Military Review

The ancient tricks of the cup from Trialeti, or when was invented the lathe machine?

56
Among the visitors to the VO website there are a lot of people interested in ancient technologies, and this is understandable. And whenever possible we try to satisfy their curiosity: we associate with masters who use ancient technologies and make excellent replicas of the same products of the Bronze Age. One such master, Dave Chapman, owner of the Bronze Age Foundry workshop, gunsmith and sculptor, lives in Wales, where he has a large house with a workshop and a glass studio, and his works are exhibited in the best museums in the world. Matt Poitras from Austin, Texas makes impressive armor, and Neal Barridge has been casting bronze swords for 12 for years.


The ancient tricks of the cup from Trialeti, or when was invented the lathe machine?

These are the original samples to Neil Barridge.


In this they leave his workshop. Replica of the "sword of Wilberton", made for the museum in Lokercker.

It is clear that such work is preceded by many different studies and analyzes. In particular, a metallographic analysis is carried out, the composition of the metal is being investigated, in order to finally obtain a fully authentic copy, not only in appearance, but also in material.


Samples of products Neil Barridge.

However, this is how archaeologists of all countries work. Especially in recent times, when spectral analysis is available to them, and work with high-resolution microscopes. It happens that, considering the surface of certain products and the characteristic damage, they make the real discoveries. For example, it was possible to prove that, at first, the ancient people did not throw their spears with flint tips, but struck them with a blow, and only after thousands of years learned to throw them at the target!


Items for the museum in Shrevesbury. The work of Neil Barridge. They will lie next to the originals, and people will be able to compare them and assess how much time the originals have changed.

However, sometimes the findings themselves help scientists. For example, there are many finds of stone drilled axes. Their account has long been going on hundreds of tons produced in different places and belonging to different cultures. But the question is: how are they drilled? The fact is that the holes in them, like the axes themselves, were subsequently polished and the traces of processing were thus destroyed. However, axes that were not finished were found, and now they very well show how and with the help of what they were drilled. Used wooden sticks and quartz sand. Moreover, the "drill" rotated under pressure and rotated with great speed! That is clearly not by hand. But then what? Obviously it was the oldest drilling machine, representing a combination of upper and lower supports and racks connecting them. In the upper support there was a hole into which a “drill” was inserted, pressed on with a heavy stone, or the stone itself was put on it. The “drill” then overwhelmed the bowstring of the bow and quickly moved it back and forth, while the bowstring rotated the drill at a very high speed. Interestingly, the images on the walls of Egyptian tombs confirm that the Egyptians used similar archery machines for making vessels from stone.

But was this the only “machine” known to the people of the Bronze Age?

It is known that in the Bronze Age many burials were carried out in bulk mounds. Many such kurgans were known in the USSR, where they began to dig them back in the 30s of the last century. So in the last five years before the war, the famous Soviet archaeologist B.A. Kuftin began digging up mounds in his town in South Georgia, in the town of Trialeti, which were very different in appearance from those known until then in Transcaucasia. That is, they were there, of course, but only they were not unearthed. Here Kuftin and excavated the mound at number XVII, which was not the biggest and not the most noticeable, but the burial inventory found in it turned out to be quite outstanding.


The unfinished early Bronze Age stone ax (c. 2500 - 1450 BCE) from the museum in Pembrokeshire.

The burial was a large grave pit with an area of ​​120 m 2 (14 m X 8,5 m), 6 m in depth, in which, next to the remains of the deceased, among the many vessels standing at the edges, there was a silver bucket with amazing chased images.


Here it is, this silver "bucket". (Georgian National Museum)

But, of course, a truly luxurious goblet made of pure gold, which was decorated with skan and grain, as well as precious stones, turquoise and light pink carnelian, was found to be an absolutely exceptional find. The Cup had no analogues among the discovered monuments of toreutics of the Ancient East, and for the Bronze Age it was an amazing find on the territory of Georgia.


