Military Review

“Destructive and Fertile Bronze” (Culture of the Bronze Age - 2)

42
The previous publication, devoted to the culture of the Bronze Age, caused a lot of positive feedback from VO readers. Today we continue this topic ...


As for the culture of the inhabitants of mountainous Iran and Central Asia, the end of III and II millennium BC. Oe., then it remained Eneolithic, but changes in it, of course, occurred. Settlement began to strengthen the stone walls. The burial inventory became richer and more varied, and bronze articles began to appear. Cattle breeding is clearly acquiring a semi-nomadic character, and the horse gives the herdsmen more and more mobility. Thus, probably, the tribes of Kassites from the mountains of Iran and infiltrated the Mesopotamia. But a number of settlements are still engaged in settled farming. It is obvious that close cooperation develops between herders and farmers. Sedentary tribes quickly accumulate material wealth, which leads to stratification within the community.

“Destructive and Fertile Bronze” (Culture of the Bronze Age - 2)

Detail of a horse harness with a chariot. The Lurestan Bronz Collection from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

On metalworking skills of the second half of the second millennium BC. This, when all this happens, can be judged by the bronze items from Luristan (Iran) - the so-called “Luriran bronzes”, which include horse harnesses, decorated with original images of various mythical monsters and animals. Pottery is now made on a potter's wheel.


Halberd. The Lurestan Bronz Collection from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.


Ax XIX – XVIII centuries. BC. The Lurestan Bronz Collection from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.


Dagger. The Lurestan Bronz Collection from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Many cultures located in areas near the Caspian Sea, at this time make a sharp step forward. Thus, the Eneolithic culture of typical fishermen and hunters in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya is being replaced by the culture of herders and farmers who have mastered hoe farming. And again, the changes that occurred in this area by the end of the II millennium BC. e., were caused by the resettlement from the north of the tribes of the Andronovo culture. But in the old agricultural settlements in the territory of Southern Turkmenistan, as well as several centuries earlier in the cities belonging to the Harappan culture and lying in the Indus valley, life stops. And what is the reason we can only guess.

On the other hand, a new agricultural culture appears here, which already possesses the ability to smelt iron, and it begins gradually to master the river lowlands of Central Asia in the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC. er However, here, as in the Transcaucasus, the influence of the centers of slave-holding civilizations of Western Asia, which appeared here in the early Aeneolithic era, was still great. Obsidian is exported from the region of Ararat to the south, which served for the manufacture of arrowheads and sickles in Dvorichie and Elam. Accordingly, in the South Caucasus, there were samples of technologies and products of these ancient Eastern states, and more advanced models of labor tools and weapons. Daggers, known from the finds in the Two Rivers, the ancient Assyrian bronze swords, the axes of unusual forms and special types of axes, as well as many other things, came to Transcaucasia from here. But all these products spread very widely. For example, types of axes, characteristic, for example, for the tribes of “Srubnaya” and Andronovo culture, as well as in the South Caucasus, were also known in the west. Their counterparts made bronzolitechiki tribes living in the II millennium BC. er on the lands of present-day Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The same was with the dishes. So, popular in the II millennium BC. In the Transcaucasus, the painted Elar-type crockery (from the Elar settlement, near Yerevan), again, turned out to be similar to the dishes of Dvorichie and Elam. Jewelry, as well as fine art, characteristic of the Transcaucasus of that era, again indicate links with the ancient Dvorechie, and also with the culture of the Hittite power in Asia Minor.


Bronze ax from the town of Lusatia. (Museum of Natural stories, Vienna)

Interesting finds made in the Transcaucasus and dating back to the Bronze Age were discovered in Central Georgia (in the Trialeti region), as well as in several regions of Armenia and Azerbaijan. At this time there were settlements here that were surrounded by walls made of large stones of “cyclopean masonry”. Moreover, if at first all the houses of these settlements were about the same size, then later internal fortifications appeared, and large houses of elders and tribal leaders. As in the countries of the ancient East, the nobility began to shield itself from the rest of the people with walls. And all these changes occurred in the Transcaucasus in the Bronze Age, which clearly demonstrates the processes of decomposition of former primitive communal relations that previously existed here.


