Military Review

Like Ivan the Terrible failed to break through the window to Europe

67
23 January 1558, the army of Ivan the Terrible launched a campaign against the Livonian Confederation - a military-religious state created in the Baltic by German knights. So the Russian kingdom undertook the first in its stories a serious attempt to “cut a window” to Europe, coming to the Baltic coast.


The 16th century marked the gradual decline of order statehood in the Baltic States. The Livonian Confederation, which included the lands of the Livonian Order and the four bishops, was a politically and militarily weak state formation, on whose lands the neighboring Sweden, Denmark, Poland, and the Russian kingdom were gaining strength. Ivan the Terrible, shortly before the march to Livonia joined the Astrakhan and Kazan Khanates, the Great Nogai Horde and Bashkiria, considered it possible and necessary to expand the country's borders not only to the east and south, but also to the west. Moreover, for more active economic relations with Europe, Russia needed access to the Baltic Sea.

The campaign of Russian troops in January 1558 of the year to Livonia was of an intelligence character. The number of troops was 40 thousand people, and they were commanded by the trusted governor of the king - the boyar Danil Romanovich Zakharyin-Yuryev, the uncle of the king, Prince Mikhail Vasilyevich Glinsky and Kasimov Shah-Ali Khan. It was Shah-Ali to Khan that Ivan the Terrible entrusted the overall command of the campaign to Livonia. Landstag of the Livonian Confederation, trying to prevent the outbreak of the war, decided to transfer to Moscow a tribute in the amount of 60 thousands of thalers. But by the spring they managed to collect only half of this amount, which Ivan the Terrible could not have liked.

Russian troops under the command of the governor Danila Fedorovich Adashev and Alexey Danilovich Basmanov were again sent to Livonia. In April, 1558, the Russian troops besieged Narva - one of the key fortresses of the Livonian Order. Then the troops commanded by Prince Peter Ivanovich Shuisky laid siege to Neuhausen fortress. The resistance of its defenders was suppressed only after a month of siege. In July 1558, the town of Shuisky, surrendered to the garrison of Dorpat, headed by Bishop Hermann Weiland. By October 1558, the 20 fortified cities of Livonia, in which Russian garrisons were stationed, were in the hands of Russian troops. The bulk of the troops for the winter went to the territory of the Russian kingdom.

Naturally, the Livonian Order did not intend to put up with this state of affairs. In 1559, the post of Landmaster of the Teutonic Order in Livonia was taken over by 42-year-old Gothard Kettler (1517-1587), a native of Westphalia, from an old knightly family. He led the 10-thousandth Livonian army and was able to defeat the governor Michael Repnin. However, as early as January 1559, Russian troops of Prince Vasily Serebryany invaded Livonia, who quickly defeated the Livonians and captured the 11 of the Livonian cities.

The military successes of Ivan the Terrible in Livonia seriously alarmed the neighboring countries of Northern and Eastern Europe. Poland, Lithuania, Denmark and Sweden made a demand to immediately cease hostilities against the Livonian Confederation. All these countries had their own interests on the Baltic coast. First of all, they claimed control of maritime communications. If before the Russian merchants were forced to transit through Revel, then in the case of the capture of Livonia and the provision of access to the Baltic Sea, the situation could change - for the better for the Russian kingdom and for the worse for the same Sweden.

While Ivan the Terrible concluded an armistice with the Livonian Confederation, Gothard Kettler, quickly orienting himself in a difficult situation, concluded an agreement with the Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II to establish a protectorate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania over the lands of the Livonian Confederation. However, in 1560, hostilities resumed. The success initially accompanied the actions of the Russian troops, who managed to inflict several significant defeats on the Livonian detachments. But then the situation changed. In 1561, the Vilna Union was signed on the formation of the Duchy of Courland and Semigalia in Livonia. Fleeing from the Russian kingdom, the Livonian Confederation chose to enter into union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.



Centuries later, it is obvious that Ivan the Terrible hurried with the hostilities against the Livonian Confederation, launching an adventure, the consequences of which the Russian kingdom had to clear up for a very long time. To begin with, practically the whole of Europe was up against Moscow because of the war with the Livonian Confederation. It was an ideological, civilizational question - in contrast to the Orthodox Russian kingdom, the Livonian Confederation belonged to the world of Western, Catholic culture. On its side was the moral, political and military support of almost all of Western, Central, Northern Europe. It was during the fighting in Livonia that the demonization of the Russian state and the Russian people began in Europe. This attitude to Russia became decisive for European politics for the next centuries. Europe hated and was afraid of the Russian state. Having hurried events in his striving to gain access to the shores of the Baltic Sea, Ivan the Terrible set up Europe against himself and this was very strongly "backfired" by his successors - the subsequent rulers of the Russian state.

Another negative consequence of the start of the Livonian War was the cessation of the existence of the Livonian Confederation as a formally independent state entity. The lands of Livonia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark. This did not mean anything good for the Russian kingdom, because instead of the weak “buffer” state, which was the Livonian Confederation, the Russian kingdom received on its borders a direct neighborhood with strong European countries at that time. In addition, there was a distant hope for access to the Baltic Sea - one thing to carry it through the territory of the Livonian Confederation and quite another - through the territory of Sweden or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

New phase of the war in Livonia in 1561-1562 led already to a direct confrontation of the Russian kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At first, the Russian troops acted relatively successfully, but then began to gradually lose ground. Thus, in 1564, the Russian army under the command of Prince Peter Shuisky was defeated in the battle of Chashniki by the Lithuanian army, commanded by the great Lithuanian hetman Nikolai Radziwill and Kastelyan of Vilna, Grigory Chodkiewicz. Russian voivod Prince Peter Shuisky was killed during the battle, as were several hundred Russian soldiers.

