Military Review

How Russian armor fought. CH 1. At Strykov and Pabianice

Already by the beginning of the First World War, given the high speed of the car, the idea was put forward to use it in military affairs - for communication, reconnaissance and surprise attacks on the enemy’s rear. Reserving and arming with a machine gun or a small cannon made such a machine (an armored car) a new combat vehicle — distinguished by its speed of movement, effective machine-gun and artillery fire on open targets and increased combat readiness.

The construction of armored cars in Russia began immediately after the start of the First World War.

1. A. N. Dobrzhansky

17. 08. 1914, the military minister, cavalry general V. A. Sukhomlinov, summoning one of the best shooters of the Russian Guard, Colonel A. N. Dobrzhansky, invited him to form and head an "armored machine-gun battery". The task was completed in record time, and Alexander Nikolayevich headed the 22 for September at the 1 Machine Gun Company. And in October of the same year, the company moved to the front.

2. N.M. Filatov.

Initially, the unit included 8 machine guns (on the Russo-Balt chassis) and 1 guns (on the chassis of the Manesman-Mulag 5-ton truck; weapons of the 47-mm naval gun) armored vehicles. In addition, the company had 2 (then 4) of a truck with 37-mm Maxim-Nordenfeld automatic cannons.

Major-General N. M. Filatov, the head of the Officer Infantry School, was also involved in the formation of armored car units of the Russian army — officers of his initiative, who expressed a desire to serve in these units, were sent to the Military Automotive School (which had a special armor department).

The mission of the commander of the Automobile Training Company, Colonel P. I. Sekretev, contributed to the replenishment of the armored vehicle of the Russian army - it had to order automobile and armored vehicles in the UK (the Russian-Baltic car factory did not have enough power yet).

3. PI Sekretov.

The following number of armored vehicles on the chassis was acquired: Austin - 48, Renault - 40 and "Isotta Frascini" - 1. The arrival of the “Austinov” (this type became the most massive armored car of the Russian army) allowed (after rebooking at the Izhora plant - the British armor was extremely weak) to begin the formation of automotive machine-gun platoons, which initially consisted of three armored vehicles.

The need for cannon armored cars led to the fact that, at the beginning of 1915, work began on booking the 4-ton American Garford (Garford Putilovets) cars armed with 76-mm anti-assault cannon and 3 machine guns at the Putilov plant. In the new state, each automobile machine-gun platoon had to have 2 machine guns and cannon armored vehicles.

In the spring of 1915, Renault armored cars began to arrive in Russia (disassembled). Armed with a machine gun, without having a horizontal reservation, they were used in armored vehicles for the delivery of ammunition (mainly to cannon armored vehicles), and 11 units were transferred to Izhora plant - for booking by headquarters captain Mgebrov.

4. Armored car on the chassis Renault. Niva. 1915. No. 30.

The system Mgebrova was armored 16 machines: "Renault", "White", "Pierce Arrow", "Benz", "Izotta-Fraschini", "Russo-Balt". The Mgebrov machines were distinguished by the perfect forms of armored corps (designed for ricochet) and 2-machine-gun turrets of the original design.

In the Petrograd workshops of A. Bratolyubov, 11 machines were also reserved by the system of staff captain Nekrasov (10 Russo-Balt and Renault), and at the Obukhov plant under the leadership of staff captain Bylinskiy 3 machines were booked (2 Mercedes and " Lloyd "). The latter had to act together with the cavalry: "Lloyd" had two, and "Mercedes" - on one machine-gun turret ("Mercy" was also armed with 37-mm cannons mounted on pedestals in the stern of the hull). "Lloyd" and "Mercedes" manned 25-th automotive machine-gun platoon.