Gold Cup from Trialeti, Georgia. II millennium BC

So, kurgan burials in Trialeti, in the valley of the river Tsalka, the first half and by the middle of the II millennium BC. er They are rather modest graves, the burial inventory of which is very poor. But right next to these mounds are already huge mounds in which real burial halls were found, or deep underground tombs, made of stone, and with buried in them, along with departed silver daggers, silver and gold dishes, fine jewelry and silver necklaces and gold with precious stones. Some products adorn truly exquisite ornaments, such as those that cover the famous golden cup, the surface of which was covered with elegant spirals rolled from gold wire harnesses and with inserts of nests inlaid with semiprecious stones (we will tell you about this unique cup we will also tell you very soon!), or a silver goblet, in which an image of a procession of people dressed in animal masks and clothes with tails, and going to the altar and a certain sacred tree, is minted. The golden statues of animals found in the same mound also speak of close cultural ties between Transcaucasian masters and Dvorichchia jewelers, or at least that they learned their technique. Indicative, for example, is a statuette of a ram with eyes made of nacre and colored stones, reinforced in the sockets with the help of mountain resin - a technique typical of ancient Sumer. In addition, samples of typical Elar-type dishes, very similar to ceramics from Western Asia, were found in the rich mounds of Trialeti.


Casting shape. (Archaeological Museum of Brandenburg. Gallery of the Bronze Age)

In Armenia, during excavations in the city of Kirovakan, they found a similar burial with a large number of painted vessels, and bronze products, for example, weapons were quite similar to Trialetic ones. They found a massive golden bowl, decorated with figures of lions. The silver vessels were similar to the trialeti. And there are many such finds on the territory of Georgia, Armenia and Western Azerbaijan. Which indicates the presence there in the past of a highly developed metallurgical culture of bronze.


Brass dagger from Brandenburg, ca. 2500 – 2200 BC. (Museum of Prehistoric and Early History, Berlin)

And of course, the development of metal processing technologies led to the development of the same agriculture. Therefore, it is not surprising that in the second half of the second millennium BC. er in the Caucasus, they began to apply irrigation of fields, gardening and viticulture developed, and herds were very numerous. Horse breeding spread, while the horse was used for both riding and harnessed to chariots. This is indicated by bronze bits found in the burials of Transcaucasia, designed to control semi-wild horses. Undoubtedly, military clashes over land, water, and pastures were frequent. Therefore, it is not surprising that there was a transition from the traditional short dagger to the long bronze sword, that is, the technology of weapon production also improved.

Military clashes led to the capture of prisoners of war, who were turned into slaves. And there were so many of them that they began to be placed in the graves of the nobility, so that they would serve them even in the afterlife. The burial of the leader was found, where 13 skeletons slaughtered slaves were found near the magnificently decorated funerary chariot of the tribal leader, and the driver who had been killed at the burial was laid near the bulls harnessed to this chariot. However, this shows not only the presence of slaves at this time, but also the fact that their production value was not yet too great. However, over time, the process of development of slaveholding relations especially intensified, and above all at a time when a number of areas of the Southern Transcaucasus in the 9th — 8th centuries. BC er became part of such a well-known slaveholding state like Urartu.


Bronze dagger imitating early designs with a riveted handle. (National Museum of Archeology, Parma)

At the end of II - the beginning of I millennium BC. er in the North Caucasus, already many tribes had developed bronze casting production and gradually began to engage in iron processing. First of all, it is North Ossetia, where at that time the center of Koban culture was located. "Kobanians" produced very beautiful axes, swords and daggers, as well as bronze battle belts with chased and engraved images of animals and warriors, testifying to the outstanding skill of their creators. The fact that among the Koban antiquities found many bronze udil, proves that they used the horse as a mount.


Daggers "Koban culture." (SHM, Moscow)

The most interesting thing, however, is that the “Koban” weapon forms allow us to say that the peoples of the North Caucasus region were already familiar not only with ancient Eastern bronze products close to them, but also with the works of Southern European masters, that is, there are extensive cultural links between distant territories. Moreover, a very similar bronze culture existed at this time also on the east and southeast coast of the Black Sea in the area of ​​the legendary Colchis.