Prince Andrei Kurbsky, who commanded the Russian troops in the west of the kingdom, went over to the side of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. For the Russian kingdom it was a serious blow, since Kurbsky was a confidant of Ivan the Terrible and owned information about Russian agents in Livonia and Lithuania. Failures in the war forced many influential boyars to request a cessation of hostilities, but Ivan the Terrible responded to these requests with the creation of an oprichnina and a tightening of policies regarding the boyars. As for the fighting, they were decided to continue.

Moscow refused the proposal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to divide the territory of Livonia between the two states and headed for “war to the bitter end,” which was understood as the capture of Riga. In his Livonian adventure, Ivan the Terrible completely forgot about the difficult position of Russia in other areas. In the north, relations with Sweden deteriorated more and more, and in the south Turks and Crimean Tatars became more active. First, the Turkish troops undertook a campaign against Astrakhan, and then, in 1571, the Crimean Tatar army reached Moscow and set fire to the capital. The situation was aggravated by a plague epidemic, which began in 1570 in Revel and caused severe damage to the Russian army. The epidemic of plague and terrible famine in 1571 covered many regions of the Russian kingdom.

The unification of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, which occurred in 1569 year according to the decision of the nobility Diet held in Lublin, was very negative for the Russian kingdom. In the Union of Lublin, Poland and Lithuania were united under the rule of one elected king. The growing fears of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to be defeated in the war with the Russian kingdom became the direct reason for the conclusion of the Union of Lublin Union. The fear of the conquest of Lithuania by Rus, eventually, passed on to the Polish gentry, who nevertheless decided that they could no longer withdraw from the confrontation between Lithuania and the Russian kingdom.

Like Ivan the Terrible failed to break through the window to Europe


Thus, the result of the Livonian campaign of Ivan the Terrible was the emergence on the western borders of Russia of a new powerful state entity - the united Rzeczpospolita. Naturally, the political, economic and military power of the Polish-Lithuanian state has increased many times over the capabilities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania before the union. For two centuries, the Commonwealth has become a permanent adversary, and sometimes an open enemy of the Russian state. During the XVI-XVII centuries. Commonwealth built all sorts of intrigues against the Russian state, culminating in the Polish invasion of Russia during the Time of Troubles and attempts to impose Lzhedmitriev on the throne of Moscow.

In 1579, Sweden entered the war against Russia, which also pursued its own interests. First of all, Sweden did not want the Russian kingdom to reach the Baltic Sea, as it expected to receive income from the controlled Baltic ports. Secondly, the scope of interests of Sweden included vast lands in the area of ​​the Neva River and the Gulf of Finland, which the Swedish king was going to recapture from the Russian kingdom. In 1580, Swedish troops captured Korela (Priozersk), in 1581, Narva, followed by the seizure of Koporye and Ivangorod.

The war in Livonia demanded a tremendous strain on resources from the Russian kingdom, especially since Moscow actually had no serious allies in this confrontation. The constant costs of the war, the Tatar raids, the plague, famine and crop failure led to disastrous consequences for the country. So, only the population of Moscow by 1580 was reduced three times. The total population of the Russian kingdom decreased by about 25%, and this despite the fact that during the reign of Ivan the Terrible new densely populated lands — Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate, Nogai, Bashkir and Cossack lands — became part of the country. People, especially in the central regions of Russia, were mowed down by famine and a plague epidemic, the consequences of which the authorities could not eliminate. Adventurous policy of Ivan the Terrible to conquer the Livonian lands gave its bloody fruits.

No wonder contemporaries called the period of the Livonian War Poruha. This word could not have better conveyed the state in which the Russian lands found themselves as a result of the war. Mortality has risen sharply - from hunger, plague and other diseases. At the same time, Ivan the Terrible engaged in the resettlement of peasants in the Middle and Lower Volga region, which also contributed to the decline in the population in the central regions of the country. Many peasants resettled on their own on the outskirts of the country, trying to avoid enslavement. More than 50% of agricultural land as a result of this policy remained unprocessed, which entailed a further increase in the cost of food and aggravated the famine that swept the Russian lands.

Although Ivan the Terrible, entering into the Livonian War, pursued the goal of providing access to the Baltic Sea and, accordingly, improving the political and economic position of the Russian kingdom, in practice everything turned out completely different. In January, 1582, the Russian kingdom made peace with the Commonwealth, recognizing the latter’s control over Livonia and Belarus. In 1583, an armistice was concluded with Sweden, in which Karelian lands and lands along the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland departed in favor of the Swedish crown. Thus, the goals that Ivan the Terrible set before the war were not achieved. The Russian kingdom not only failed to reach the Baltic Sea, but also lost land near the Gulf of Finland.