Trialeti Necklace: 2000 - 1500 BC.; gold, agate and carnelian. (Georgian National Museum)

Interestingly, despite its volume, the cup was very light. According to Kuftin, it was made from one whole piece of sheet gold, first forged as an oval-shaped narrow-necked bottle, the bottom half of which was then pressed inward, like the walls of a ball, so that the result was a deep double-walled bowl with a stem, which formed the former neck of this bottle. Then, the openwork slotted bottom was soldered to the bottom, and stone nests made of sandals and decorated with beads were soldered to the entire outer surface of the cup. All the design of the cup walls had the appearance of spiral volutes, also made of gold. Volutes were soldered to the surface of the vessel tightly, after which precious stones were inserted into the nests. B.A. Kuftin was delighted with the cup, and this is not surprising. After the war, the famous Soviet metallurgist F.N. Tavadze became interested in how this cup was made. He carefully studied it and came to the conclusion that, having described the methods of making the cup, Kuftin was wrong. He stated that thin sheet gold would not be able to withstand the reverse indentation of a shaped punch. And then it seemed strange to him that on the surprisingly smooth walls of the cup there were no traces of blows with a hammer, which would produce such an indentation.


Here it is this cup in all its glory! (Georgian National Museum)

Having considered all the possible techniques, Tavadze and his colleagues decided that the pressure in the cup making process was carried out on a simple lathe, something similar to the machines used by street knife grinders at that time. This method is well known and modern metalworkers.


This cup is very beautiful, of course! (Georgian National Museum)

The process of making the cup in this case was carried out as follows: there was a wooden (and maybe metal) mandrel, carved according to the shape of the product, which was installed in the spindle of this machine. A sheet of gold was superimposed on the surface of the mandrel, after which the machine was driven into rotation, and a pressure washer was pressed manually to the sheet, successively moving along the mandrel. Apparently, this primitive machine could not have enough speed, which is not surprising, because he also had a manual drive. Therefore, in order to avoid distortion of the squeezed gold sheet, the mandrel from the butt side had to be supported with a special support or a wooden clamp in order to suppress the pressure of the pressure puller with it.


Cup in a cut. The arrow indicates the bend of the leg, which could be obtained by changing the clamps. (according to the book by EN Chernykh “Metal - man - time! M .: Nauka, 1972)

That is, it was concluded that the manufacture of the gold cup could be carried out as follows: a round gold sheet-blank cut from a pre-forged sheet was applied to the mandrel. First, get the very bottom of the cup. Then gradually, the inner walls were squeezed out by a press on the mandrel, the shape and dimensions of which repeated the shape of the inside of the cup. Then the remaining part of the billet was gradually turned in the opposite direction by the clasp, grabbing the previously extruded part, and shifted to the bottom of the cup. The clamp was changed, and the new clamp had the shape of a leg. Well, after the extrusion was over, the excess part of the metal was cut off, and then the mandrel was taken out, the clamp was removed and the second (bottom) cup bottom was soldered.


The technology of making the cup from Trialeti (according to the book by E.N. Black. Metal - Man - Time! M .: Nauka, 1972)

So our remote ancestors were very resourceful and inventive people, and did not stop in front of difficulties, but solved them in the most rational way, and at the same time they saved the precious metal! After all, this cup could be easily cast from gold using the “lost shape” method, but it was preferred to be made from a thin gold leaf!

P.S. The author expresses gratitude to Neil Barridge (http://www.bronze-age-swords.com/) for the provided photos of his works and information.
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  1. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 6 March 2018 07: 09
    +4
    Here the key phrase "our distant ancestors were very resourceful and inventive people" fellow She explains a lot in history .... Especially distant yes
    There are a lot of questions with geo-polymer casting of the 19th century, especially to the statues that historians quite so purposefully attribute to hoary antique antiquity ....
    But in general, a plus article, although soldering in the Bronze Age raises questions what Here is our story lol request
    1. kalibr
      6 March 2018 07: 42
      +7
      There is this kind of analysis, potassium argon, is especially good for dating marble products. You can determine where the marble came from, when, when it was processed, and even ... who is the master! In addition, it is known from the documents who and when bought what marble, and how much when it was paid to him. The volume of products is so great that ... it’s just ridiculous to attribute the products to BC and later, he says, by the 15th century and by some later times. It is known when and where they found and where they lost their hands and when and where they found the penis ... And all this is a conspiracy of manufacturers from different times and different nations, and most importantly insidious historians?
      1. Curious
        Curious 6 March 2018 08: 33
        +7
        Potassium-argon (or its modification argon-argon) is one of the methods of radiometric dating. In addition to it, the well-known radiocarbon, potassium-argon, potassium-calcium, uranium-lead and thorium-lead methods are used by everyone. Also, helium (based on the accumulation of helium-4 from alpha-active natural isotopes), rubidium-strontium, samarium-neodymium, rhenium-osmium, lutetium-hafnium methods are widely used to determine the geological age of rocks. In addition, nonequilibrium dating methods based on the violation of isotopic equilibrium in natural radioactive series are used, in particular, the ionium, ionium-protactinium, uranium-isotopic methods and the lead-210 method. There are also methods based on the accumulation of changes in the physical properties of the mineral under the influence of irradiation: the track dating method and the thermoluminescent method.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 6 March 2018 08: 45
        +5
        Quote: kalibr
        And all this is a conspiracy of manufacturers from different times and different nations, and most importantly, insidious historians?