"Koban culture." Adornment from burial No. 9 (XIX century BC)

To be continued ...
Author:
42 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Adjutant
    Adjutant 5 March 2018 07: 04
    +6
    Objects of material culture demonstrate not only the level of development of the productive forces of society.
    They are also simply pleasing to the eye.
    Beautiful and cheerful
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 5 March 2018 07: 42
    +3
    Great stuff, thank you ...
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 5 March 2018 07: 55
    +17
    Metalworking skills were at the level
    And in cultures there are many similarities.
    Thank you!
  4. Curious
    Curious 5 March 2018 10: 53
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I'm sorry, but still I want to correct a technical inaccuracy. Los Angeles County Museum of Art - Los Angeles County Museum of Art. County - Americans have a county.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 5 March 2018 11: 11
      +3
      Viktor Nikolayevich, there Samsonov was born another fairy tale, so go, correct him about Hyperborea and other Indo-Arians. According to him, there were no holozades. Correct each phrase of those that he so loves to highlight in bold.
      I recall the events of two years ago, when everyone communicated and exchanged warm words, when Evgeny Nikolaevich wrote thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich and received a good answer. And yesterday I caught myself thinking that everyone quarreled and “started the class struggle” precisely after the “tales of Uncle Samsonov” about the revolution, Alaska and John. What happened to us, people? .... It seems that I too will soon go into the "opposition", a lot of things just start to enrage ... what Sorry for the "sketch", do not dare to continue no one! stop I had to speak out, accumulated. hi
      1. Curious
        Curious 5 March 2018 11: 58
        +4
        Your task has been completed. Not corrected. This can no longer be corrected, only it is possible to blow up, which I can’t afford. He expressed his opinion. Maybe banned once again.
        I didn’t swear with Vyacheslav Olegovich. Whether he swore with me - I don’t know, did not report anything on this issue.
        In case of my deviation from ethical standards, please do not leave these facts unattended. I promise to work on my moral character.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 5 March 2018 12: 15
          +2
          In case of my deviation from ethical standards, please do not leave these facts unattended. I promise to work on my moral character.

          There can be no complaints about your moral character, only applause. fellow
          went down. Not corrected

          it looks like this, apparently ... wink good
        2. kalibr
          5 March 2018 13: 20
          +2
          Why swear? Not understood???
          1. Curious
            Curious 5 March 2018 14: 20
            +2
            Yes, the people decided that you and I quarreled on the basis of an assessment of the historical moment. I made a refutation.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 March 2018 14: 50
              +2
              Just in your relationship there is no abuse. stop I’m talking about the rest, having been accustomed to “classes” and “opinions” a year and a half ago after blockbusters-tales from the director Samsonov (based on the Marvel comics and the work of the psychiatrist Bekhterev). hi
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 54
                +2
                The Simpsons and Samsonovs are cognates, in general.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 5 March 2018 22: 58
                  +1
                  yes, the presentation is somewhat reminiscent of the epic Homer, just not Simpson.
            2. kalibr
              5 March 2018 21: 24
              +3
              On the contrary, I am only grateful to you for your help! What a manner in everything to see only the bad ...
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 32
          +1
          I will never believe that this is beyond your power.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 5 March 2018 21: 56
            +1
            I will never believe that this is beyond your power.

