Before 1917, the term “Ukrainian people” was not in any encyclopedia, throughout Russia, Velikaya, Malaya and Belaya, lived by Russians who had their own territorial, linguistic and everyday characteristics.
As previously noted, the Central Council was chosen not by the Russian people of Little Russia, but by several hundred people of Ukrainian national separatists, many of whom were Westerners and Freemasons, who were oriented toward the West in their activities: Austria-Hungary. Germany or France. By 1917, the Ukrainian Socialist-Federalist Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Socialist-Revolutionary Party and other smaller associations consisted of several dozen, at best hundreds of members, and had virtually no influence on the people. At the same time, these parties were not part of the all-Russian parties of social democrats, social revolutionaries, etc. These were autonomous groups, led, as a rule, by freemasons. Thus, the head of the General Secretariat (Council of Ministers) was Mason V. K. Vinnichenko. The deputy (comrade) of the president of the TsR of the mason M. Hrushevsky in the Rada was A. Nihovsky, from the box “The Great East of the Peoples of Russia”. Interestingly, when the name of the lodge was discussed in 1910, Grushevsky did not want the word “Russia” mentioned in the name, since such a state should not exist at all, and the masons decided to call the lodge the “Great East of the Peoples of Russia”. Kerensky, in the “Great East” lodge, was in charge of coordinating the activities of St. Petersburg and Kiev Freemasons and on the affairs of the lodge traveled to Kiev in 1913, 1915 and 1916. That is, February-masons seized power in Petrograd and Kiev, therefore the Provisional Government turned a blind eye to the "independent" course of the Kiev "brothers".
Thus, the masons brothers Kerensky, Nekrasov, Grushevsky and Co. had already anticipated the collapse of the Russian state and put all their efforts into this by fulfilling the attitudes of the West.
At the same time, the similarity of the Provisional Government in Petrograd and the Central Committee in Kiev was that both centers of power had no real support from either the common people or the army. They were supported only by narrow circles of the intelligentsia and the bourgeoisie, as well as part of the generals, who made a rapid career with the change of power. The Central Council, like the Provisional Government, plunged into an endless talk-and-talk about the future, completely alienated from pressing problems, such as maintaining law and order against the backdrop of the country's criminal revolution, ensuring the supply of cities and railways and other transport. Thus, the land issue was the most important issue for the peasants of Russia. Ukrainian independentists followed in the footsteps of their “brothers” in Petrograd and offered to wait for the Constituent Assembly to be created in Russia and the law on the land to be passed, when all the landowner’s lands would be confiscated, and only then the Rada will take on the transfer of land to the peasants. As a result, the peasants in Great Russia and Little Russia themselves resolved this issue by proceeding to the "black division" of the land. In fact, the peasant war began, even before the beginning of the confrontation between whites and reds.
Thus, the CR completely reiterated the path of the all-Russian Provisional Government, which quickly lost its initial popularity in society, having lost touch with the people and local authority. While the social democrats, socialists, revolutionaries and nationalists led endless debates, quarreled, the Rada lost contact with the village (the overwhelming majority of the population) and its power was actually limited only to Kiev, its surroundings and several large cities.
It is not surprising that the Kiev "brothers" did not accept Soviet power and headed for the strengthening of "national statehood." 7 (20) November 1917 was adopted by the Third Universal, which proclaimed the creation of the Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR). The document said that the territory of the People’s Ukrainian Republic “includes lands populated mainly by Ukrainians: Kyiv region, Podolia, Volyn, Chernihiv region, Poltava region, Kharkiv region, Yekaterinoslav region, Kherson region, Tavria (without Crimea). The final determination of the borders of the Ukrainian People’s Republic ... must be established by agreement of the organized will of the peoples. ”
In this way, Central Rada actually began a civil war in the territory of Little Russia. First, there were no “Ukrainians” in Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkov, etc. As in the times of Kievan Rus and in the epoch of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, so in the 20th century, Russians occupied the territory of Little Russia (southern and western Russia). They were just en masse recorded in the "Ukrainians" - an ethnic chimera created in the conceptual and ideological "headquarters" of the West (Rome, Poland, Austria and Germany).
Secondly, in Russia there was a central Soviet government, and it was recognized by 20 in November by a large part of Central Russia, the Baltic States, Belarus, the northern part of Ukraine, Kharkov, Donbass, Krivorozh'ye, etc. And by November 20 1917 in Russia there was no civil war and serious competitors for the Soviet government. A rebellion of General Kaledin broke out on the Don, but it was 11 February (29 January) 1918 was put down by the Soviet forces, and Kaledin himself had to shoot himself. The core of the white army - the Volunteer Army, retreated. The centers of counterrevolution in the Orenburg region and in the Urals were also easily suppressed. So, it turns out that The Central Council became one of the main instigators of the Civil War in the territory of the former Russian Empire. In the future, this initiative was supported by the Austro-German invaders.