5. Armored cars Austin. Niva. 1915. No. 30.

In the second half of 1915 - in the spring of 1916, 161 armored vehicles arrived in Russia from abroad (60 “Austin” 2-series, 36 “Armia-Motor-Lories”, 30 “Armstrong-Whitworth-Fiat”, 25 “Sheffield Simplex ", 10" Armstrong-Whitworth-Jarrot "). Only the Austins turned out to be suitable for combat use, and the rest had to be refined and eliminated the shortcomings. “Fireworks” and “Fiats” began to arrive at the front only at the end of 1916, while “Sheffilds” and “Army” did not get into the active army (one “Sheffield-Simplex” was turned into armored rubber, the rest - did not make it).

For the staffing of the cannon compartments of the new series (formed from the “Austins” of the 2 series) of the auto-gun platoons, a new cannon armored car was needed. Then 37-mm Hotchkiss gun armed 22 armored car "Lanchester", destined for the British armored division - and since the summer of 1916, the new gun armored vehicles were successfully used on the Russian front.

6. Autopulp gun platoon of the Russian army. One can see “Lanchester”, two “Austin” cars and motorcycles. Armored collection. 1997. No. 1.

In summer, the booking began (according to the Captain Poplavko system) 30 of Jeffrey trucks - later the Special Purpose Division was formed from them. And the Putilov factory was given the order to develop a cannon armored car based on the FWD truck - and in October 1916, an unarmored chassis with an 76,2-mm field gun installed on it, the 1902 model, was successfully tested. It was decided to reinforce the armament by installing a linear (42-mm) cannon on the 107 machine with excellent ballistic data (the armored car actually became a self-propelled gun), but after February 1917, the work was stopped.

7. "Caucasian" - "Austin" 1-series. 45-rk squad, October 1916, the armored collection. 1997. No. 1.

In September 1916, the armored units of the Russian army moved to the divisional structure. In addition to the Special Purpose Division, the 12 Armored Divisions, the English and the Belgian armored divisions were formed. Each division included an 3 - 4 autobunker platoon. The platoon organization remained where it was appropriate - for example, on the Caucasian front.

In addition to the acquisition of 60 "Austin", it was decided to organize a large-scale booking of automobile chassis in Russian factories. For this purpose, 150 chassis (90 Fiat and 60 Austin) were acquired - the Putilov and Izhor factories took over the booking. Due to delays in the delivery of the chassis, work was disrupted - by October 1817 only the Fiat 41 chassis was booked.

How Russian armor fought. CH 1. At Strykov and Pabianice

8. Russian "Austin" Izhora plant. Armored collection. 1997. No. 1.

Simultaneously at the Obukhov Plant, the 31 chassis “Packard” was booked using the system of Senior Lieutenant Ulyanov - only one copy was made in its finished form, armed with a 37-mm Maxim-Nordenfeld automatic cannon in a rotating turret on the roof of the building and an 7,62-mm Maxim machine gun in the tower in the stern of the machine.

9. "Austin" 2-series. 9-th Armored car division "death." Summer 1917. Armor collection. 1997. No. 1.

It is interesting to note the fact of the development of semi-tracked machines, made according to the project of A. Kegres garage, the head of the Technical Section of His Own Imperial Majesty. In the summer - autumn of 1916, the test of the "Austin" 2-series was so successful that it was decided to put on the track the part of the booked "Austin" and "Fiat", as well as all the Packard cannons of the Obukhov factory. In the future, it was planned to equip all the armored vehicles of the Russian army with the Kegress engine. Plans to come true were not destined: the revolution prevented, after which A. Kegress left Russia.

10. Austin Kegress. Photo 1919. Armor collection. 1997. No. 1.

It is necessary to mention the original 3-wheeled cannon-machine-gun armored cars, built by the Izhora plant and the officer rifle school, the armored car of Ensign Vonlyarlyarsky, the armored car "Burford" (booked in the Caucasus).

Finally, it is worth saying about Russian tank the program. This is not about the complex designs of the tanks of A. Porokhovshchikov (All-Terrain Vehicle) and N. Lebedenko (Tsar Tank), which were reasonably rejected by the GVTU, but about the following. Firstly, to complete the planned planned formation of the tank units of the Russian army was supposed in 1917 - 1918. purchase 360 ​​Schneider tanks in France (there was interest in the British MK V tank); secondly, there was a real and accessible Russian production project - its object was a 12-ton tank armed with a three-inch gun and a machine gun (it was proposed by the Russian Renault Society to GVTU in late 1916).

