Military Review

"Three hundred Spartans" of the Central Council. Myth and truth of the Battle of Kruty

19
The Battle of Kruty holds a special place in modern Ukrainian political mythology. This is not surprising compared to most other countries of the world. Ukraine is a political baby, a state with a very short sovereign history. In this story there were practically no victories and achievements, mostly only problems and losses. Therefore, it is so important for Ukraine to create and promote political myths. A very short time, which between the actual disintegration of Russia in 1917 and its restoration by the Bolsheviks, the individual territories of modern Ukraine, managed to survive as an independent state, is now perhaps the most "rastiary" page in the history of the country. Since those who did not defeat the defenders of "separatism", even the tragedies and defeats are used by the Ukrainian authorities in the interest of shaping and strengthening the national myth. Kiev shamelessly exploits the tragic pages of history in order to once again illustrate how bloodthirsty Russia is and what misfortunes it has borne with “Ukrainian statehood.”


"Three hundred Spartans" of the Central Council. Myth and truth of the Battle of Kruty


The Battle of Kruty took place on 16 (29) on January 1918 of the year, exactly one hundred years ago. In modern Ukraine, the anniversary of the battle is celebrated annually as a memorial day for the defenders of the independent state. Meanwhile, who and then defended Ukraine from whom is a moot point. After the February revolution occurred in Petrograd in 1917, the nationalist forces became active in a number of regions of the former empire. Little Russian provinces were no exception.

From the end of the 19th century, Austria-Hungary, who was deathly afraid of the growth of Russian influence on the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe, played the map of "political Ukrainians". At the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany joined it, which also had its own interests - political and economic - in supporting Ukrainian nationalism. Since the beginning of the First World War, when Germany and Austria-Hungary went to war with Russia, the significance of Ukrainian nationalism for German and Austro-Hungarian interests increased - it had to turn into a destructive principle, destabilizing the situation in the Russian provinces of the empire. By the time the monarchy collapsed in Russia, forces were already operating in Kiev, ready to separate the Little Russian lands and create a new state — Ukraine.

The Ukrainian Nationalists created the Central Rada, which already in June 1917 proclaimed the territorial autonomy of Ukraine within Russia. The Provisional Government missed this event, as it was distracted by the First World War and the issues of preserving its own power. When in October 1917, the second revolution in a year took place in Russia - the October, Central Rada in Kiev, having decided that the Russian state had collapsed completely, headed for Ukraine’s independence.

Already 20 November 1917, the Malaya Rada proclaimed the creation of the Ukrainian People's Republic in federal ties with Russia. Moreover, Ukraine included vast lands that were not Little Russia, namely, the territories of Yekaterinoslav, Kharkov, Kherson provinces and a part of the territories of Tauride, Voronezh and Kursk provinces. However, the Rada authorities were in no hurry to recognize, firstly, the Bolshevik-controlled Soviets, which had the strongest positions in industrial centers and formed the Donetsk-Krivoi Rog Republic, and secondly, various independent political forces such as the anarchists of Nestor Makhno in Gulyai-Polye.

The Central Rada was so weak that it could not count on serious military support. Although Rada formally controlled military units totaling about 20 thousands of people, in reality, it could hardly gain several thousand armed supporters. Meanwhile, in January 1918, a detachment under the command of Social Revolutionary Mikhail Muravyev was sent to Soviet power in Kiev. While supporters of the Soviet government were moving towards Kiev, the leaders of the Rada convulsively figured out whom they could oppose. As a result, a detachment of a total number of 420 people was formed. It includes 250 officers and cadets of the 1-th Ukrainian military school, 118 students and high-school students who were part of the 1-th hundreds of Student smoking, about 50 volunteers.

The commander of the detachment, a hundred years later called “the defenders of separatism”, was appointed a very remarkable man - Averky Goncharenko (1890-1980). However, his most outstanding qualities were already revealed much later than the events at Kruty. Then, in January, 1918, Averky was the 27-year-old commander of the smoking quarters of the 1-th Ukrainian Military School named after Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Goncharenko had several years of service in the Russian army — first he graduated with honors from the Chuguev Military School in 1912, then served in the 260 Infantry Bratslavsky Regiment, participated in the First World War and reached the rank of captain, having managed to command a company and battalion. George Knight Goncharenko, who had battle wounds, was appointed a teacher in the Kiev school of ensigns, and after the proclamation of the UPR, he supported Ukrainian nationalists and headed the henchman in the 1 Ukrainian military school created.