        This is for sure, and also the inability or unwillingness to think. There are plenty of examples. I have already brought him but it is better to read all the books of our scientist, metallurgist and protchivaya, protchivaya.
        - You can, of course, help, but this is a special, difficult matter, and not everyone can do it. This is a holy thing. But you are probably all atheists?
        The old man suddenly at some point was transformed, all his power disappeared, and an expression of maliciousness appeared on his face. Clearly, he already knew about the failure with the casting. Slowly lowering himself into a chair, he repeated:
        - Of course, you can help, but this is a serious business. It is impossible without prayer here. I made a lot of plates, but there were no bad ones. I received a special award for each slab. If we will make such plates, I will need candles, wax, church ones. There is nothing to try without candles - all the same, there will be no use ... - It's not a matter you started with candles, - he said, frowning. - What good, and Nikolai the pleaser somewhere in the plant attach.
        “But what if it helps us to find out why they used to know how to cast ship armor, but now they have forgotten how, then I will order to bring the icon to the place of casting,” I answered irritably.
        - Well, we'll discuss it later, - the secretary flared up in his turn.
        A conflict was brewing.
        - Why are you up on candles, - I said, - candles are not icons after all.
        - You are an engineer, I am also an engineer, - the secretary said with fervor, - well, what effect can a candle have on the quality of a steel ingot? And even the church one ... The "Enchanter" crossed himself again and, taking a bunch of candles, began to throw several of them into the mold. He did it confidently and all the time whispered something, apparently praying.
        I stepped on the edge of the mold, looked inside and immediately understood everything. It hurt to pain. After all, I knew this trick and should have had to remember everything myself. I wanted to throw the old man away and do everything myself, but I restrained myself and decided to remain silent for now. “So thirty years later, after the revolution and the civil war, one of the secrets of technology was restored. And how many were lost?
      3. alebor
        alebor 6 March 2018 11: 05
        +2
        Sorry, I'm not an expert in this field, but somehow I don’t understand how potassium argon or any other similar method for dating rocks can help date a product? As I understand it, this method estimates the age of the rough “stone” from which the product is made. But to date the product itself? If a modern “expert” claims that a product was made, relatively speaking, “Michelangelo” or “Cellini” or “Thorvaldsen”, and then artificially aged and passed off as antique, (and marble can be of the same origin places, like marble of ancient masters), then how can potassium argon help here to confirm antique authenticity?
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 6 March 2018 12: 00
          +5
          There is a method based on dating a product (not a material)
          on when the last time sunlight hit the product.
          For example, a primitive man turned his stone ax.
          I used it myself, its children, etc. Then the ax was thrown out (or broken).
          And from covered with a layer of earth.
          So, the method will determine the time when the ax was thrown for the last time
          hit the sun's rays. Not the year of manufacture, but the year of "recycling."
          With an accuracy of a hundred years, approximately.
        2. Curious
          Curious 6 March 2018 14: 09
          +6
          "The nut of knowledge is hard, but still, we are not used to retreating ..."
          There is such a journal, Scientific American, a popular science American magazine published on August 28, 1845, making it the oldest US magazine to date. The magazine's articles talk about new and innovative research available to both professionals and amateurs.
          Scientific American (often abbreviated as SciAm) has a monthly circulation of approximately 100 copies in America, and approximately 000 more are sold worldwide (including subscription sales). This respected journal does not focus on short scientific reviews and, rather, positions itself as a forum in which scientists share their discoveries and theories with the general public. At first, the target audience was scientists working in various fields of science, and now these are mainly well-educated people who are interested in the problems of science.
          A Russian publication entitled “In the World of Science” was published from 1983 to 1993, and was resumed from 2003.
          The 1989 Russian edition (No. 8) has an excellent article by Stanley Margolis, "Establishing the Authenticity of Antique Marble Sculptures Using Geochemical Methods."
          Margolis, a geologist and geochemist, professor at the University of California, was among the international experts invited in 1983 to study the authenticity of the famous 2500-year-old Greek statue belonging to the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California.
          This article is online - http://groh.ru/gro/mar/marble.html
        3. kalibr
          6 March 2018 15: 21
          +4
          In order to explain this to you, you need to write an entire article, and a large one. Now I have 20 articles in the archive for publication, this is a month. Tackling it - breaking the plan for two months. So look better at Kyurios's comment. There's a link to an article in Scientific American. Read it better. You can artificially age the product externally. Outside. No inside. And watch a funny movie with charming Audrey Hebburn "How to Decorate a Million." Have fun and learn something.
      4. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 6 March 2018 17: 43
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        And all this is a conspiracy of manufacturers from different times and different nations, and most importantly, insidious historians?