18 (28) March 1584, Ivan the Terrible died, leaving unresolved conflicts on the western borders of the country. In 1590-1595 a new Russian-Swedish war broke out, following which it was possible to win the lands they had seized from the Swedes by the year of 1583. As for access to the Baltic Sea, Russia decided this task in a little over a century, already in the XVIII century. Two hundred years after the events of the Livonian War, the Commonwealth also ceased to exist as an independent state, so that, historically, Russia still had the victory.
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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 1 March 2018 07: 18
    +9
    The article is missing - * Ivan the Terrible thought * or * Ivan the Terrible suggested *, well, or something like that. The Baltic formations not only robbed merchants, but closed all trade only on themselves, in addition to this, constant raids for catching slaves and simply robbery were considered commonplace. Failure to comply with treaties and treachery was considered valor among the knights, which even in the canons of chivalrous behavior was spelled out.
    The fact that Lithuania and Poland were * aroused * was their constant state. They carried out predatory raids on Russia constantly, saying that * private individuals * raided. It’s only savages that abide by the agreement and at least some rules. True Caucasians should not limit themselves.
    By the way, after the Livonian War, the boyars in Russia and themselves wanted * gentry liberties * and impunity for any crime. Impunity and unlimited power seemed very tempting. The intrigues and poisoning of Ivan the Terrible and Boris Godunov led to * troubled times * and the subsequent election of Romanov to the tsar.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 1 March 2018 09: 59
      +5
      What other predatory raids from Lithuania, do not confuse the turmoil with the rule of the Moscow Rurikovich, poisoning of Ivan and Boris has not been proved. I am generally silent about chivalry, any contract is respected while it is profitable
      1. tanit
        tanit 1 March 2018 10: 05
        0
        Probably, it means the Ten Years and the Starodub Wars?
        Quote: Cartalon
        What other predatory raids from Lithuania
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 1 March 2018 11: 28
          +1
          And did the Moscow troops collect flowers during these wars?
      2. naidas
        naidas 1 March 2018 20: 13
        +1
        Russian-Lithuanian wars - military conflicts between Lithuania and Russia, represented in the XIII-XV centuries by individual Russian principalities, then - by a centralized Russian state.
        See the map of Lithuania in the 12th and 15th centuries, due to which Lithuania expanded.
        Regarding Poland, a constant tactic of raids was also carried out: the Polish-Lithuanian wars of the XIII-XIV centuries - armed clashes, which took the form of robbery raids organized by Lithuanian princes on Polish lands.
        1. M0xHaTka
          M0xHaTka 2 March 2018 22: 31
          +1
          In those same centuries, Moscow captured the neighboring principalities by military force. As well as Ryazan and Tver. Like Galich. So do not confuse warm with soft
    2. Artek
      Artek 1 March 2018 11: 46
      +3
      The XNUMXth century marked the gradual decline of order statehood in the Baltic states. The Livonian Confederation, which included the lands of the Livonian Order and the four bishoprics, was a politically and militarily weak state entity, the lands of which were neighboring with lust for neighboring Sweden, Denmark, Poland and the growing Russian kingdom.


      that’s nonsense, a “poor education”, in principle, could not arise, develop, build its statehood and would be immediately won by neighbors without starting to pretend to be a state.
      It was so in civil war in Russia and the outskirts, which had not yet become natsokrains because there were no nations yet, Poles, Swedes, especially all small balts, just decided to break away from the metropolis, that’s how it was. That is, there were simply renegades-Kurbsky and etc. and taking advantage of the crisis of power - the king’s disease began to plot and rebel.
      1. Artek
        Artek 1 March 2018 12: 04
        +1
        Russia was a large medieval state and had a strong army, so it could not lose the war to these under-states. Only the fact of a civil war can explain historical contradictions. For example, Sweden had a population of 19 million in the early 1.5th century, then how many Sweden had in the middle of the 15th century at the time of the war? Yes, not at all. And by the time of Peter the Great, Russia had 15 million people.
    3. Basil50
      Basil50 1 March 2018 12: 50
      +2
      The poisoning of Ivan the Terrible is proved by the examination of exhumation. The poisoning of Boris Godunov occurred according to a similar pattern. And about knightly valor there is a lot of things in English literature, and not only in art but also in historical documents. Look, it’s not difficult and there are a lot of it, the British are still proud of chivalry. There, both about the code and about the conditions and about the procedure for admission to the knights and about the word of chivalry and about the condition for the execution of the word of chivalry, by the way, it was not provided for women to observe the word of chivalry.
      To the west, chivalry came from the EAST, even before the Crusades.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 1 March 2018 14: 49
        +3
        to the monarchist
        Do not expose yourself near.
        The history of RUSSIA - RUSSIA - THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE - THE SOVIET UNION - RUSSIA is continuous. In history, everything is important and RURIKOVICH and ROMANOV and VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN and Joseph VISSARIONOVICH STALIN.
        Do not lie about the past. Historical documents today are mostly accessible and data matching is possible for anyone. Do not trust the interpreters of historical events, the ability to read the document yourself is much more interesting.
    4. Monarchist
      Monarchist 1 March 2018 14: 30
      +2
      Vasily, 1) the boyars or, to be more precise, the “elite”, everywhere and everywhere they equally want “noble liberties” and here are the times of Charlemagne and in ours, let us recall at least the recent time of the EBN. I myself am from the village and I will allow an analogy from peasant life: “The horny horses can only wait for the cab driver, in our case the head of state, to loosen the reins, and then they will suffer how they will not be glad.
      2) the topic of the election of the Romanovs at the Zemsky Sobor has already been discussed more than once. If you do not accept Nicholas 2, an honest henpecked, this does not mean that ALL THE NOVELS were bad, and the Rurikovichs were idyllic
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 1 March 2018 07: 20
    +17
    What to do
    Strategic chances to calculate are not always possible
    And the internal political events (the oprichnina, the purge of the command staff) did not benefit.
    Peter and Catherine will make Russia a European power.
  3. kalibr
    kalibr 1 March 2018 07: 32
    +5
    Quote: Vasily50
    that even in the canons of chivalrous behavior was spelled out.

