Military Review

"Rifles - the heirs of revolving guns" (Rifles by countries and continents - 8)

42
In general, even such a modern rifle with a rotary magazine in the US Army did not go. But that doesn’t mean that the drum store is more in American weapons never been used. No, there was another rifle, and quite unusual, which had such a store, and in addition, it was also automatic! And it was created in defiance of the famous “guarantee” by someone Melvin Maynard Johnson in 1938 and immediately transferred it to the US Army for testing.



Rifle Melvin Johnson M1941.

That is, it is clear that he invented it and manufactured it much earlier, namely in the summer of 1937, and demonstrated it in the summer camp of the American naval cadet. Among those who shot her was Merritt Edson (who later became a major), who played a significant role in her fate.

At the beginning of 1938, Johnson already had three finished prototypes that used modified BAR rifle stores. Johnson called these models "vertical feed" rifles. Their wooden parts were made of beautiful wood and looked pretty impressive. Here they also transferred them to the Aberdeen testing ground for tests.

"Rifles - the heirs of revolving guns" (Rifles by countries and continents - 8)

Those who are interested in this topic can recommend this book.

The tests gave results, as always, had something good and something bad. The rifles were tested by army soldiers with reinforced charges, which after 4000 shots led to their damage. The landfill department reported 86 breakdowns and delays that Johnson tried to challenge, indicating damage caused by poor ammunition. But it was good that after these tests he put his rotary magazine on the rifle. And the reason was that he heard one of the officers complaining about the Garand rifle shop, which could not be recharged by inserting cartridges into it one at a time. “How much better,” he said, “was the old Krag, because it could be recharged at any time by opening the store door and simply filling it.

Heard made Melvin Johnson think. It is believed that he sketched a sketch of his rotary shop right there at the bar, using a cocktail napkin.

By itself, the rotary shop is not unusual. But it turned out to be unusual in Johnson. The fact is that it was also charged from the holder, but it was only inserted not from above, through the open bolt, but from the side, to the right. In this case, the holder itself was installed horizontally, and the cartridges were pressed inwards, as usual, with a finger. However, the inlet for the cartridges was closed with a special spring-loaded lid, which was bent into the interior of the rifle mechanism. Such a device allowed loading cartridges one by one, pressing them against this spring-loaded lid, which worked like a damper and, closing, the cartridges were no longer released! Usually the magazine was filled with standard holders for an M1903 rifle, while inside it was possible to load both five and ten rounds, which was two more rounds than the Garand M1 rifle.


Rifle "Garand" M1. (Army Museum, Stockholm)

Aberdeen tested a “vertical feed” rifle in the middle of 1938, and again tested it with a faulty magazine, although Johnson wrote that enough spare magazines had been sent with the rifle to choose from.

But he didn’t lose his spirit, but ordered 14 new rifles for the new tests - seven with a removable magazine and seven with a new built-in rotary. He showed his rifles to everyone who was willing to watch, mainly to the officers of the Marine Corps, since most of his friends were Marines. At that time, the technical director of the magazine American Rifleman was F.K. Ness, who published the results of testing a new rifle in the next issue of his magazine in 1939. As a result, the Johnson rifle was praised as being simpler and more convenient than the John Garand rifle.


Scheme of the device shop Johnson rifle.

Meanwhile, in September, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and the American army again voiced that the “garand” is complicated, that it gives a lot of delays, that there are more cartridges in the “Johnson” and they can be recharged one by one, which is convenient. As a result, the rifle was again sent to Aberdeen for testing. This test was the first serious test for Johnson's rotary store. The rifle was tested for 11 days, 1200 shots were fired from it, and 5000 various tests “for dust”, “sand resistance”, drop tests and much more. The rifle had a 22 delay detected. The Ammunition Division completed the 30 test on December 1939 of the year and informed Johnson of very good results. There were high manufacturability, shooting accuracy, ease of disassembly and reassembly, ease of removal of the barrel, the original high-capacity magazine and its ability to recharge cartridges one by one, as well as the ability of the rifle to resist dirt, dust and sand. Did not like the weight (more than desired), as well as the violation of the automation with a standard bayonet US. It was proposed to test the rifle in the infantry and cavalry, but the relevant chiefs refused to do so. Then Johnson focused on trying to get the Marines to take his rifle. As a result, an investigation began in the Senate. Some played for the Garand rifle, others for the Johnson rifle. Both those and others had both supporters and opponents who had to settle scores, and some senators even participated in demonstration shooting at Fort Belvor themselves.