        Drunk satyr. 200 BC Italy
        Judging by the hollow leg, the statue was clearly cast. But that would be in the 200th year request Vague doubts torment me, Vyacheslav Olegovich wink hi
        1. kalibr
          6 March 2018 17: 57
          +2
          I don’t know, I can’t say anything ...
          1. Curious
            Curious 6 March 2018 18: 45
            +5
            And what can I say. This is a copy cast from gypsum in the XNUMXth century. I saw her myself, being in Milan. True, she was with her foot. A student from Omsk broke his leg later.
        2. Curious
          Curious 6 March 2018 18: 43
          +4
          "Vague doubts torment me, Vyacheslav Olegovich "
          They correctly torment you, as you slip the hack.
          In the photo you posted - a copy cast in 1800 from plaster and terracotta.
          Located at the entrance to one of the halls of the Brera Academy of Fine Arts in Milan.
          In March 2014, a student from Omsk broke her leg while trying to take a selfie.
          The original “Faun Barberini” (as it is also called) is in the Munich Glypotek. In Europe there are many copies, including the Louvre.

          This is the original. Renovated.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 6 March 2018 19: 01
            +3
            You made me look at the history of the statue, and it looks like we did it at the same time. hi Yes, a copy. Yes, from Omsk, it seems, there was a studiosus. Although they didn’t say where, until the last wink
          2. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 6 March 2018 19: 54
            +3
            Quote: Curious
            In the photo you posted - a copy cast in 1800 from plaster and terracotta.

            I will not argue with you. I haven’t been to Milan, I haven’t seen it with my own eyes. hi But I know about the student. Didn't know that he broke a copy request lol
            But why then too many copies are issued as originals? Why did a surge in geopolymer casting arise during the heyday of 19th century industrialization ??
            By the way, you are Victor - a storehouse of knowledge !! fellow Do not share your opinions with the people in what thread articles repeat On the topic of the same story, for example? hi
          3. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 6 March 2018 20: 00
            +5
            Quote: Curious
            They correctly torment you, as you slip the hack.


            Convince me that it is a stone! wink
            1. Curious
              Curious 6 March 2018 21: 01
              +4
              Why should I convince you. Take a look, take a look.
              This is the famous Disinganno of the equally famous Antonio de Sangro from the equally famous Capella San Severo in Naples. Had to see. In museums of this level, everything has long been illuminated and felt. Marble is. Like everything else.
              Above, in my comment there is a link to an article on this issue of a specialist of the world urn, who was repeatedly involved in determining the authenticity of the sculptures, since this is a purchase and sale item and costs a lot.
              Read more serious literature. Shpakovsky advises all the time.
              1. Rurikovich
                Rurikovich 6 March 2018 21: 08
                +2
                Quote: Curious
                Read more serious literature. Shpakovsky advises all the time

                Everyone has their own views on how to manage time winked , depending on occupation, age, interests and opportunities smile
                Quote: Curious
                Marble is. Like everything else.