Since that time in Ukraine, the time begins "Ruins 2" - unrest and military confrontation of several centers of power in the face of external invasion. In general terms, the situation in Ukraine repeated history XVII century (the period of the Ruins). The CR did not have high managerial abilities, did not enjoy sufficient support from the population and could not resist the Soviet government, and, like the hetman of the 17th century, appealed to the aid of foreign troops (the Austro-German army). From all over Ukraine to Ukraine, since the autumn of 1917, large and small gangs began to form. Their chieftains argued that they were fighting for the rights of "oppressed peasantry," and shared a part of the booty with the local population. In the conditions of complete collapse and lack of power, many local residents were forced to support "their" gangs, replenishing their ranks and hiding gangsters. Do away with the rampant various "governments" and gangs only red.
The outbreak of civil war in Ukraine
The Ukrainian government, with the support of a part of the generals, destroys the still existing Russian front of the world war by recalling and unauthorized relocation of “Ukrainianized” units and disarmament of military units on the territory of Ukraine, which recognized Soviet power. The secretary of military affairs, S. Petlura, in his appeals to the “warriors-Ukrainians” urged them to return to Ukraine immediately, disregarding the orders of the Council of People's Commissars.
November 23 (December 6) Petlyura informed the Soviet Supreme Commander N. Krylenko about the unilateral withdrawal of the South-Western and Romanian fronts from the headquarters of the Stavka and their unification into an independent Ukrainian front of the UPR army. The Ukrainian front was led by the anti-Bolshevik colonel-general D. G. Shcherbachev, the former commander of the Romanian front. There is a destruction and disarmament of the Russian Romanian front in the interests of the Romanian and Ukrainian governments.
The proclamation of the independence of the Ukrainian front and the intervention of the Ukrainian government in the direct control of the fronts and armies led to further disorganization and confusion, undermining the system of unity of command. For example, on the Romanian front 8-I army did not recognize its membership in the UNR. The extraordinary congress of the South-Western Front, held on November 18-24 (December 1-7), did not agree to the subordination of the Central Committee, and spoke in favor of the Council of soldiers, workers and peasant deputies in the center and in the provinces. General NN Stogov, who served as commander of the Southwestern Front, worried about the situation on the front line, reported to Kiev that “Russian troops are threatening to flee from the Ukrainian front. The disaster is just around the corner. " As General N.N. Golovin noted in his memoirs, “soldiers who were cowering in the old Russian military units did not understand what was going on, and everyone, both non-Ukrainians and Ukrainians, tried to go home, seeing the“ enemy of the people ”interfering with the cessation of war . And here in the armies of the former Russian South-Western Front, which Petlura turns into Ukrainian, the following phenomenon is observed: the soldiers of some of the military units use the existing military organization to weapons in the hands to get home. The local Bolsheviks use these units to fight against the Central Rada. Among the Russian armies stationed in Romania, this process was stopped by General Shcherbachev, who, with the help of the Romanian troops that kept the discipline, disarmed all Russian troops leaving the front, after which the latter were dispersed. The military units of the South-Western Front were also sprayed, but only after the soldiers were convinced that no one would oppose their return home (NN Golovin. The Russian counterrevolution in 1917 — 1918 M., 2011.).
At the same time, the UNR and the Don Government agreed on a joint struggle against the Soviet government, on the union of the south-eastern regions and Ukraine. In particular, the export of grain and coal outside Ukraine and the Don was prohibited, the border of the UPR and Soviet Russia was closed. Donbass was divided into two parts. The western part, bordering the Don region, came under the control of the Don Cossacks, and the eastern part, which was part of the Kharkiv and Yekaterinoslav provinces, - under the authority of the Central Council. Ukrainian government refused to pass through its territory of the revolutionary units, designed to fight the Don, and skipped Cossack echelons.
In the field of domestic policy, the Ukrainian government has strengthened the national-chauvinistic deviation and could not solve the most pressing problems of Little Russia, which pushed the workers of the capital, and the proletariat in other large cities and villagers, and even the part of the bourgeoisie, which began to look for external force, away from it. on which you can rely. In the area of foreign policy of the government, the CR took an ambiguous policy. Not having the strength to fight the Bolsheviks, the Rada did not stop negotiations with the CPC. Simultaneously, the Rada came into contact with the Germans and had a friendly relationship with the French consulate in Kiev, which was the first to recognize the “people's republic”. In December, the Ukrainian delegation began negotiations with Germany.