Structurally in the Russian army at the end of 1917 - the beginning of 1918. More 12 armored divisions were to appear, equipped with full-drive FWD and Jeffrey armored vehicles, half-tracked armored cars (Kegress system) and tanks.

Used by the Russian army and armored - primarily on the Galician front. At the end of 1915, 15 armored trains operated on the Russian front - 8 on the South-West, 4 on the Caucasus, 1 on the North and West fronts and 1 in Finland (used for coastal coastal defense). The main thing in the tactics of armored trains is the activity of actions both in defense (strengthening the combat formations of troops) and in the offensive (making raids deep into the enemy's defense). For example, an armored train of the 2 Siberian Railway Battalion No. 3 at the beginning of June 1915 made a daring raid on the Austrian positions near the town of Krasny - breaking through the enemy defenses and struck an artillery strike on its rear.

Could the main armored forces of the Russian army of the First World War - armored cars - have a serious tactical or (all the more) operational influence on the course of military operations?

The tactical properties of an armored car, especially significant during a maneuverable war on a broad front, determined its role as a tool designed to deliver unexpected and violent blows to the enemy. The weak points of the armored car were dependence on high-quality dirt roads and a limited range.

Each armored car, together with a truck, a car and a motorcycle attached to it, made up a compartment. As we noted, three combat armor and one spare (usually) squad were combined into armor (auto-bullet) platoons. The latter gave the army corps. Armor platoons could be combined into divisions or companies.

Platoon staff - 4 officer, 60-65 of the lower ranks (drivers, machine-gunners, gunners and mechanics), who served three armored vehicles and an auxiliary semi-armored truck. As the eyewitness noted, the soldiers were excellent - especially machine-gunners and gunners, who knew their business well. Drivers of cars were often not at their best - resorting to various tricks to avoid combat situations. The officers, mostly volunteers, have always been on top. New genus weapons until he had a special tactic - everything was based on the common sense of the commander of the machine.

For combat use armored platoon allocated: 1) combat unit, which included only armored cars and motorcycles for reconnaissance and communications; 2) reserve - cars with a reserve of personnel and military equipment and 3) park (trucks).

Tactically, armored cars were considered expedient to use mainly on roads and small groups, since their main “advantage is speed”.

Armored cars carried out reconnaissance, supported infantrymen with fire, acted together with cavalrymen, conducted raids and defended the flanks of units and formations, used to strike the flank and rear, seize frontiers, and pursuit the enemy. Bronchium is an effective armored mobile reserve in the hands of an all-arms commander.

The first use of Russian armored vehicles took place during the Battle of Lodz 29. 10. - 06. 12. 1914. The operation began with an enemy attempt to encircle the 2 army, and ended with the exit from the encirclement of the Germans themselves - the shock group of the 9 army. The operation became the only successful world war example in which the Russian army was surrounded by a large enemy force (5 of the German divisions). And even in the "boiler" the enemy group was almost destroyed (losing 42000 people - to 90% of the composition) - the remnants managed to break out of the environment.

The key value acquired actions so-called. The Lovitsky Detachment, which closed the ring around the R. von Scheffer-Boyadel grouping. The Lovichsky detachment was actively supported by the 8 th armored car of the 1 th Auto-machine Company, attached to the 2 army.

9-10 November 1914. 6 machine-gun armored vehicles broke through the city of Strykov, occupied by German troops, while 2 cannon armored vehicles with artillery fire and maneuver supported the offensive of the 3 Turkestan rifle brigade. Caught in the grip of 2-x armored Germans, having suffered very heavy losses, were knocked out of the city.

November 20 The 1-I auto-pistol company ambushed at the junction between the left flank of the 19 Army Corps and the 5 Army in Pabianice. And at dawn 21-th five Russian armored cars destroyed the 2 regiment of the German infantry, who tried to begin to surround the left flank of the 19-Corps.