                Casting or creeping? Alternative experts, by the way, argue that it is impossible to squeeze a statue out of a monolith at such a level - the structure of the stone will not allow what
                1. Curious
                  Curious 7 March 2018 00: 22
                  +1
                  Alternative specialists say a lot. And what do they say about, for example, the altar of St. Ambrogio? Chubais and Rossnano golden?
              2. Town Hall
                Town Hall 6 March 2018 21: 28
                +3
                Quote: Curious
                This is the famous Disinganno of the equally famous Antonio de Sangro from the equally famous Capella



                The author of this sculpture is Francesco Queirolo (Genova, 1704 - Napoli, 1762)
                1. Curious
                  Curious 6 March 2018 23: 25
                  +3
                  Yes, I agree, clumsily stated. Rush. It was meant that this is a monument to Antonio de Sangro. And the author of the monument, as you rightly noted, is Francesco Ceyrolo.
            2. kalibr
              6 March 2018 22: 07
              +3
              Here was my article about the Spanish Effigii of the Knights. It shows a chain collar made of rings. Carved from alabaster - stone. It is clearly visible in the photo that it is alabaster. But chain weaving looks like real. There were masters ... Look at the article and at the same time photographs again. Everything is visible there.
        3. Weyland
          Weyland 7 March 2018 21: 47
          +1
          Quote: Rurikovich
          Judging by the hollow leg, the statue was clearly cast. But that would be in the 200th year

          This technique (lost wax casting) was known not only in 200, but also in 3200 BEFORE R.H.! Google the book by Y. Malin, R. Malinov "Leap into the Past" - you will learn many interesting things!
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 7 March 2018 21: 38
      0
      Quote: Rurikovich
      oya soldering in the bronze age raises questions

      Soldering was known at least in Middle Bronze Age - years for a thousand (!) Laws of the Trialeti Cup (which refers to Late Bronze Age)
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 6 March 2018 07: 42
    +8
    Yes, many of the technologies of antiquity have not reached our time .. The antikythera mechanism, by means of which technologies were made, but most of all I wonder how the tools were made ...
    1. igordok
      igordok 6 March 2018 16: 31
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      Yes, many ancient technologies have not reached our time.

      Unfinished Stone Ax of the Early Bronze Age

      Where does the information come from that it is not finished? Perhaps they didn’t plan the holes, enough recesses.
      1. kalibr
        6 March 2018 17: 56
        +4
        Because it is not finished. There are no working axes with recesses ... How do you fix such an ax?
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 6 March 2018 08: 07
    +18
    It is amazing how complex technologies and machine tools could exist in a pre-industrial society.
    Interestingly
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 6 March 2018 10: 51
      +6
      Quote: XII Legion
      It is amazing how complex technologies and machine tools could exist in a pre-industrial society.
      Interestingly

      Well, probably when in ancient times a lathe and a drilling machine with a manual or foot drive were invented.
      By the way, such machines survived to the middle of the twentieth century and were used by artisans
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 6 March 2018 10: 34
    +5
    Quote: XII legion
    It is amazing how complex technologies and machine tools could exist in a pre-industrial society.
    Interestingly