Johnson rifle shop. You can clearly see the slot for the clips, and behind it the spring-loaded cover.

In May 1940, the army carried out new firing at Fort Benning, where completely new "guarantees" were demonstrated. Melvin Johnson brought only one of his rifles, and besides, the shooter from it was wounded on the cover of the store already “after 150 shots”. Nevertheless, the rival of Garand beat him, having achieved 472 against 436. As a result, the hearing ended with the assertion that both rifles are equal. The main thing was that the “guarantee” was already in production, and there were no special reasons for changing it to a new model, even if in some way better. For Johnson’s rifle to replace the Garand rifle at such a late stage, it had to be significantly better than her in all respects. If these two projects were compared at the same stage of development, everything could be different. In the meantime, the only, in fact, Johnson's rifle advantage was its high adaptability. So, the vice president of a company producing brakes, wheels and rims said that they can produce from 200 to 300 Johnson rifles per hour! The president of the automobile company said they could reach the rate of 1000 rifles per day for six months. Such high volumes allowed us to hope that the Johnson rifle will be able to be adopted as a standard rifle of both the army and fleet. Meanwhile, in August 1941, the Dutch ordered Johnson 70 thousand of his M1941 rifles. After the Germans captured the Netherlands, the Dutch government was in exile in England. But the Dutch still had their very important colonies in the Dutch East Indies, and they wanted to protect them, but they needed modern weapons. But rifles made for the Dutch government never hit the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese captured her even before the order was shipped from San Francisco.


Melvin Maynard Johnson with his M1941 rifle.

In the same year, the United States went to war with Japan, and the US Marine Corps bought about 20-30 thousands of M1941 rifles from the Dutch representatives in the US, since the Marine Gnund rifles chronically lacked. Johnson's rifles were used by some paratrooper sniper scouts also on Guadalcanal. For example, Harry M. Tully used M1 "Johnson" and was able to kill 1941 Japanese soldiers, for which he was given the Silver Star. M42 was also used on Bougainville Island and in the diversionary raid on nearby Choiseul Island. Captain Robert Dunlap was awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in Iwo Jima (February-March 1941 of the year) and he claimed that he used a Johnson rifle. Interestingly, his statue was installed in Monmouth, Illinois in 1945 year, and so on it he is depicted just with a Johnson rifle in his hands. There are photos of Johnson rifles, made in Guam and other Pacific Islands. The Dutch eventually also received many Johnson rifles after the army and marines finally switched to the “garand”, and used them for many years after the war in the army and navy. The Chilean government has ordered Johnson 1998 rifles chambered for 1000x7 mm.


Johnson rifle demonstration in the US Congressional Commission

When the 2506 Brigade, prepared by the CIA, landed in the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in the 1961 year, they were mostly armed with a Johnson semi-automatic rifle. Then around 16 000 rifles were re-purchased from the Dutch government at the end of the 1950-s by Winfield Armz. Half of the rifles were sent to Canada, and sold so as not to flood the market. Standard army rifles for 68,50 dollars; standard, but with a new trunk, ranging from 129.50 US dollars; and sports rifles with a new barrel and a telescope for 159.50 $. Although история and doesn’t know “would”, it makes sense to fantasize a little what would happen if it was “Johnson” who replaced “guarantee” in the American army. What would the American “NATO era” infantry weapon be then? The fact is that changing the caliber to 7,62 NATO would be as simple as replacing the barrel. The rotary cartridge feed mechanism could easily be replaced by a box magazine. That is, the Americans could get an analogue of the M14 a little earlier than 1957.


The shutter and rifle scope Johnson.