In these battles, the commander of 4 of the auto-bullet platoon proved to be the captain Pavel Vasilievich Gurdov. Covering the flank of the 68 infantry regiment of the Uglich regiment from the Germans, the armored cars approached Lasskoye Highway - finding a German maneuver. The document tells how the German infantry approached close to the highway - and Gurdov, crashing into the attacking enemy chains, opened fire from 4 machine guns from 100 - 150 meter distance. The Germans could not stand the dagger fire, and, stopping the offensive, lay down. But from such a distance the bullets pierced the armor - the crews were injured, and both armored vehicles were disabled. Shooting from 2-x machine guns, P. V. Gurdov with the help of wounded machine-gunners rolled the cars to the chains of the Russian infantry - and then they were towed.

P. Gurdov was awarded the Order of St. George 4-th degree, and the men of his platoon - George Crosses.

11. P. V. Gurdov.

Here is what the correspondent of P.V. Gurdov wrote about the feat of the platoon, citing interesting details: “From the very beginning of the war, the Austrians and, especially, the Germans frightened our troops with their machine guns on cars. There is a Russian cavalry, or a chain has crumbled - suddenly a car jumps out of an earthen elevation. He flies right in the forehead or along the front and showered our forces with a rain of bullets. Our infantry immediately lies down, starts firing at the car, but it has already gone. And in the chains here and there killed and wounded. ... And on November 11, 21, south of Lodz, our armored vehicles made their way along the Pabianitsa-Lask highway. On November 20, news was received that the German cavalry had stepped on the highway from Pabianica to Lask. It was ordered to make two platoons of machine-guns with a rapid-fire cannon making 300 rounds per minute and attack these columns. The command was assigned to Captain Gurdov, and the detachment immediately spoke out. Our battalion, which had restrained the offensive of the enemy, was to retreat under the murderous fire of the enemy. Just at that moment a detachment of cars arrived at the scene of the battle. In view of the enemy, Gurdov alone remained on the highway with his two armored vehicles. We had to stay until seven in the morning, when he was overtaken by ours. The officers with their bare swords quickly led their way forward, shouting to him: "Germans are attacking along the highway." The rattle of guns burst into deaf blows of artillery fire. Their batteries worked on both highways; between them all poured the lead infantry. ...
Already many have been killed and wounded. Every minute the swiftness of the German offensive intensified. Ours, too, hastily went to the counterattack, hurrying with a lively force to put an end to this onslaught of a superior enemy.
- Rather, machine guns ahead!
Gurdov rushed along the highway. On the one hand, there was a forest that seemed deserted, but when he reached the trees, shots burst out at close range. In more often sat down German arrows, hiding behind the trunks. At night, they took this closed position and now took full advantage of it. There was no time to stop and think. Hurricane bullets rushed to the right like thousands of hammers knocking on steel armor cars. This is not enough. Less than a few minutes, as the battery that noticed them from afar threw queues behind shrapnel lines. Beat from the side, struck from above, and the guns of the advancing German infantry worked point-blank. ... Dozens of accurately knocked down Germans lay in front of cars and in the forest. Machine guns, like iron brooms, swept them away, but others were put in place of the dead and wounded. Suddenly one of the cars turns back.
- Where? - shouts to his chauffeur Gurdov.
- Back to the village. I am wounded by shrapnel three times. If I stay, the car will be gone. In a few minutes he was bleeding to death; he lacked the strength to lead him.
Gurdov is back. He was followed by a second, with his sergeant. Gurdov, already injured himself in the neck, moved to a new car, and instead of the wounded driver, he placed the sergeant-major and ordered him to catch up with the forest. Again the battle of machine-guns began with everywhere attacking the enemy. ... The Germans fell both in front and in front. Gurdov watched only one thing - so that the shelling would not stop for a minute.
Cars brilliantly did their job. Enemy fire began to subside. ... At nine o'clock the fire his steel die out in the forest. Ahead of the Germans ebbed away. Their whole way was covered with corpses. The enemies barely had time to pick up their wounded ...
... They met the regiment commander. ...
- Take the highway ... There are enemy machine guns. They do terrible damage to us. Gurdov drove there.
Shooter proved to be great.
Ahead of the woods. In it an ambush. They are all laid down. Behind them, Gurdov sees a hollow in front. Machine guns followed her, and people ran across the hollow, occupying the trenches to the north, to Lask ... Gurdov instantly realized the state of affairs and immediately opened merciless fire on the hollow and at the trenches.
Resorts non-commissioned officer of the observation post.
- Your shells fit perfectly. The enemy is partly knocked out of the hollow and the trenches. Grouped at the brick factory to the right by the highway.
At this time, a platoon of cars of Captain Shulkevich drove up.
He earned by the hollow and the trenches, and Gurdov - by the brick factory, Again from the observation post:
- The Germans from the factory knocked out ... Run to the left in the village.
... It must have been an artillery park, as it was afterwards. Their machine guns were shot down and silenced ... Gurdov began to hit the indicated village, and suddenly a deafening explosion struck the whole neighborhood ... They rang far, and a huge cloud was thrown up, ... the village caught fire. The enemy was silent.