    In what? In what charter of which Order or in general in what document? I've been engaged in knights since 1995, but so ignorant that I have not seen such a thing. I would be happy to fix ... A link to a document or monograph of a famous author.
    1. BAI
      BAI 1 March 2018 11: 45
      +2
      Probably very much by the ears you can drag the charter of the Templars, but I think this is still not true.
      LVII
      That the brothers of the Temple did not communicate with the excommunicated (excommunicatis).
      Brothers, one should beware and fearful that one of the soldiers of Christ would not want to somehow contact the excommunicated person, either privately or publicly, or to let him go about his business, lest he become cursed like him (anathema maranatha). Only if he is ordered to enter into communication with him, and favorably participate in his affairs, then in this case his actions will be justified.

      There may be some connection between the excommunicated and the Gentiles, but it seems to me that everything will be too tight.
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 1 March 2018 09: 54
    +1
    Adequate article
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 1 March 2018 10: 08
    +1
    Unnecessary war ....
    Actually pulled chestnuts for Poland ....
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 1 March 2018 11: 28
      +1
      It would be better if they defeated Crimea
  6. Curious
    Curious 1 March 2018 10: 56
    +10
    “So the Russian kingdom made the first serious attempt in its history to“ cut through the window ”into Europe by going to the Baltic coast.”
    If the author looked at the map that he inserted in the article, he would see that it’s worth considering this “heroic” version, as you can see with an unaided look that you don’t have to fight over the Baltic coast, which is before the Livonian War, in the first half XVI century, Russia owns almost the same Baltic lands as it is now - from the mouth of the Neva to the mouth of the Narova River (today the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland from St. Petersburg to Vyborg has been added to them).
    That is, both before the war and after it, Russia had access to the Baltic, lost it only after the Time of Troubles, the Stolbovsky Peace of 1618, and then returned it only under Peter I.
    But if we recall the formal reason for the beginning of the war - the non-payment of arrears on the "St. George's tribute", then everything falls into place. Initially, there were no "great" ideas. A short demonstration campaign of an intelligible nature was planned. In the language of the nineties, it was necessary to knock out money.
    The war acquires an aggressive character after it became clear that the Livonians will not pay money. The seizure of cities begins, the distribution of land to the boyars' children, the seizure of trading posts in their favor, and later the "Narva Voyage" begins.
    So there was no talk of any “window felling”. It was about the income of Livonian cities and their lands.
    And nobody expected such a course of the war when, instead of the militarily weak Livonian Order, they received a whole set of opponents: Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, and even without a military one, but with significant political participation of the Holy Roman Empire.
    And the author’s assessment of the Livonian War is very one-sided. Many aspects of its influence on historical, political processes are not even indicated at all.
    In this form, the article resembles the recently become very popular genre of “historical sketch”, although the author may have simply superficially reacted to the issue.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 1 March 2018 11: 27
      +6
      Russia owns almost the same Baltic lands as now - from the mouth of the Neva to the mouth of the Narova

      it would be better if the fleet began to build ... what
      Viktor Nikolaevich, you would write an article .. I respect the author of Polonsky (my respect!hi), but Samsonov at one time lured with fairy tales about John. fellow
      1. Curious
        Curious 1 March 2018 13: 50
        +5
        "Victor Nikolaevich, you would write an article .."
        Yeah, the representative of the non-existent, but extremely hostile and treacherous nation of Ukrainians writes an article on Russian history about Ivan the Terrible. Do you want to be gov .... nom from the torn hamsters and splashed the moon.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 1 March 2018 14: 02
          +5
          I would look at the "big badabum" ... what all your clicks will be! fellow after yesterday, I will believe in the very stuff from the asses that you talked about. Rave. Okay, closed the topic. But your comment about "access to the sea and profit" is generally accurate! hi but I have a vague feeling that the nearest equipped port was Narva.
          1. Curious
            Curious 1 March 2018 14: 11
            +4
            This is another question. Or build your own, as they say now, infrastructure and develop foreign trade, which Peter I did, or "squeeze" the finished one.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 1 March 2018 14: 24
              +3
              Peter's teachers were better, and his head seemed to be richer, more clear. soldier And yesterday, both German agents and homosexuals recorded the patriots. am Well, by the way, if you take the Prince of Silver novel as the "source", then you can write down Grozny as perverts! wink Basmanov in a female dress rode before him, according to A.K. Tolstoy? I jumped, how! laughing everything, goodbye - he is still a pervert! laughing how do you like this interpretation of the sovereign image inspired by Samsonov? drinks so, we tie it. The opinion of the patriots is especially valuable for all of us, now they will tear farts. hi
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 1 March 2018 21: 03
                +1
                But interestingly, a woman in men's clothing at almost all times was persecuted very harshly, and a man in a female?
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 1 March 2018 21: 53
                  +3
                  and the man in the female?

                  I don’t know about transvestites, but homosexuals in Europe were "completely intolerant" burned. request
                2. Weyland
                  Weyland 3 March 2018 15: 58
                  +2
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  But interestingly, a woman in men's clothing at almost all times was persecuted very harshly, and a man in a female?