Well, now consider the Johnson self-loading rifle in detail. It uses the principle of using the recoil energy of the trunk during its short course. In the trunk made four right-sided rifling. The barrel is locked by coupling the projections of the bolt larva with the breech screwed onto the barrel. A drum magazine holds 10 cartridges. The shop is equipped through a special window with a lid on the right side of the receiver, under the window for ejection of the sleeves. It has a guide slot for plate clips on 5 ammunition from a Springfield M1903 rifle. You can charge the store both with the shutter open and with the shutter closed. The rifle's box is made of wood, in two parts (the butt has a neck and fore-end), and the barrel has perforated leather. Diopter rifle sight, can be adjusted in range. The rifle is equipped with a special small-needle needle bayonet. Using a standard bayonet on a movable barrel is impossible, since this could adversely affect the operation of the rifle's automation.


Scheme of the device Johnson's rifle.

If you compare the M1 "Garand" with the M1941 rifle, then you can say that the second one has two rounds in the magazine and can be recharged at any time by one round or one round cartridge. The range and accuracy of firing M1941 and M1 "Garand" are about the same, but since the Johnson rifle had a small return (according to some sources, the total of 1 / 3 from the return is M1 "Garand"). Its production was also less labor intensive and less costly. The M1941 rifle could be easily disassembled into two parts (the trunk and the box with the mechanisms), so that it could be packed in two compact bales, so it was used by parachutists. Among the shortcomings of the Johnson rifle can be attributed to greater sensitivity to pollution, and the inability to use the standard bayonet, which the military seemed a very serious drawback. In addition, the Johnson rifle proved to be less reliable and was more prone to breakage than the Garand M1. Nevertheless, the last appearance of the drum shop on the battlefield turned out to be quite successful. Being attached to the semi-automatic rifle, he proved himself with the best hand.
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  1. tchoni
    tchoni 9 March 2018 06: 59
    +5
    Here, it would seem, there is a magnificent example of an assault rifle - the under-machine gun BAR. Dopilivayte him and you will be happy ... But no ... It will be necessary to suffer from automatic and self-loading rifles an underseat store and with a loaded charge ...
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 9 March 2018 08: 12
      +2
      Yeah, but it weighs 9 kg
      1. tchoni
        tchoni 9 March 2018 09: 25
        +2
        Quote: cth; fyn
        Yeah, but it weighs 9 kg