12. The commander of the 2 machine-gun platoon of the 1 th Autobunker Company, staff captain B. A. Shulkevich.

In this battle, the cannon armored car destroyed the German battery, an enemy brigade was defeated - and Russian armored cars, having parried the coverage of the flank of the 19 Army Corps, solved an important operational task.

The Stavka Summary provided details of the momentous battle: “At dusk on November 20, while heading for the forest, a significant German column was to cross the Pabianitsa-Lask Highway. At this time, our armored vehicles, armed with machine guns and cannons, crashed into the German column. The battle of our vehicles with the enemy was mostly at a distance of about 150 steps. The enemy suffered enormous damage from machine guns and grapeshot and completely dissipated. On our side, captain Gurdov, who commanded the car, was wounded and some machine-gunners. Two cars were damaged, but retained the ability to move. Headquarters captain Gurdov, having ordered the retreat of the cars damaged in the battle, being already wounded, moved into a car-cannon, replaced the wounded gunner, and continued to personally shoot the Germans. Then our cars also suddenly disappeared from the battlefield, as they appeared. In retaliation for the brilliant affair, the German 23 car battery in November boldly drove out before the front of our infantry division operating in the Krakow region, but now one car was overturned by the fire of our field batteries; other cars were saved at full speed. Also in the Lodz region, we had to meet with a German armored car, which approached very close to our trench, which wounded our guards and retreated hastily. Our troops are welcomed by armored vehicles that have arrived in the army, which can significantly facilitate the combat work of the troops at night, in fog and under other conditions that allow us not to fear enemy artillery. ”

13. Niva. 1915. No. 4.

We see that in the Battle of Lodz the Russian armored cars defeated the Strykov garrison, and under the Pabianians they destroyed the 2 regiment - solving not only tactical, but also operational tasks.

To be continued
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  1. Square
    Square 26 February 2018 06: 25
    Our broniks excelled
    Tanks were coming
    1. Cheburator
      Cheburator 26 February 2018 13: 10
      A tank was on the way

      Wow, they didn’t have time
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 26 February 2018 07: 12
    From the moment of its inception, the Russian armored units were equipped with selected personnel
    No wonder the 1st Autogun was headed by a guardsman
    And actions were distinguished by dashing, initiative and fearlessness.
    And the Russian armored cavalry had a very significant impact on the course of many operations.
    It was an armor of operational significance! Unlike the armored cars of many other warring countries.
    Thank you for starting a new interesting cycle. hi
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 26 February 2018 07: 35
    And at dawn on the 21st, five Russian armored cars destroyed 2 regiments German infantry who tried to encircle the left flank of the 19th corps.