                  No. All Abrahamic religions so fiercely fought transvestism precisely because among many pagan peoples transvestism was an indispensable part of a religious cult. The Scythians priests had only transvestites-enareis (literally “non-men”), and the Sarmatians, on the contrary, had transvestite priestesses. Yes, and the priests of Cybele and Dionysus, EMNIP, this was also practiced.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 March 2018 23: 27
                    +1
                    That is, in principle, it should be somewhere in the Old Testament spelled out?
                    1. Weyland
                      Weyland 4 March 2018 14: 47
                      +2
                      Of course, spelled out. "A woman should not have men's clothing, and a man should not dress in a woman’s dress, for everyone who does this is vile before the Lord your God." (Deuteronomy 22: 5)
            2. Antares
              Antares 1 March 2018 20: 50
              +3
              Quote: Curious
              Or build your own, as they say now, infrastructure and develop foreign trade, which Peter I did, or "squeeze" the finished

              I can add that “squeezed out” as familiar and familiar places would be more profitable than new ones. The modern expression does not need advertising.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 March 2018 20: 58
          +2
          Well, if not Americans, let the hamsters be the first on the moon. Victor Nikolaevich, be lenient to small sims, give them a chance!
    2. Luga
      Luga 1 March 2018 13: 53
      +6
      Quote: Curious
      In this form, the article resembles the recently become very popular genre of “historical sketch”, although the author may have simply superficially reacted to the issue.

      I agree, a very superficial article, the most informative part of which is the map. Nevertheless, I think we should say thanks to the author even for the fact that he dared to express critical thoughts regarding Ivan the Terrible, whom lately, at least here, it is customary to extol and justify.
      By the way, few people know that the Livonian War was preceded by a “coadjutor war” between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Livonian Order, as a result of which Livonia actually recognized vassal dependence on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and concluded an alliance treaty with Russia (principality). Whether Ivan the Terrible knew about this agreement or not, is a moot point, but, in any case, he had a lot of reasons to start a war against Livonia, ranging from geopolitical considerations to personal ambitions and self-confidence after successful companies on the Volga.
      Most of all, according to the results of the Livonian war, Sweden won, whose position Ivan, when deciding on the start of the war, apparently either was not taken into account at all or was incorrectly assessed, and he clearly did not provide for the possibility of creating the Commonwealth. As a result, he received a war of attrition, ending in a clear defeat.
    3. Cat
      Cat 1 March 2018 20: 03
      +1
      If the author looked at the map that he inserted in the article, he would see that it’s worth considering the ethosroic version, as you can see with the naked eye that you don’t have to fight over the Baltic coast, that before the Livonian war, in the first half of the XNUMXth century , Russia owns almost the same Baltic lands as it does now - from the mouth of the Neva to the mouth of the Narova River (today the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland from St. Petersburg to Vyborg has been added to them).

      Viktor Nikolaevich, did you somehow forget to mention the Kaliningrad region? Accidentally! To be objective, following the results of World War II, many of them were bathed in the blood of Soviet people and were gifted both on the shores of the Baltic Sea and in other places not so distant. For example, within your homeland. So, making such comparisons, it is necessary to recall occasionally and bow low to Russian Van and not only to him. By the way, the limits of your and my Fatherland are easier to assign to a common denominator than to find differences. Although recently, both sides have "sinned" this.
      Now Viktor Nikolayevich has a second question, but where did the so-called "Yuryev tribute" come from, for which the Livonians were bent? Is it not on behalf of the city of St. George founded by the Russian prince Yaroslav? In this connection, the assessments of the Russian limits of the Baltic Sea by you are a little incorrect. And apparently Ivan the Terrible had the right to some - grandfathers within Livonia.
      And the author’s assessment of the Livonian War is very one-sided. Many aspects of its influence on historical, political processes are not even indicated at all.
      In this form, the article resembles the recently become very popular genre of “historical sketch”, although the author may have simply superficially reacted to the issue.

      With this your thesis, I completely agree. As with the proposal to you, Nikolai to try his hand at revealing the topic. Your arguments about the Ukrainian, the law has no reason, even more so who knows you are ridiculous.
      By the way, where was the table of Prince Yaroslav, who founded Yuryev on the shore of the Varyazhsky Sea? Not in the mother of Russian cities - Kiev?
      Regards, Vladislav!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 1 March 2018 20: 35
        +3
        Your arguments about the Ukrainian, the law has no reason, even more so who knows you are ridiculous.

        it was poured on him yesterday, you know, than homegrown "patriots" ... No.
        1. BAI
          BAI 1 March 2018 21: 18
          +3
          The one who is always blamed is always to blame. In the end, he will have to launder.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 1 March 2018 21: 25
            +3
            really (sarcasm drinks) Sometimes it’s scary to go to the site because of the abundance of slogans ... what
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 March 2018 21: 54
              +2
              "In the struggle you will gain your right!" Well, or banned nafig.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 1 March 2018 22: 46
                +2
                rather, the second. what In some ways, I even agree with BAI. Sometimes it's better to be silent. By and large, arguing with a dunk is generally always more expensive, especially if the dunk is also patriotic and definitely knows how to take and share everything correctly, like Sharikov, without taking his ass off the couch. request sarcasm... drinks
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 March 2018 23: 15
                  +3
                  Can they burn with sofas?
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 2 March 2018 00: 38
                    +3
                    Can they burn with sofas?