Imposing forces were attacking the cadet detachment - around 3000 a man with an artillery battery and an armored train. He commanded the Soviet detachment Reinhold Berzin (1888-1938), almost the same age as Goncharenko with a slightly similar biography. True, Berzin was an old Bolshevik, an underground worker, who had spent a year in prison for distributing revolutionary literature. But in the First World War, he was drafted into the army, graduated from the school of ensigns and served in combat units, participated in the First World War, received the rank of lieutenant. Berzin supported the October Revolution and took an active part in the establishment of the Soviet regime in Ukraine.

In the area of ​​the railway station Kruty (Nezhinsky district of Chernihiv region), that in 130 km from Kiev, the advancing Soviet detachment of R. Berzin came across the Ukrainian squad of Goncharenko. In fact, the leadership of the Central Rada sent untried Ukrainian cadets and students for slaughter, since the enemy outnumbered several times, plus it was much better armed and prepared. What the Ukrainian authorities call heroism now was in fact a crime by the Central Rada and a crime, first of all, in relation to its own supporters - young cadets and students.

The historian Dmitry Doroshenko, who served as general secretary of the Central Rada, is difficult to blame for anti-Ukrainian sentiment. But what he tells in his memoirs about the events at Kruty, completely breaks the official propaganda version of the modern Ukrainian government. As Doroshenko testifies, while the Ukrainian detachment was waiting for the advancing Soviet forces, a real binge started on the train, on which the cadets arrived at the station. Participated in her senior officers of the squad. It turns out that cadets and students, armed only with rifles, were left to themselves, without guidance from experienced commanders.



When the Soviet detachment approached, it was able to suppress the resistance of the cadets without much difficulty. Although the Ukrainian authorities are talking about 200-300 dead, contemporaries recalled far fewer losses. Most of the fighters of the detachment headed by Goncharenko himself immediately retreated. A platoon of students in full force was captured. Subsequently, the captured students were shot. The time was brutal, and the Muravyev Soviet units that had entered Kiev were shocked by the news that the Central Rada had sunk the working uprising on Arsenal in blood. By the way, it was precisely the suppression of the workers uprising that occupied the main forces of the Rada numbering 3000 people, among whom was Simon Petlyura and his companions. While the “backbone” of the separatist army was cracking down on the insurgent workers, poorly trained students and cadets were sent to meet the well-armed detachment of Muravyov-Berzin.

After the Muravyev squad occupied Kiev, the Central Rada fled to Zhytomyr. About any resistance to the last drop of blood "ardent patriots" from the Rada and did not think. But they did not want to lose the dream of full power over Ukraine, why they immediately preferred to enlist the support of long-time patrons - Germany and Austria-Hungary. In March, 1918, relying on the support of the German and Austrian troops, the government of the Central Rada reoccupied Kiev.

The myth of the Battle of Kruty began to be created already at that time, a hundred years ago. First of all, the leaders of the Central Rada, who needed the glorification of the struggle against the Bolsheviks, were interested in it and at the same time wanted to shift attention from their flight to Zhytomyr to a more heroic, from their point of view, battle at Kruty. Mikhail Hrushevsky, a leading ideologue of the Central Council, and became the direct author of the myth. 19 March The 1918 of the year at the Askold Grave in Kiev was held a solemn ceremony for the reburial of the remains of the 18 fighters of the Ukrainian detachment who died at Kruty.

Germany, having gained control of Kiev, was not going to share power with any Rada. Already in April, 1918, the Central Rada was dispersed. Another page in the history of a sad project called “Ukraine” turned over, but there were still many interesting pages ahead. And one of them did not pass by the “main character” of the battle under Averky Goncharenko's Kruty.

Everyone who gets acquainted with the history of the Battle of Kruty, inevitably raises the question - if the defenders of Kiev are really “Ukrainian three hundred Spartans,” as they like to call them in modern Ukrainian propaganda literature, then why didn’t their combat commander Averky Goncharenko die? After all, the man he was, in principle, was not a coward — the George Knight, a truly brave officer, who went through the First World War and quickly made a career in the Russian army. The answer is simple - there was no serious battle, and as a result of the clash, most of the “Ukrainian Spartans” simply retreated, among them was the commander.

Averky Goncharenko, in contrast to the Soviet commanders of Social Revolutionary Mikhail Muravyov, who was executed in 1918 for the anti-Bolshevik insurgency, and the Latvian shooter Reingold Berzin, who had been repressed in 1938, was lucky enough to live for almost a century. After the battle of Kruty, he served in various administrative positions, first with Pavel Skoropadsky and then with Simon Petlyura. After the civil war, Goncharenko settled in Stanislavov (Ivano-Frankivsk), which at that time was part of Poland. Here he focused on quite peaceful work in the Ukrainian cooperation and, perhaps, would have lived his life quietly and peacefully, if the Second World War had not started.