    In one morning, destroy TWO regiments!
    This is a meat grinder ...
    The unprecedented courage of our soldiers and officers admires: the wounded, continue the battle, return to battle again and again.
    We will remember now and Grudov and Shulkevichas we remember WWII tankers.
  4. Mikado
    Mikado 26 February 2018 10: 24
    Gurdov is an honored hero of armored parts. It is worth noting that the Russian armored units were generally distinguished by exceptional professionalism, and heroism too. Most of them remained faithful to the oath after the February Revolution. The general, engaged in armored parts, also showed its best side. Although there were also setbacks - Bratolyubov’s armored cars (a kind of Dyrenkov from the times of WWI), the purchase of unsuccessful Sheffield Simplex and Armia Motor Lorries ... request We look forward to continuing. soldier
    In the history of Russian armored vehicles, Poplavko really bribed me. In fact, he proposed not only the first Russian armored personnel carrier, but also a new tactic. True .. none of his proposals were implemented, it seems ... what
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 26 February 2018 10: 51
      On the instructions of the Minister of War, Nekrasov began designing a cannon armored car based on the Russo-Balt passenger car. And since the installation of the gun on the passenger chassis was difficult, Nekrasov had to seek the assistance of a well-known specialist in mechanical artillery installations, Lieutenant General Durlyacher. The latter, in turn, attracted the engineer-inventor A. Bratolyubov, known to him, for this [7]. All three began to design, and at the end of September 1914 a model of an armored fighter armed with a cannon was presented to Sukhomlinov, who ordered his construction to be carried out urgently.

      Kolomiyets - Armor of the RUSSIAN ARMY.
      We will not blame everything on one Bratolyubov ...
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 26 February 2018 11: 02
        indeed, there were three of them laughing drinks Alexey, regarding your next comment - eight armored cars were of this particular model. Bratolyubovskie you did not consider? There, like, he booked two modifications of the Russo-Balt, and some of them even appeared on the railway in Romania.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 26 February 2018 11: 12
          It is these very first models of 1914.
          The latest copies were in service with the Red Army until 1922.
          The rest, after all, were piece works (and they were unlikely to have been in battles), and there were as many as 8 of the same type of armored cars that fought since 1914!
          First Kolomyets and Baryatinsky wrote about the armored cars of the First World War together! But then only Kolomiyets covered this topic!
          1. Cheburator
            Cheburator 26 February 2018 13: 16
            And such interesting statistics