                    Anton, you are the greatest humanist, this is not our method! drinks Although .. If their dad and mom did not learn to communicate, then flog now ..what Cut off the Internet to them, leave a bench in the yard and dominoes! soldier
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 2 March 2018 21: 32
                      +2
                      Well, I'm a humanist, sounds like a "bestial", okay. We will not burn, we chop off the right hand, because the overwhelming part of the "mice" is imprisoned under the corresponding arm.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 3 March 2018 11: 33
                        +3
                        We will not burn, we chop off the right hand, because the overwhelming part of the "mice" is imprisoned under the corresponding arm.

                        there are also sharpened under the left! request although sometimes you look at what they write on other sites (ours, in comparison, is an example of high science and culture), and you understand that you can’t let everyone freely express themselves on the Internet. At least IQ test is straightforward ... No, guys, I'm not a snob, moreover, I think that everyone has the right to their opinion (within the framework of law and morality), but someone's frank stupidity should not go to the masses. hi
              2. Weyland
                Weyland 3 March 2018 16: 00
                +1
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                "In the struggle you will gain your right!"

                - This is a Socialist Revolutionary slogan. So in the USSR, to put it mildly, he was not welcomed ....
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 3 March 2018 23: 18
                  +1
                  In general, I say a lot of things that were not welcomed in the USSR and do not find common ground with official propaganda in the Russian Federation.
      2. Curious
        Curious 1 March 2018 22: 06
        +4
        I have not forgotten the Kaliningrad region. I did not mention it, since the conversation was about the Livonian War. Military operations of this war in the Kaliningrad region were not conducted. At that time it was the Duchy of Prussia, based on the ruins of the Teutonic Order and was in vassal dependence on Poland. Therefore, blaming me for the loss of historical memory is not worth it, especially regarding the Great Patriotic War, if I correctly understood your rebuke. By the way, my grandfather ended my war just in Koenigsberg.
        About the "St. George's tribute." Its goals, sources and origins are not completely clear to this day. Even for historians who have at hand the appropriate archives and sources. Most sources attribute the origins of the Yuryev tribute to the campaign against Yuryev of Grand Prince Yaroslav (Vsevolodovich) of Novgorod, i.e., to the 1234th century, more precisely, to XNUMX, when the Derpt bishopric accepted the obligation to pay tribute to the Russian Grand Dukes, accepted after the defeat, which the prince’s troops Yaroslav Vsevolodovich inflicted on the Germans near Yuryev.
        The Russian borders of the Baltic Sea, as you say, are estimated by me in accordance with the available historical documents at the time of the outbreak of the Livonian War.
        As for the "grandfather". There is a very confusing issue that requires a detailed analysis of the relationship between Pskov, Novgorod, Moscow and Livonia and among themselves.
        As N.Kazakova writes in the monograph “Russian-Livonian and Russian-Hanseatic Relations. Late XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries”, there were “some obscure for us relations that existed earlier between the bishopric of Derpt and Pskov (or the Grand Dukes) connected with the payment by the bishop of a sum of money.This relationship was interpreted by Ivan III as the duty of the great princes of Russia, which the derpt bishops should have paid them.This interpretation was based on the desire of the princely power to consider Livonia as its ancient homeland, which only temporarily fell under foreign authority.
        Along with this ... another feature appears in the policy of Ivan III - the desire to approve the view of the Grand Duke as the patron saint of the Russian population in Livonia and Livonia, as the "fatherland" of the Russian Grand Dukes, only temporarily lost by them.
        This desire, which is reflected in the articles of the Russian-Livonian treaties of the second half of the XNUMXth century. about Yuryev’s tribute, the Russian end in Yuryev and Russian churches in Livonian cities, later, in the middle of the XNUMXth century, it became the main spring of Russian diplomacy in the Livonian issue. "
        As you can see, the issue of coverage of the Livonian war is not at all simple. Therefore, I will not undertake to write an article on this subject due to the lack of necessary information. In addition, a study of even the existing one can lead to conclusions that run counter to the preferences of the ubi patriotically inclined public and the next mega-doctor. On the site and without me there are enough fans to mark on the fan.
        1. Luga
          Luga 2 March 2018 11: 55
          +2
          Quote: Curious
          Most sources attribute the origins of the Yuryev tribute to the campaign against Yuryev of Grand Prince Yaroslav (Vsevolodovich) of Novgorod, i.e., to the XIII century, more precisely, to the 1234 year, when the Derpt bishopric accepted the obligation to pay a tribute to the Russian Grand Dukes, accepted after the defeat, which the prince’s troops Yaroslav Vsevolodovich inflicted on the Germans near Yuryev.

          Some sources attribute the emergence of the "Yuryev tribute" to the very moment of the capture of Yuryev by the crusaders in 1224. Actually, the campaign of Yaroslav in 1234 was estimated, for example, by D Khrustalev ("Northern Crusaders") as a campaign precisely for the undelivered tribute.
          Although I, in general, about something else. smile
          Quote: Curious
          In addition, a study of even the existing one can lead to conclusions that run counter to the preferences of the ubi patriotically inclined public and the next mega-doctor.