The Soviet government did not want to aggravate the CR, other problems were enough. Speaking about the position of the Council of People's Commissars in the Ukrainian question, Stalin assured Labor Secretary N. Porsh that the Soviet government did not intend to restrain the full autonomy of Ukraine. When the CR announced the creation of the “Ukrainian Front”, Trotsky, addressing directly to the working people of Ukraine, he declared that “the all-Russian Soviet power would not make any difficulties to Ukraine’s self-determination, whatever form this self-determination would ultimately end up ...”. At the same time, the Soviet authorities did not refuse the support of the Soviets of the Ukrainian workers, soldiers and the poorest peasants "in their struggle against the bourgeois policy of the current leaders of the Central Rada."
November 26 (December 9) SNK delivered an appeal to the entire population "On the fight against the counter-revolutionary uprising of Kaledin, Kornilov, Dutov, supported by the Central Rada." The document noted: “Kaledin on the Don, Dutov in the Urals raised the banner of the uprising ... The Bourgeois Central Rada of the Ukrainian Republic, leading the struggle against the Ukrainian soviets, helps the Kaledinians to force troops to the Don, prevents the Soviet authorities from directing the necessary military forces across the land of the fraternal Ukrainian people to suppress Kaledinsky rebellion ... ". November 27 (December 10) The Soviet government created at the Red Headquarters in Mogilev the Revolutionary Field Headquarters - the operational organ of the leadership of the armed struggle against the counterrevolution. This headquarters was headed by V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko.
In the meantime, the Ukrainian government disarmed Sovietized troops and Red Guard detachments of three factories and workers' suburbs in Kiev. In Odessa, an armed clash took place between the Red Guards, revolutionary sailors and Ukrainian units. The reason was the fact that the CR prohibited the sending of the Red Guard detachment and the sailors to the Don against Kaledin. After that, the Ukrainian authorities and in other cities tried to eliminate the Red Guard. The commander of the 1 Ukrainian Corps (the former 34 Army Corps), General PP Skoropadsky, managed to disarm and disperse the soldiers' masses (parts of the Bolshevized 2 Guards Army Corps), moving from the front to Kiev.
In addition, by order of Petliura and General of the Ukrainian Front, General Shcherbachev, the troops loyal to the Rada seized the headquarters of the Romanian and South-Western fronts, armies, right up to the regiments, arrested members of the Revolutionary Military Committees and Bolshevik commissars, some of them were shot. This was followed by the disarmament by the Romanian troops of those units in which there was a strong influence of the Bolsheviks. Part of the soldiers were thrown into concentration camps and shot. Left without weapons and food, the Russian soldiers were forced to go to Russia in a severe frost. A lot of people died. Romania, on the other hand, embarked on the seizure of Russian Bessarabia (For more details, see: Romanian invasion of Bessarabia; How Romanian executioners exterminated Russian soldiers).
All this forced the Soviet government to submit an ultimatum to the CR from 4 (17) December 1917. The Council of People's Commissars demanded to stop supporting Kaledin, to support the Soviet authorities in suppressing counter-revolutionary actions, to stop the disorganization and disarmament of military units at the front, recognizing Soviet power. Council of People's Commissars said that in the event that a satisfactory answer to the demands was not received within forty-eight hours, he would consider Rada in a state of open war against Soviet power in Russia and Ukraine. The General Secretariat on the same day prepared its response. The Ukrainian government rejected the demands of the CPC and put forward its own conditions: recognition of the UPR; non-interference in its internal affairs and in the affairs of the Ukrainian front, permission for the withdrawal of Ukrainianized units to Ukraine; the division of finances of the former empire; Kyiv’s participation in general peace talks.
The presentation of the ultimatum coincided with the Congress of Soviets of Ukraine in Kiev. The CR was able to “Ukrainize” the congress at the expense of the Ukrainian military and peasant organizations. The Bolsheviks were in the minority among the two and a half thousand people gathered and left the congress. They moved to Kharkov, where the Soviet Ukrainian government was soon formed.