In 1943, 53-year-old Goncharenko joined the 14 SS Division Galichina. As a man with a military education and quite good combat experience, he, despite his age, turned out to be in demand and received the title of Hauptsturmführer of the SS troops (similar to the Wehrmacht captain). Permission for the formation of the SS division from the Galician Ukrainians was given personally by Adolf Hitler, considering the merits of the Galicians before the Third Reich. Initially, the division was planned as a police officer, so almost the entire officers of the division were German police officers sent from Germany. The rank and file was staffed by Galicians, mostly mobilized in the villages. But there were a few Ukrainian officers, including Averky Goncharenko.

In mid-July, 1944, in the area of ​​the town of Brody, Lviv region, in a battle with the units of the 1 of the Ukrainian Front, the division “Galicia” suffered a crushing defeat. Of the thousands of 11, only 3 thousands who escaped from the environment were saved. Fate once again smiled at Averky Goncharenko, who survived the First World War and did not become part of the “heavenly hundred” during the Battle of Kruty. He broke out of the environment. His further path is not particularly known - he probably took part in the actions of the division against the Yugoslav partisans and the Warsaw Uprising. After World War II, Goncharenko emigrated to the United States of America, where he lived 35 for years and died in 1980 at the age of 90.

Resuscitation of the myth of the Battle of Kruty began in post-Soviet Ukraine. The most actively glorify the events of those old years began under President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko. In August, Yushchenko officially opened the memorial to the defenders of Ukraine 2006. A little more than a decade passed and the new “defenders” are already dying in the name of the next Kiev government, whose history and activities are as muddy as the history of the Central Council.
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 27 February 2018 05: 42
    0
    Thanks for the article, Ilya. New facts for me.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 27 February 2018 10: 19
      +3
      Quote: Reptiloid
      Thanks for the article, Ilya. New data for me.

      The author did not say the main thing: in the “Manifesto to the Ukrainian People” of December 4, the Bolsheviks RECOGNIZED Ukraine:
      The Council of People's Commissars reaffirms the right to self-determination of all nations that were oppressed tsarism and Great Russian the bourgeoisie, right up to the right of these nations to secede from Russia.
      t of the Soviet commanders of the Socialist Revolutionary Mikhail Muravyev, who was executed back in 1918 for the anti-Bolshevik rebellion, and the Latvian gunner Reinhold Berzin,
      Therefore, we, the Council of People's Commissars, Recognize the People's Ukrainian Republic, her right to completely separate from Russia

      UPR recognized and All-Ukrainian Congress of Sovietson which the Bolsheviks suffered a crushing defeat.
      Thus, directing a detachment from Russia against the UNR recognized by the Congress of Soviets, the Bolsheviks became (by their own definitions) an aggressor.
      Mikhail Grushevsky, a leading ideologist of the Central Council, became the direct author of the myth. March 19, 1918

      Apparently, and for this, the Bolsheviks quenched this Nazi in the USSR and thousands of his Nazi comrades-in-arms to turn in Ukraine by force Russian into non-Russian
      from the Soviet commanders of the Socialist Revolutionary Mikhail Muravyov, executed back in 1918 for the anti-Bolshevik rebellion, and the Latvian shooter Reinhold Berzin, repressed in 1938 year,

      What they deserve, then they got ....
      1. Jiriintintera
        Jiriintintera 27 February 2018 18: 32
        +1
        The first Ukrainian education was called Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets and the red parts of Muravyov and Berzins, consisting of:
        1) more than 1 thousand Chinese, grouped before the start of the campaign of M. Muravyov to Kiev in the Bakhmach region;
        2) more than 500 former German prisoners of war;
        3) more than 70 prisoners of war of the Austrians from the detachment D. Dzhloby
        4) Chinese, Czechs, Slovaks of the Diamond and Prokhorovsky mines (unspecified amount);
        5) over 70 Chinese of the Moscow Red Guard Detachment;
        6) more than 100 Latvians from Kharkov (working power plants);
        7) over 40 internationalists from the 1st Poltava regiment;
        8) more than 50 Chinese Kondratyevsky mine;
        9) a company of the Chinese of the Gatchina detachment;
        10) about 200 Czechs from the Czechoslovak Communist detachment.
        Total: more than 2 thousand people of various non-Russians.
        1. Jiriintintera
          Jiriintintera 27 February 2018 18: 35
          +1
          «If Finland, if Poland, Ukraine are separated from Russia, there is nothing wrong with that. What's so bad? Whoever says this is a chauvinist... ".
          “... If there will be the Ukrainian Republic and the Russian Republic, there will be more communication between them, more confidence. If Ukrainians see that we have a republic of Soviets, they will not separate, and if we have a republic of Milyukov, they will separate .. ”“ ..any Russian socialist who does not recognize the freedom of Finland and Ukraine will slide into chauvinism .. ”V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin ("The Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (b)", PSS, t.31, p.339-453, Pravda No. 41, May 9 (April 26) 1917):
  2. Vard
    Vard 27 February 2018 06: 05
    +2
    Nevertheless, the feat was ... And as always in such cases, it was performed by people least suitable for this ...
    1. baudolino
      baudolino 27 February 2018 08: 09
      +1
      Quote: Vard
      Nevertheless, the feat was ...