            by forces, of course. wink You just need to swear not with smart ones, and not with those with whom you have a good relationship. hi With such you need to discuss to mutual pleasure. yes
            1. kalibr
              6 March 2018 06: 29
              +1
              Book of proverbs
              26: 4. Do not answer a fool by foolishness, so that
              you will not become like him;
              26: 5. but answer to a fool by his stupidity so that he does not
              He became a wise man in his own eyes.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 6 March 2018 09: 57
                +2
                You're right. I mean, Solomon is right. hi But yesterday I decided to lose steam! laughing
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 51
        +2
        This world is not getting better, and we are with it.
    2. kalibr
      5 March 2018 13: 19
      +2
      Yes, the county, but also the county. But your translation is certainly more accurate, more Russian
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 5 March 2018 13: 21
        +2
        I also thought that the county. But I did not argue. In any case, this word can be rotated in different ways.
        1. Curious
          Curious 5 March 2018 14: 19
          +2
          There is such a nuance - the administrative division of the United States does not provide for the presence of counties. There are states that are divided into counties. That is, it’s like the Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore. And they, if in Russian, have the Los Angeles Regional Museum of Art.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 5 March 2018 14: 31
            +3
            I correctly understood that the translation of this word depends on the application to a particular country and its political and territorial division? that in England it would be a "county" and in the USA a "county"? hi
            1. Curious
              Curious 5 March 2018 14: 33
              +3
              Yes of course !!!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 5 March 2018 14: 33
                +2
                excellent! good
                1. Curious
                  Curious 5 March 2018 14: 39
                  +2
                  In relation to my comments, I like more beautiful.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 5 March 2018 14: 47
                    +3
                    I wrote this word from The Simpsons. So I will be in old age. Fortunately, the bald spot is growing. laughing
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 16
                      +2
                      Judging by the fact that the character is the owner of a nuclear power plant, you have big plans and Rosatom is facing personnel shifts. laughing
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 5 March 2018 20: 29
                        +2
                        who will let me go there, Anton ... crying here either it was necessary to study in the same class with the right person, or to have a dad! request
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 18
                    +3
                    Here you are speaking different obscure words, but I like "fayno" more.
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 5 March 2018 20: 27
                      +2
                      Dialect of Western Ukraine. Borrowing the German "fein"
                      Source - "Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language".
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 5 March 2018 21: 33
                        +1
                        Well, call me, this is my bias. Ukrainian taught “Zapadensky” surzhik, Spanish for me began with “Catalana”, I modestly keep silent about English, we all speak “American”.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 March 2018 21: 19
        +1
        Okay, experts, now I’ll throw another confusion. "Count" is also a "count".
        1. Curious
          Curious 5 March 2018 21: 32
          +2
          We discussed "County" - the county. Еarldom, shire
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 March 2018 21: 42
            +1
            And I said that I was a rogue, and I learn languages ​​by ear, in the doorways, well, a bit of American cyberpunk.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 March 2018 23: 05
              +2
              And I said that I was a rogue

              this is your third epithet to yourself. laughing “Miserable” and “Anfan Terriblya” could be endured .. wink drinks
  5. marline
    marline 5 March 2018 11: 42
    +3
    Thank you for the article. As always very interesting.
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 44
    +3
    Mikado,
    Well, by God, after Kiriyenko, even Timati can manage the atomic energy of Russia.
  7. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 March 2018 20: 47
    +2
    Mikado,

    Hmm, my father was also a romantic, not a careerist.
  8. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 5 March 2018 20: 55
    +16
    Yes, people lived
    You won’t find such metal today
    Thank you,
    will see
    admire
  9. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 March 2018 21: 25
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, the article is good, but a little school, or something .... Well, it feels like not your topic ... Sorry.
    1. kalibr
      6 March 2018 06: 31
      +1
      The theme is just mine. And what is "school" so it depends on the material and the mood.
  10. Weyland
    Weyland 7 March 2018 21: 03
    0
    Cattle breeding clearly takes on a semi-nomadic character, and the horse gives the cattle-breeding tribes greater mobility.
    There is no need to wander in mountainous areas - cattle breeding works well there

    On the other hand, a new agricultural culture appears here, already possessing the ability to smel iron, and it gradually begins to master the river lowlands of Central Asia in the second quarter of the XNUMXst millennium BC. e.
    Why on earth? Why is mining called so? Because ores gravitate to the so-called grabens and are located in mountainous areas!

    Daggers, known from the finds in Mesopotamia, ancient Assyrian bronze swords, axes of unusual shapes and special types of axes, as well as much more, came to Transcaucasia from here.
    Rather, quite the contrary - for the above reason. Google "Kura-Arak Culture" - the trialet culture is a subsidiary of it!