        So he weighs 9 kg with all kinds of bipods .... And in girlhood, coming out of the hands of Browning genosses weighed 7.5
        Yes, and the name itself .. "automatic browning rifle" it's like be ... says something ...
        I think that if the same John Moses would take the device to finish, he could get a 6 kg sample ...
        1. cth; fyn
          cth; fyn 9 March 2018 11: 51
          +1
          Yes, no, anyway, even with 6 kg is too much.
          Although the barrel is there for automatic fire, it can be cut off from it, the butt on a steel frame can be replaced, but still it’s a lot.
          Only if you redo everything from scratch. having left the principle of operation of automation, but it’s like creating a new rifle, although there was a brainy browning, it could well have not been thrown out.
          1. tchoni
            tchoni 9 March 2018 13: 06
            +1
            6 kilos against the background of the same "guarantee" weighing 4.3 kilos - not so scary. But, it’s not a dead clip, but a normal store ... Although, you are right in many respects. History does not know the subjunctive mood
    2. Simargl
      Simargl 9 March 2018 09: 15
      +5
      Quote: tchoni
      It is necessary to suffer with an automatic and self-loading rifle a sub-magazine and with a well-loaded charge ...
      Is this about SCS?
      1. tchoni
        tchoni 9 March 2018 11: 28
        0
        This is me about all kinds of "guarantees"
        1. your1970
          your1970 9 March 2018 12: 46
          +1
          "and violation automation work with a standard US bayonet belay I do not understand - how can a bayonet(!!) on bare (!!!) 25 centimeters long barrel - to interfere automation ?? !!! Judging by the scheme - there (within reasonable limits) it was quite possible to attach any (!) bayonet, including our Mosinsky one. The naked barrel according to the scheme occupies at least 25% of the length of the weapon.
          What's the problem?
          1. kalibr
            9 March 2018 13: 33
            +3
            The mass was in the way. She was more than the weight of the original bayonet. And she changed the strength of the rollback.
          2. Simargl
            Simargl 9 March 2018 18: 06
            +1
            Quote: your1970
            I alone did not understand - how can a bayonet (!!) on a bare (!!!) trunk
            Easy! All schemes with a moving barrel and inertia!
          3. Kibb
            Kibb 10 March 2018 13: 25
            0
            There is a movable barrel - easy
        2. Simargl
          Simargl 9 March 2018 19: 30
          +1
          Quote: tchoni
          This is me about all kinds of "guarantees"
          Oh yes: Simonov, developing SCS after WWII, spit on the problems of one-time shops: at least - bag replenishment, storage of cartridges unprotected in a combat situation.
          1. gladcu2
            gladcu2 10 March 2018 03: 13
            0
            SKS, with ten rounds, is quite acceptable for army weapons. SCS also has the ability to recharge. Turn the carabiner over, open the magazine box and fill up the cartridges. You can’t even break your nails.
            1. Simargl
              Simargl 10 March 2018 05: 06
              +1
              Quote: gladcu2
              with ten rounds, quite acceptable for army weapons
              Well yes: in the absence of an automatic firing mode. However, for the army of small arms - this is ... not even a minus - some kind of sleeper ... if this is not a sniper, on which the SCS does not pull.
              Quote: gladcu2
              SCS also has the ability to recharge. Turn the carabiner over, open the magazine box and fill up the cartridges.
              Let's get back to the muskets. I see a picture: there was a free second - opened a store, shpiguy ... here comes the enemy, sees that busy - waiting.
              I spoke about the protection of cartridges in a combat situation. At the shops, they are equipped in special boxes and normally protected from pollution, breakdowns. And here?
              SCS, with all its reliability and other qualities, has one big drawback - an inseparable store.
          2. Kibb
            Kibb 10 March 2018 13: 31
            +2
            Quote: Simargl
            Oh, yes: Simonov, developing the SCS after WWII, did not care about the problems of one-time shops: at least bag-to-bag replenishment, storage of cartridges unprotected in a combat situation.

            Simonov did SCS during WWII, and the problem is not Simonov’s - it’s just that the intermediate weapons system, apart from a light machine gun and a full automatic machine, included a self-loading carbine and even a bolt carbine (although they almost immediately refused it)
            1. Simargl
              Simargl 10 March 2018 15: 48
              +1
              Quote: Kibb
              the problem is not Simonov ... in the weapon system under an intermediate cartridge ... for some reason they also included a self-loading carbine
              How many carbines after WWII with an integral store? Even the bolts now with weaned shops.
              It so happened that now only shotguns with grenade launchers have an integral store.
              1. Kibb
                Kibb 10 March 2018 16: 05
                +1
                Not much, I’m talking about the fact that when you rely on a full automatic machine as a mass weapon of the SCS army, you don’t need the word at all, but the question is not Simonov, but the “customer” and the generals and the government, because in reality: the “customer” even wanted bolt carbine under an intermediate cartridge, imagine such a miracle in the post-war
                CA?
                My friend has SCS with a detachable and hung with plastic. I did not remodel my own, it’s so interesting to me. True, he was indulged with sights. I still don’t understand why he was needed in the army when he was relying on a machine gun. Well, unless - suddenly it doesn’t work out with a machine gun, so at least something will happen ...
                1. Simargl
                  Simargl 10 March 2018 16: 53
                  +1
                  Quote: Kibb
                  but the question is not for Simonov, but for the "customer"
                  Did the customer require a permanent store?
                  Quote: Kibb
                  My comrade SKS with detachable
                  Those. the comrade corrected the jamb of the designer, which is not critical for hunting (if you do not work as a herd fighter).
                  Quote: Kibb
                  And why he was needed in the army when relying on a machine gun, I still do not understand.
                  Record: guard the mausoleum. good
                  Quote: Kibb
                  Well, perhaps - all of a sudden it doesn’t work out with a gun, so at least something will happen ...
                  MTK was not alone! Something would be accepted.
  2. Cat
    Cat 9 March 2018 08: 35
    +5
    A classic example of the American lobby on the arms market, when a more technologically advanced model is pushed into a corner for the sake of "the interests of its own pocket"!
    Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich for an interesting story. To be honest I did not know!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 March 2018 18: 42
      +3
      Vladislav, it seems to me that you are not quite right. There are two points: 1. "Garanda" has already been put "on stream", which is clearly stated in the article; 2. Vyacheslav Olegovich did not give the cost of production (apparently, did not find information on the latest model) weapons.
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 10 March 2018 03: 09
      +1
      I didn’t notice anything about the lobby. The US government, on the contrary, reasoned reasonably.
      Official corruption, the lobbying system, came much later.
  3. hohol95
    hohol95 9 March 2018 23: 57
    0

