution of the Dwarfs." Well, when the communist regime in Poland fell, on Svidnitskaya street, in memory of this event, a memorial sign was installed in the form of ... a bronze gnome. And now they stand all over the city in various places and depict dwarfs engaged in various affairs, and no one knows their exact number!
The very first memorable gnome is “a fighter with a totalitarian regime.”
But such a dwarf met me. Actually, there are a lot of them, but the main theme of this article is still military, so the topic of the dwarfs can hardly be further developed. Although a couple more show, I think you can.
And so ...
And these ... dwarf firemen.
And here I don’t remember from what place, on the opposite bank of the river, I saw a strange cylindrical building in avant-garde style and, of course, immediately asked the guide, what is it? “Oh, this,” he replied, apparently not very interested in such things, “is a panorama of the battle of Raczawitzi, where in 1794, the Polish kosyneri routed the Russian troops of General Tormasov.” I did not dare to ask any more, because I was ashamed of my ignorance. He seemed to know the whole history of the three sections of Poland, what lands to whom, when they left, that the dictator of the uprising, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, was captured in battle with the Russian troops, was kept in custody under Catherine, but was forgiven by Paul the First, and then asked Napoleon for help, Suvorov for the suppression of the Polish uprising he received the rank of field marshal, but he knew nothing about this battle. And I wanted to see her right there. Finding out where the bus will wait for us and to which hotel it will take us, was a matter of minutes, after which “my women” (wife, daughter and granddaughter) went one way, and I finally bought a tourist map, found a point on it the rendezvous near the opera house and ran off at full speed to the other - to watch the desired diorama. And looked ...
Here it is - this diorama, or rather, the building in which it is located. For some reason, like a wicker basket.
First of all, a personal impression. Back in 1962, I first saw Roubaud’s Sevastopol Panorama, and also the Storm of Sapun-Gora diorama, and they made a terrific impression on me. The panorama museum “Battle of Stalingrad”, or rather, what was painted on it, was not very much liked, but the “Battle of Borodino” - the panorama is simply amazing. Diorama "Heroic Presnya. 1905 year "seemed very original to me. There on the subject plane there are human figures, which is not typical for dioramas. But this diorama is also very interesting. It is not as crowded as the “Borodino”, but it was drawn just masterfully.
It was created in 1893 - 1894 by order of the council of the city of Lviv, then owned by Austria-Hungary, in connection with the centenary of this battle. The length of the painting canvas 114 m, height 15 m, diameter diorama 38 m.
Artist Jan Joints on the woods, working on the canvas panorama.
Artist Wojciech Kossak at work.
Its main authors were artists Jan Joyka and Wojciech Kossak. The panorama was opened for viewing on the hundredth anniversary of the battle of 5 on June 1894 of the year in the Polish national general exhibition, which was then held in Lviv.
The building of the Lviv panorama in the Stryi park.
In the 1944, as a result of the bombing of Lviv from the German invaders received damage. In 1946, it was handed over to the Polish authorities and transported to the city of Wroclaw. However, the misadventures of the panorama did not end there. They did not exhibit it, but rolled it up and hid it in the basement of the National Museum in Wroclaw.
Polish artists have repeatedly depicted episodes of this battle, and why it is so clear. Fight at Raczlawitz. Figure by Michal Stakhovich, first published in 1894.
The reason was the unwillingness of the then authorities of socialist Poland to once again demonstrate their “disloyalty” to Moscow, since the demonstration of the panorama glorifying the victory of the Poles over the Russians (even if in the era of Catherine the Great) could have been regarded as an unfriendly act. Therefore, with the decision to build a new building for her, everyone pulled and pulled. Only in 1980, the so-called Solidarity period, the opportunity to start building a new building in Wroclaw for this panorama, as well as the restoration of the canvas itself, which continued until 1985, when 14 June finally opened the panorama.
As for the history of this battle itself, after acquaintance with the complex of the panorama I wanted to get to know it in more detail. And so that eventually managed to find out about it.
Map of the battle from the history of the Akhtyrsky hussars.
And it was so that a considerable part of the Polish gentry, like the gentry of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, although outwardly expressing complete obedience to the Russian Empire, actually prepared to revolt, meaning that France, where the revolution was on the rise, would help fight against tyranny. Lithuanian gentry Tadeusz Kosciuszko was elected to lead the uprising. He participated in the American states' war against England for independence. The uprising began with the fact that the Polish general Madalinsky refused to disband the cavalry brigade, which he commanded, and then suddenly attacked the Russian regiment and seized his regimental treasury. After that, he dispersed the Prussian squadron, who was in Silesia, and moved to Krakow. Already 16 March 1794, the inhabitants of Krakow proclaimed Tadeusz Kosciuszko dictator, and he took a public oath to the people. Accepted immediately, the Act of the uprising gave him the authority of the supreme commander of all the armed forces of the Commonwealth and handed over to him the full power in the country. Immediately, both in Poland and in Lithuania, mutinies began everywhere. To which the Russian ambassador and the commander of the Russian troops in Warsaw, General Igelstrom, responded immediately and sent troops against Madalinsky under the command of Denisov and Τορmasov; in addition, Prussian troops also entered Poland immediately.
For which I always liked the panoramas and dioramas, so it is the presence of a substantive plan. Such great life size layouts, like here, for example. Diorama "Battle of Raczlawitz".
But this cross on this very spot stood then, it stands right there and now!
One of the monuments on the battlefield, erected already in our days.
To be continued ...