    And even more interesting is that all of this has been safely forgotten and invented in a new way.
  5. Curious
    Curious 6 March 2018 14: 59
    +4
    "The Ancient Tricks of the Trialeti Cup, or when Was the Lathe Press invented?"
    By the way, a lathe-pressing machine still exists. Now it is more often called a rotary hood machine.
    1. Curious
      Curious 6 March 2018 15: 18
      +6
      You can even find a primitive modern embodiment of the process described in the article.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 6 March 2018 16: 06
        +4
        Viktor Nikolayevich, I bow to you for a great addition, and Vyacheslav Olegovich - for the article! hi other forum users-for participation .. drinks
  6. ruskih
    ruskih 6 March 2018 16: 27
    +5
    Thanks for the interesting article and photos. Just a question about a necklace from Trialeti, is it a male or female jewelry?
    1. kalibr
      6 March 2018 17: 54
      +3
      I do not know. But then both men and women wore jewelry. It all depended on status ...
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 6 March 2018 18: 29
      +2
      I will paraphrase Vyacheslav Olegovich: they would now say that this is “unisex” wink
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 6 March 2018 21: 20
        +5
        It is unlikely that “unisex” there can be determined by the color of carneol (carnelian), brown and red are male, and light are female. In this necklace, the asymmetric arrangement of beads is interesting.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 6 March 2018 22: 04
          +2
          it's time to write articles wink good
    3. Curious
      Curious 6 March 2018 18: 32
      +4
      If we proceed from the fact that the poor were not buried in such mounds, as well as the finds of such symbols of power as stone maces in them, then we can conclude that the jewelry was male, hanging on the neck of some local leader.
      1. Cat
        Cat 6 March 2018 18: 58
        +3
        Or one of his wives buried nearby.
        Versions may be a lot to dig into archaeological guides.
  7. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 6 March 2018 22: 17
    +2
    Wonderful article! Vyacheslav Olegovich, and what a canoe in the third photo, well, such a curve, from the bottom of the exposure.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 6 March 2018 23: 56
      +4
      Hopes, ancient Egyptian half-sword and half-hoop. A kind of one-handed berdysh. From him the ancient Greek copis came from, sort of. Remember the movie "Mummy"? There, just the apologists of the pharaoh flaunt such. "Imhotep! Imhotep!" laughing
      1. Curious
        Curious 7 March 2018 00: 04
        +2
        Well, you can’t keep up with you!
    2. Curious
      Curious 7 March 2018 00: 01
      +4
      This is an ancient Egyptian hopesh (Khopesh). Such an ancient Egyptian sword. The one in the photo is copied from Tutankhamun found in the tomb.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 7 March 2018 00: 10
        +4
        Viktor Nikolaevich, the second time in a day, moreover, on the same article, at the same time we are watching the material and answering! good Here ... either the information field exists ... or I am the Preacher! fellow drinks "Let me see my text and rejoice! Rejoice all but the patriots and some authors!" fellow I hone this talent .. repeat
        1. Curious
          Curious 7 March 2018 00: 26
          +3
          Vernadsky was probably right.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 7 March 2018 00: 29
            +3
            and what, he spoke about the Preachers? wink Tell me, it’s interesting!
            1. Curious
              Curious 7 March 2018 00: 42
              +3
              This is not an easy question. Nothing specifically about the preachers. But among those who stood at the origins of the doctrine of the noosphere was a preacher - Eduard Le Roi.
              I meant the thesis of Teilhard de Chardin and Vernadsky on the synchronous unity of the inhabited world.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 7 March 2018 01: 05
                +4
                I meant the thesis of Teilhard de Chardin and Vernadsky on the synchronous unity of the inhabited world.

                I’m not surprised at this .. in general I’m not much surprised at all .. And thank God! drinks
                1. Curious
                  Curious 7 March 2018 01: 13
                  +4
                  There lived such a preacher and mystic in India - Bhagwan Sri Rajneesh. He wrote the book "Ancient music in the pines: in Zen, the mind suddenly stops."
                  It has the lines: "Do not lose the ability to be surprised."
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 7 March 2018 09: 58
                    +3
                    “Amazing - near” I took from Vysotsky and will use it at the end of each publication (I hope to give something else wink) Again we say the same things ... what for some reason, after every mention of India, I get up in front of you with a club like aka Chuck Norris with the M-60 laughing drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 March 2018 21: 33
                      +2
                      Damn, and I was already sleeping at this time. Maybe I'm the same god who is a mushroom, and I dream about all this? After all, as the Doctor said six months ago, we are all binary characters ...
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 7 March 2018 21: 38
                        +2
                        I do not know what to say as a Preacher ... belay drinks so, okay, we dear V.O. Shpakovsky was dedicated to the Atamans. You, Anton - not God, but the commander of the engineering part of the BAND. wink
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 7 March 2018 21: 49
        0
        Quote: Curious
        Such an ancient Egyptian sword.

        It’s more like an ax by origin
  8. Brutan
    Brutan 6 March 2018 22: 46
    +2
    Thanks to the author for an interesting article!
  9. Weyland
    Weyland 7 March 2018 21: 42
    +1
    I remember, about 20 years ago, when I first read about the manufacturing technique of the Trialeti Cup, I became interested when the lathe was invented. It turned out - long before this cup!
  10. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 7 March 2018 23: 04
    +1
    Mikado,
    What, again to the chief engineers?!?!? Well, what for me !!! Is it possible somehow in "Sanktum oficium"?