    Loading process.
  4. Curious
    Curious 10 March 2018 00: 56
    0
    "The rotary store itself is not unusual. But it turned out to be unusual precisely with Johnson."

    Johnson's shop on the left, Schoenauer on the right. What is the fundamental difference?
    1. Simargl
      Simargl 10 March 2018 15: 56
      +3
      Quote: Curious
      What is the fundamental difference?
      At Schönauer, the store is filled from above, with the shutter open. Johnson has a shutter in general: nothing 60/75 goes down and you can fill the store.
      1. Curious
        Curious 10 March 2018 16: 49
        0
        Is this a fundamental difference?
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 10 March 2018 17: 00
          +1
          Yes.
          Johnson can equip a store and not send a cartridge into the chamber.
          However, Schoenauer has a simple bolt, not self-loading - there the spring will not sit.
          This is in addition to construction.
          1. Curious
            Curious 10 March 2018 17: 16
            0
            No. There is no fundamental difference in the operation of these mechanisms. Equipment is particular.
            For example. What is the fundamental difference between Gatling’s card case and Maxim’s machine gun?
            1. Simargl
              Simargl 10 March 2018 17: 50
              +2
              Quote: Curious
              There is no fundamental difference in the operation of these mechanisms. Equipment is particular.
              Well, which side to look at
              Quote: Curious
              What is the fundamental difference between Gatling’s card case and Maxim’s machine gun?
              We look in your opinion: no. The trunks are locked shutter, shoot a unitary cartridge.
              1. Curious
                Curious 10 March 2018 18: 17
                +1
                In my opinion it is not necessary to watch. We must look at the scientific. You did not study TMM?
                The only fundamental difference between Gatling’s gambler and Maxim’s machine gun is that in Gatling’s gambler all operations for producing a shot are carried out due to the muscular strength of the shooter, and in Maxim's machine gun - due to recoil energy.
                1. Simargl
                  Simargl 10 March 2018 18: 34
                  +2
                  Quote: Curious
                  In my opinion it is not necessary to watch.
                  Come on! Right?
                  M134 is no different in principle from Gatling's card holder.
                  However, the store is too simple a system to find this fundamental difference.
                  The difference between these stores is in the method of equipment and supply of ammunition: at Shenauer - equipment and supply from one line, at Johnson from different.
                  Therefore, during operation, Shenauer needs to do 3-4 operations (open the shutter, insert the pack, press the clip, close the shutter), and Johnson 1-2 (insert the pack, press the clip).
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 10 March 2018 19: 54
                    0
                    Clearly not studied. Hence the “flight of thought”, far from science. If we return to the question, then M 134 is fundamentally different from Gatling's card case in that it uses an electric motor as an external drive.
                    "However, the store is too simple a system to find this fundamental difference. "
                    The point is not simplicity, but the absence of this fundamental difference.
                    1. Simargl
                      Simargl 10 March 2018 21: 13
                      +4
                      Quote: Curious
                      Hence the “flight of thought”, far from science.
                      But you have it the same:
                      What is the fundamental difference between GSHG, M 134, Gatling's card case and Maxim's machine gun?
                      You select a part of the system and assign a feature of principle.
                      Gatling’s cooker can easily screw an electric motor to the M 134 with difficulty, but a “meat grinder”.
                      So what's the difference then? After all, M 134 and Gatling's card case have an external drive (at least pedal, at least steam - it doesn’t matter), i.e. In your opinion, the fundamental difference between these systems is electricity, but in my opinion this is not a difference, because the drive axis can be twisted by anything.
                      Quote: Curious
                      The point is not simplicity, but the absence of this fundamental difference.
                      The point is just that you select the part you need.