          So this is the main thing. For the sake of this, it’s worth writing, naturally, except for your own pleasure from creativity. smile You will write high-quality material, we will criticize, praise, approve, thank, and quarrel with uraptariots (I promise to take a personal part in this, showing all the maliciousness available to me smile ) and, in general, we will improve the quality of publications and discussions on the resource, we will receive new information, well, plus a long-term karma, and all this for our own pleasure. What is not life?
          1. Curious
            Curious 2 March 2018 12: 02
            +3
            "... and, in general, increase the quality of publications and discussions on the resource ..."
            Why try to do what the resource owners are completely not interested in and put a lot of effort in the opposite direction?
            1. Luga
              Luga 2 March 2018 12: 29
              +3
              Quote: Curious
              Why try to do what the resource owners are completely not interested in and put a lot of effort in the opposite direction?

              For your own pleasure and to have fun. For me, this alone is enough. Well, to improve the content of the planet’s noosphere, as a bonus.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 March 2018 22: 11
                +2
                Viktor Nikolaevich already tried to reduce the amount of entropy in the local area of ​​space. Alas and ah. “The plastic world won, the layout turned out to be stronger” (E. Letov).
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 March 2018 22: 22
        +3
        Vladislav, the fatherland of the majority of local people is one - the Soviet Union. I know a few people in Ecuador, the USA, the Netherlands, Spain, Israel ... who will do what they should when ... impatient. I can lie on these people. Viktor Nikolaevich among them. Despite the "fatherland" ...
        1. Cat
          Cat 2 March 2018 21: 49
          +2
          Dear Anton! I don’t argue with Victor and with you, you can consider it a partnership!
          But in fact, on the whole, our Fatherland is not even the Soviet Union, but Russia, Russia, including the Old Russian state with the Mother of Russian cities in Kiev!
          Moreover, Mr. Yuryev, founded by Prince Yaroslav the Wise, has the same. sacral attitude to all Eastern Slavs: Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians. So in fact there is nothing seditious from Victor the Ukrainian I will not see. Moreover, I am sure that his work will be much stronger than Ilya’s article!
          In fact, if we begin to measure the merits of the past days, years and centuries, then apart from quiet schizophrenia, we will no longer earn anything!
          And finally, who is the best Ukrainian citizen of Russia or Russian citizen of Ukraine? .... I have no answer. I won’t even look for differences!
          Regards Vlad!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 3 March 2018 11: 26
            +3
            Moreover, Mr. Yuryev, founded by Prince Yaroslav the Wise, has the same. sacred attitude to all Eastern Slavs

            Yes, I told three Estonian students about this when I drove from Kingisepp to Ivangorod. That their native Tartu is not Tartu, but Yuryev. At the same time, I mentioned Crimea. laughing They smiled knowingly and nodded guiltily. laughing
            So in fact there is nothing seditious from Victor the Ukrainian I will not see.

            From him none doesn’t see sedition, except for patriots and lovers of pseudo-history, who first themselves are rude to him first, then they themselves are the first to run to complain. Vladislav, my personal opinion (but many will join) - I want to visit the site not so much even because of the articles, but because of the good company - I will not list you all. With respect, Nicholai drinks
  7. andrew42
    andrew42 1 March 2018 11: 08
    +2
    "instead of the weak" buffer "state, which was the Livonian Confederation, the Russian kingdom received on its borders a direct neighborhood with the strong European countries at that time." - This is naivety or the desire to confuse. Livonia has always been a springboard for the consolidation of anti-Russian forces and the organization of the invasions of the "Europeans" in the north-west of Russia, and Tsar Ivan absolutely correctly planned the liquidation. this bridgehead. Objectively, this was the "weakest link" in the Western Catholic barrier. In addition, not much time has passed since the capture of the Crusaders and the Danes in the Baltic states, and the names of Yuryev and Kolyvan were still fresh in memory. And Muscovy could well crush the whole “Catholic League” in Livonia for one simple reason - the proximity of the “military bases” and the short supply arm. The time factor was important. Unfortunately, the victory did not work out due to a very domestic political change in power in Moscow. I am by no means a supporter of Fomenkovism, but one of the "cornerstones" Fomenko and Nosovsky correctly identified is more than a strange "madness of Tsar Ivan": the disgrace of Sylvester and Adashev, who were comrades-in-arms and mentors from the tsar’s youth, reviews and executions of the governor and supporters the wars in Livonia, the internal terror against the right and guilty boyars, the rise through the oprichnina of the personalities of vile, unprincipled, and sometimes pure degenerates (although initially in the Oprichnina there were many worthy and active husbands), and actual inattention, the cessation of replenishment and supplies of the Russian "corps" in Livonia. Given the analysis of the poisoned remains of Ivan Vasilievich and Ivan Ivanovich, I believe that the defeat in the Livonian War was caused either by the death of Tsar Ivan, or by bringing him into an incompetent state, which was thoroughly retouched in history: the period of Ivan falls into 3 periods of reign of various historical figures, like minimum. It remains surprising that the state system developed by the rulers Ivan III - Ivan IV (the first third of the "official" term) ensured by inertia the viability of the country until the time of Tsar Boris.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 1 March 2018 13: 02
      +2
      Quote: andrew42
      Livonia has always been a springboard for the consolidation of anti-Russian forces and the organization of the invasion of the "Europeans" in the north-west of Russia

      Well, why tell such tales, what a bridgehead, what anti-Russian forces? What invasions, whom, where? Until Ivan launched the war, the "Europeans" did not notice the Russian state - their problems were higher than the roof.
  8. already a Muscovite
    already a Muscovite 1 March 2018 11: 14
    +2
    Well, of course ... Ivan the Terrible was straight ... The state has grown many times ... The Livonian Order has put out tightly ... The Great (which is "Great") the Principality of Lithuania, from a great struggle, crawled into the union with Poland, having formed the Commonwealth, otherwise, Comrade Tsar John, would have devoured this "Great Principality".
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 1 March 2018 16: 37
      0
      Quote: already a Muscovite
      gobbled up would