An armed clash between the national-chauvinistic, bourgeois government of the CR and the Soviet regime became inevitable. 6 (19) December 1917, the head commander Krylenko received instructions from the CPC: “We consider the Central Rada’s response insufficient, the war has been declared, responsibility for the fate of the democratic world, which Rada disrupts, falls entirely on the Rada. We propose to move further merciless struggle with Kaledinians. Breaking the progress of the revolutionary troops break steadily. Do not allow the disarmament of the Soviet troops. All free forces must be thrown into the struggle against counter-revolution. ” 6 (19) December SNK formed the Southern Revolutionary Front to combat counter-revolution. V. Antonov-Ovseenko was appointed commander-in-chief of the troops of the front.
8 (21) December to Kharkov - a key railway junction in the direction of the south of Russia - arrived with trains with red detachments under the command of R. F. Sievers and sailor N. A. Khovrin (1600 people with 6 guns and 3 armored cars). From December 11 (24) to 16 (29) December, up to five thousand more soldiers arrived from Petrograd, Moscow, and Tver headed by Commander Antonov-Ovseenko and his deputy, head of staff, former lieutenant colonel of the tsarist army M. A. Muravyov. In addition, there were already several thousand Red Guards and probolshevistically-minded soldiers in Kharkov itself.
11 − 12 (24-25) December in Kharkiv, an alternative to the Kiev 1 th All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets was held. The congress proclaimed Ukraine the Republic of Soviets, declared “a decisive struggle for the policy of the Central Council of the workers and peasant masses”, established federal ties between Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Russia, elected the Bolshevik Temporary Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Ukraine. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Ukraine assumed full authority in Ukraine and approved the composition of its executive body, the People’s Secretariat. This was the first government of Soviet Ukraine. One of the first decrees of the Ukrainian Soviet government was the decree on the abolition of the ban on the export of bread from Ukraine to Russia, previously announced by the Central Committee. A resolution was also issued on the invalidity in general of all decisions of the General Secretariat. December 19 1917 (January 1 1918) The Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR recognized the People’s Secretariat of the UNRSA as the only legitimate government of Ukraine.
Obviously, the these and subsequent events somehow recur in the present. Again the Russian civilization was seized by unrest, the great Russia (USSR) was destroyed. In Kiev, Westerners, Nazis and outright oligarch thieves (bandits) seized power. The main and only ideology of the leadership of Ukraine and ukronatsionalistov ("zapadentsev", neobanderovtsev) became Russophobia and hatred of the whole Soviet. Although it was during the years of Soviet power that Ukraine (Kiev region) was in the most flourishing state in its entire history. Worship before the West (“European integration) and Russophobia are the basis and meaning of the activities of the entire Ukrainian leadership (Kravchuk - Kuchma - Yushchenko - Yanukovich - Poroshenko). In order to somehow unite the people and retain power (and it is necessary to continue the robbery of the people), an image of the enemy was created - “Muscovites”, Russians who again want to drive Ukraine into the “evil empire”.
In the end, this led to the beginning of the civil war in Ukraine in 2014, the separation of part of Donbass. The conflict continues to the present and may be a prerequisite for the complete collapse of today's Ukraine. At the same time, the extinction and degradation of Little Russia - demographic (extinction and flight of the population abroad), scientific, educational, social, economic, transport, etc., occurs. One of the parts of the Russian superethnos and civilization is dying right before our eyes.
The factor of geopolitics (“big game”) is also important. In the USA and Western Europe they do not want to see Ukraine as a full part of the Western world. Only a colony, a supplier of some resources, a sales market, a supplier of cheap and relatively skilled (compared to blacks and Arabs) workers. In addition, rabsila are representatives of the white race, which is necessary to maintain racial balance in Europe, the USA and Canada. Therefore, the remnants of science, education, the military-industrial complex, space, aviation, shipbuilding industry, etc. (created in the USSR) are demolished. Ukraine is also important as a "barrier" and "cannon fodder" for a future war with Russia. On the borders of Russia and Western Europe, a "Ukrainian front" has been created, a center of chaos, which is extremely beneficial for the owners of the United States, who are implementing the strategy of global unrest, plunging a large part of humanity into a state of war. At the same time, people do not even understand that they are already living in conditions of war - conceptual (good and evil), informational, ideological, civilizational, racial-ethnic, economic, etc.
How to create Ukraine and the "Ukrainian people"
- Alexander Samsonov
- Articles from this series:
- Smoot. 1918 year
How to create a volunteer army
How the battle for the Don began
"Your talk is not needed by the working people. The guard is tired!"
100 years of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and Navy
Who incited the Civil War
White fought for the interests of the West
Anti-Russian and anti-state white project
How "Ukrainian Chimera" incited the Civil War