                      Specifically for shops: if you consider them as a device for the sequential supply of cartridges, then there is no fundamental difference between the tape and the grenade launcher, and if you go deeper, you can organize a classification for almost every detail.
                      Specifically for the discussed designs of stores - a fundamental difference in the equipment and supply unit.
                      But in general - both of them are drum, single-row, constant. Differences - the cartridges are in contact / divided, the load-feed unit is combined / divided.
                      Now we look at the differences: if you cut the delimiters - nothing will change much, but with the load you have to redo the mechanisms - this is a design feature. What's wrong?
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 10 March 2018 21: 50
                        0
                        “For the most inquiring person there will be no more perfect comprehension than to show the highest wisdom in one’s own ignorance, everyone will become the more learned the more fully they will see their ignorance.” De docta ignorantia.
                        Hoc solum versus.
                  2. kalibr
                    12 March 2018 07: 25
                    0
                    By the way, this is really important. Nagan received a patent for ... rifle store equipment with your finger! That is, it was considered a novelty and a distinction worthy of patenting!
                    1. Simargl
                      Simargl 12 March 2018 09: 51
                      +1
                      Quote: kalibr
                      That is, it was considered a novelty and a distinction worthy of patenting!
                      So I say: a weapon (specifically a rifle) is a complex system that must be considered in parts, and in each part you can find a noticeable difference (or fundamental).
                      Even the store, if you look at it, is a rather complicated device.
                      Specifically, with Johnson and Shenauer systems - a fundamental difference in the equipment of cartridges, namely - in Johnson the shop’s lips are stationary, the equipment comes through a separate window (equipment through the mouth is possible, but only as a single-row magazine, like with pistols, for example, but it will be tin), Shenauer feeding and equipment occurs from one line and for this (equipment facilitation) a part (movable sponge) is introduced that locks the magazine but moves if you insert cartridges one at a time or insert a bar (or, as in Garanda, there are problems with equipment until ammunition used up).
                      If this is not important, then I don’t know ...
                    2. Curious
                      Curious 12 March 2018 14: 00
                      0
                      And before the Nagan store, I'm sorry, outfitted a member? Or fingers were forbidden to use when outfitting the store. And how can I equip a store without using fingers? Any? Therefore, I ask for a patent to be presented with a corresponding description.
    2. aws4
      aws4 12 March 2018 01: 37
      +1
      and where it says about the fundamental difference ???????)))))))))))))))))))
  5. gladcu2
    gladcu2 10 March 2018 03: 06
    +1
    The author got a very nice description of the rifle. I even remembered the master of descriptions Kuprin, who could write a leaflet in two pages of text.

    Very interesting article.
    1. kalibr
      10 March 2018 18: 29
      0
      Since you have a Canadian badge ... suddenly you are from Canada, where are the other salaries. Order on the Internet my novel "Pareto Law". His "misfortune" is that he was published in Germany, though in Russian. You will not regret it. And there are many beautiful descriptions ...
  6. Kibb
    Kibb 10 March 2018 23: 20
    +1
    Quote: Simargl
    Record: guard the mausoleum.

    Neighing, evening ceased to be languid good
  7. Kibb
    Kibb 10 March 2018 23: 25
    +1
    Quote: Simargl
    Customer demanded a permanent store

    The joke is that it required
  8. Kibb
    Kibb 10 March 2018 23: 32
    +1
    Quote: Simargl
    Customer demanded a permanent store

    The joke is that yes
    Quote: Simargl
    Record: guard the mausoleum

    Neighing, evening ceased to be languid good
    Quote: Simargl
    Those. the comrade corrected the jamb of the designer, which is not critical for hunting (if you do not work as a herd fighter).

    Neither he nor I are a hunter. Yes, we and the SCS are hunting in general, then there’s nothing to do if it’s legal.