      A feat - is it allowed to make cannon fodder?
      1. glum
        glum 27 February 2018 12: 38
        +1
        Well, with this attitude, then all the exploits of the soldiers can be attributed to the fact that they made themselves cannon fodder, especially in the Second World War.
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 27 February 2018 06: 45
    +15
    Solid myths
    1. Streletskos
      Streletskos 27 February 2018 07: 42
      +18
      I wonder what sources, unlike myth-makers, revelators of myths rely on?)
      1. Curious
        Curious 27 February 2018 08: 21
        +1
        "I wonder what sources, unlike myth-makers, revelators of myths rely on?"
        On the same. It's just that everyone interprets events in the light in which he is profitable. That is, for the myth-makers and for the whistleblowers, the event itself and history itself have no meaning. It's just that they are used for selfish purposes, each in their own. So there is not much difference between them.
        1. Streletskos
          Streletskos 27 February 2018 08: 25
          +17
          Theoretically, whistleblowers should rely on other, newer or better sources. After all, stronger arguments should be made, otherwise - this is just another myth
          1. Curious
            Curious 27 February 2018 09: 13
            +1
            This is ideal. And if the task is to create another sketch, just the event itself is enough. And there are all kinds of sources, facts, etc., this is superfluous. Still confused in them.
  4. kvs207
    kvs207 27 February 2018 07: 33
    0
    "When the Soviet detachment approached, he was able to easily suppress the resistance of the cadets."
    And is this a battle? belay
    And if there were a thousand and a half people from the Ukrainian side, would this be a "battle"?
  5. nivander
    nivander 27 February 2018 08: 17
    0
    I was at a gala rally dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Pid Krutami. I saw the mournful face of Mr. Yushch when he blamed all rubbish about Kruti and patriotism - and Julia Katsyunder, Vitya Yanyka, Yura Yekhanurov and others, members of the government openly yawned
  6. captain
    captain 27 February 2018 09: 55
    +3
    Quote from the author: "... The rank and file was staffed by Galicians, mostly MOBILIZED in the villages. But there were also a few Ukrainian officers, including Averky Goncharenko."
    Dear author, no one was mobilized into the SS division, 70 thousand of “real” Ukrainians were volunteered there, but the Germans selected only about 14 thousand people. The rest did not qualify for the SS troops.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. intuzazist
    intuzazist 27 February 2018 12: 25
    0
    Quote: Vard
    Nevertheless, the feat was ... And as always in such cases, it was performed by people least suitable for this ...

    Funny you, lieutenant colonel .....................................
    ...
  9. Barkun
    Barkun 27 February 2018 19: 13
    0
    In the history of Belarus there is the same gorgeous story about "Slutsk zbroyny chyn". Apologist - Jyrka Vitsbych (from military emigrants). The quality of the rationale is the same. Especially when you consider that both stories surfaced in the 60s.
    Young nations always create their own romance. So it was with the Serbs and the Bulgarians ...
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. naidas
    naidas 1 March 2018 20: 47
    0
    Quote: captain
    Quote from the author: "... The rank and file was staffed by Galicians, mostly MOBILIZED in the villages. But there were also a few Ukrainian officers, including Averky Goncharenko."
    Dear author, no one was mobilized into the SS division, 70 thousand of “real” Ukrainians were volunteered there, but the Germans selected only about 14 thousand people. The rest did not qualify for the SS troops.