      Oh, that would be famous .... forever it gets in the way ....
      1. already a Muscovite
        already a Muscovite 1 March 2018 17: 28
        +2
        It doesn’t interfere ... Before John, ON was not, after him, no ... In modern terms: “Lithuania is from Sosala” ... And not only Lithuania ... John “distributed” to everyone around ...
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 1 March 2018 15: 43
    +1
    There is such wisdom: "every vegetable has its time" and with a "window to Europe." When Ivan the Terrible began the Livonian War - "the fruit has not ripened."
    The author is right: Ivan's plan was good, but turned into an adventure.
    Remember what of the army of Ivan the Terrible? The Streletsky army itself is not a professional army, but a semblance + of the so-called "boyar militia", described in Tolstoy as a "view of the boyar militia", when the landowner of his slaves arms the oldest saber with bows. Just with such a militia with a regular army butting
    1. Antares
      Antares 1 March 2018 20: 53
      0
      Quote: Monarchist
      in Tolstoy, a "review of the boyar militia" is described, when the landowner of his slaves arms with bows the oldest saber. Just with such a militia with a regular army butting

      there is an annual review of the noble irregular cavalry.
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 3 March 2018 16: 11
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      "viewing of the boyar militia", when the landowner of his slaves arms with bows and the oldest saber.

      Firstly, it was not a boyar, but a noble militia - if it was "landowner and slaves," because the estate is not possession, but a temporary award for military service. Only these were the so-called "war slaves" - what in Europe was called "waffenknecht", very well trained fighters. And a good onion in those days was worth a little more than dofiga. And the old saber must have been old and obviously good - it would have been bad if it hadn’t lived to old age, but it had long since broken due to the so-called metal fatigue (believe a professional metallurgist) But the boyar didn’t have an estate, but a patrimony, and instead of military slaves - the so-called "children of the boyars." And in the Battle of Molodi at Grozny, in addition to 30 thousand Russians, there were 5 thousand Germans-mercenaries - by the way, they showed excellent performance. It’s just that Europe had more advanced tactics, and the Romanovs quickly dopped that it’s cheaper and more efficient to hire not hundreds of experienced officers, not Landsknecht regiments, to train our soldiers - google. "regiments of the foreign system"
  10. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 1 March 2018 16: 23
    +1
    I liked the article. At least the causes and consequences of the war, as well as the real miscalculation of the sovereign, are clearly and clearly shown. What to do, if this fact was, it must be recognized as historical.
    And there was already an exit to the Baltic - it can even be seen on the map, and the very one that Tsar Peter later turned into Petersburg. That is, it was enough to direct part of the resources to invest in the construction of ports - fortresses on the already existing part of the Baltic Sea, and this would revive trade, the country began to earn income, and then, after agreeing with the same Swede Poland to divide Livonia - figure it out "for three") )))
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 March 2018 21: 36
      +2
      Pancake! Simple as that! Put the prison on the shore of the Marquise puddle, and "we will have everything!", "And we will lock up in the open!" You will take an interest in the European economy and geopolitics of the 16th century before drawing conclusions.
      1. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 6 March 2018 18: 41
        +1
        Well, yes, to start a war, lose it and lose those unfortunate exits to the marquise puddle that were - much better and more far-sighted, I agree.
        Tsar Peter, barely getting access to the Baltic, did not look at all — he immediately began to build a port city, this is an indication that any port in the Baltic was necessary and important for us ... But they really weren’t.
  11. Antares
    Antares 1 March 2018 20: 55
    +1
    War usually begins for money, for money, and requires money.
    Such wars are usually credited with a lot of things. In cases of victory and in cases of defeat.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 March 2018 21: 27
      +2
      Right "Salvage will conquer evil!"
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 1 March 2018 22: 54
        +3
        Right "Salvage will conquer evil!"

        Three things are needed for war: money, money, and again money
        The phrase is erroneously attributed to Napoleon I (1769-1821), theorist of military art, Count Raimondo Montecuccoli (1608-1680), etc.
        According to the Italian author Ludovico Gvicchardini in his essay "Leisure time" (1565), this is how Marshal Gian-Jacopo Trivulzio (1448-1518) answered the question of Louis XII, what preparations are needed to conquer the Duchy of Milan.
  12. VladGashek
    VladGashek 1 March 2018 21: 30
    +3
    Very successfully noticed: Russia was in the Livonian war without allies in the face of a united Europe. Ivan the Terrible did not focus on ensuring the country's security from the south, from the Crimean Khanate - a historical opponent of the Russian state. He did not pay attention to the emerging Protestant collision in the Baltic states, its contradiction with Catholic Europe. As for the plan of Ivan the Terrible to settle the Volga region and other Outskirts, this is a perspicacious state view of the future.
  13. wooja
    wooja 9 August 2018 02: 25
    0
    A very biased article, a compilation of anti-Russian propaganda ..., a completely flat view of events, the application of modern terminology to the realities of the 16th century, the author clearly drives bullshit .... and she doesn’t respect her reader very much ...., This is also one of the first documented cases of mass betrayal of boyars, and the introduction of liberal ideology, it was not so simple ...,