    There weren’t many who wanted to volunteer in 1941, because it was believed that the Germans would grant independence ... in March 1943 in Germany they started talking about the possible recruitment of Ukrainian volunteers, then it was about three divisions - the Lemberg tank division, mountain-shooting "Carpathians" and infantry-anti-sabotage "Galicia" ... Galicians were terribly afraid of the return of the Red Army, because they remembered the year 1941. The Germans, in their propaganda, seriously promoted this, and just then the British and Americans just landed in Italy, and tomorrow they can land in the Balkans and come here to Ukraine ... Therefore, the Ukrainians, when forming this division, they did it with such an eye, then to surrender to the British and get a serious card in a future conversation about the fate of their own state. For people of thought, it was something abnormal that the Allies would be able to give Ukraine to the Bolsheviks and with it half of Europe. In addition, everyone remembered the positive experience of the First World War and remembered Poland. Galicians always looked at the Poles as an example to follow. What they did not particularly know .... There were two sets of the Division. The first is 1943. The second took place after the Division was divided into under Brody and it had to be replenished by everyone in a row. The first set was really voluntary. 85 people signed up, really went under the influence of patriotic euphoria, in July 000 the Germans began to row everyone. Now no one wanted to go with the Germans to die for German interests.
  12. Temnik 2017
    Temnik 2017 16 March 2018 22: 35
    0
    private trader Ivan Shary:
    "... Headquarters, as the tilki have come
    tearing through the voids of shrapnel,
    agitated, shifted
    stationery at the train station
    wagon і з usіm echelon utіk
    versts at 6 vid Krut,
    making Keruvati
    battle ofitser
    Potter, all hour
    standing at tilu i, singing, with
    absolutely no
    knowing what you robiti ...
    Tikayuchi, headquarters after storing i
    wagons with cartridges that
    nabami to garmat, sch
    finished off our reference
    Cool. XNUMX times per time
    transmit at once, they gave
    patronіv, and then looked around
    - dumb carriage z
    cartridges. Todi ofitser
    Goncharenko kidna battle i
    live with bare hands
    for patrons navzdogіntsі
    headquarters. Probig versti dvi,
    having swayed - far, i
    going back. Nareshti
    Kozaki from right krill,
    accept shortage
    patronіv, as well as those
    trains went to get on
    friend station, pochali
    step up ...
    (C)
    that's the whole battle!
    Heroically ticking from abstraction!
  13. Temnik 2017
    Temnik 2017 16 March 2018 22: 38
    0
    in 1958 in Munich and
    New York in
    publishing house
    youth "were printed
    40 year results
    research C.
    Zbarazhsky “Cool. At 40-
    richchya the great rank 29
    Sichnya 1918 - 29 Sichnya 1958
    rock ".
    Opens a book
    following martyrology:
    "They drove through Krutami:
    Sotnik Omelchenko -
    Student's commander
    Kurenya, student
    Ukrainian National
    University of Kyiv.
    Volodimir Yakovlevich
    Shulgin, Luka
    Grigorovich Dmitrenko,
    Mykola Lizogub,
    Oleksandr Popovich,
    Andreev, Bozhko-
    Bozhinsky - students
    University of St.
    Volodimira in Kiev.
    Isidor Kurik, Oleksandr
    Sherstyuk, Golovoshuk,
    Chizhiv, Kirik - students
    Ukrainian National
    University of Kyiv.
    Andriy Sokolovskiy -
    study 6
    Ukrainian Kiev
    Gimnazії.
    Mikola Korpan z Tyapcha,
    Pіd Bolekhov, Zakhіdna
    Ukraine M. Gankevich,
    Генvgen Tarnavsky,
    Gnatkevich,
    Pipsky - student 7th
    klyasi, originally from Zakhidno
    Ukraine.
    and all!
    18 people
  14. Temnik 2017
    Temnik 2017 16 March 2018 22: 42
    0
    private trader Ivan Shary:
    "... Headquarters, as the tilki have come
    tearing through the voids of shrapnel,
    agitated, shifted
    stationery at the train station
    wagon і з usіm echelon utіk
    versts at 6 vid Krut,
    making Keruvati
    battle ofitser
    Potter, all hour
    standing at tilu i, singing, with
    absolutely no
    knowing what you robiti ...
    Tikayuchi, headquarters after storing i
    wagons with cartridges that
    nabami to garmat, sch
    finished off our reference
    Cool. XNUMX times per time
    transmit at once, they gave
    patronіv, and then looked around
    - dumb carriage z
    cartridges. Todi ofitser
    Goncharenko kidna battle i
    live with bare hands
    for patrons navzdogіntsі
    headquarters. Probig versti dvi,
    having swayed - far, i
    going back. Nareshti
    Kozaki from right krill,
    accept shortage
    patronіv, as well as those
    trains went to get on
    friend station, pochali
    step up ...
    (C)
    that's the whole battle!
    Heroically ticking from abstraction!