            It can be seen that the 8 Russo-Baltes are only the 1st company, and there were still nekrasovki and mgebraki.
            And the rebooking is almost entirely Russian.
            It is not surprising, because it’s not the order when it breaks through rifle bullets. Although at close range
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 26 February 2018 16: 04
              The cars of the Russian-Baltic Plant (3 types C and 3 types D), which differed only in armament, were fully armored turretless combat vehicles. Since ordinary passenger car chassis were used as the base, they required significant alterations: changes in steering, reinforced axles, frames and springs. Pneumatics were replaced by cast tires and bandages were expanded. The car bodies were assembled from 5 mm armor plates bolted to a metal frame. To absorb noise and vibration, as well as to protect the crew from fragments during shelling, the cars were sheathed inside with a layer of felt and linoleum.
              Since it was believed that in order to combat armored vehicles, the design of the gun mount “does not require a lot of fire at all, but should make it possible to quickly open fire on an enemy’s encountered or found vehicle,” the guns installed in the frontal plate had a horizontal fire of 40-60 degrees. Type C armored vehicles were armed with two 37 mm Hotchkiss guns, and type D with one 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfeld automatic gun. In addition, each armored car had three Maxim machine guns in the side loopholes. The crew of each car consisted of 6 people.
              When testing armored cars of type C with a general commission for special assignments at the GVTU, Lieutenant General Mgebrova found that when driving “on a smooth and smooth highway, cars go at a speed of 25-30 versts per hour and move without much stress, but with a transition to a dirt road it is clear that the cars are moving with a lot of stress, and in some places, not even very dirty and in compacted sand, they got stuck, and people needed help to get them out. ” In addition, upon arrival at the shooting range, water boiling in radiators was observed, which was a consequence of the overload of armored cars.
              Weapons tests were conducted at the range of the Officer Rifle School, the results of firing at targets from a cannon and machine guns were quite satisfactory. In addition, they fired at the armor of one machine from a machine gun from a distance of 150 to 50 steps, and of the 13 bullets fired, not one pierced the armor (in the conclusions it was noted that “the delivered armor is of very good quality”).
              After reviewing the results of the tests, the Armored Car Commission concluded that these vehicles "cannot be used for combat work at the front due to the significant load on the chassis."
              On February 28, 1916, members of the Armored Car Commission, Staff Captain Bazhanov and Warrant Officer Karpov examined four armored cars newly built in Bratolyubov’s workshop (three on the Russo-Balt chassis, type D and one type C), named “Oleg”, “Yaroslav”, "Svyatoslav" and "Victorious."
              After inspecting Bazhanov and Karpov on March 11, 1916, they tested one of the armored cars (type C chassis, the Victorious).
              After reviewing the results of the tests, the Armored Car Commission concluded that "in its present form, Bratolyubov’s armored vehicles are completely unsuitable for responsible work at the front."
              Thus, in almost a year and a half, Bratolyubov’s workshop manufactured 11 armored vehicles, which turned out to be completely unsuitable for use at the front. On May 30, 1916, the Armored Car Commission held a meeting dedicated to the fate of these vehicles: “Of the 12 automobile chassis delivered to Mr. Bratolyubov for reservation, only 10 have been manufactured to date. Of these, 4 were returned to him for corrections, since their armor made their way in some places from 200 steps and, in addition, a number of defects were found in the structure that required correction.
              Of the remaining six, 3 pieces are adapted for movement on a broad gauge railway, and are included in the armored automobile railway platoon, the staff of which was approved on January 28, 1916. In early June, will begin to test these armored vehicles.
              The next three are left in reserve so that the question of adapting them to the railway line is decided after the first three tests.
              About cars, rearranged to the railway, will be described below. As for the fate of the rest of the armored cars made by Bratolyubov, it is known that four of them - Oleg, Yaroslav, Svyatoslav and Pobedonosets - arrived at the end of 1916 to repair and replace defective armor sheets in the Reinforced Rear Automobile workshop in Petrograd. As part of this unit, they participated in the February Revolution of 1917, then they were placed at the disposal of the District Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies of the Petrograd Side, and in October 1917 they joined the detachment of armored vehicles for the protection of Smolny. The armored car "Victorious", renamed the "Rurik", was part of the detachment of sailors guarding the flight school of aerobatics in 1919.
              The author does not have information about the cannon armored cars on the Russo-Balt chassis type D.

              Kolomiets Maxim Viktorovich - Armor of the Russian army. Armored cars and armored trains in the First World War.
              1. Cheburator
                Cheburator 26 February 2018 16: 30
                Thanks for the quote.
                And my tables from - M. Baryatinsky, M. Kolomiets. Armored cars of the Russian army. 1906-1917
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 26 February 2018 16: 34
                  I had one!
                  This is the first book on armored vehicles before the revolutionary construction!
                  Subsequent research conducted only Kolomiyets!
                  As you can see, the machines were made, but their use turned out to be a BIG QUESTION ...
                  1. Cheburator
                    Cheburator 26 February 2018 16: 43
                    Thank God that they were generally applied - and very successfully.
                    And Russian, and imported and mixed.
                    Domestic rebooking, even if the suspension remained imported, is already turning an armored car-foreign car into a combination.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 26 February 2018 13: 51
      Quote: Mikado
      Although there were also setbacks - Bratolyubov’s armored cars (a kind of Dyrenkov from the times of WWI), the purchase of unsuccessful Sheffield Simplex and Armia Motor Lorries ...

      Nikolay! To be honest, they took what they gave. There was no RI auto industry. Even for RBVZ (Russo-Baltov), ​​part of the components and assemblies had to be purchased abroad. L.M.Shugurov: "Cars of Russia and the USSR." Volume One
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 26 February 2018 16: 45
      Design Bureau Dyrenkova still mastered the design and production of 30 D-2 armored cars!
      Small batches of D-8 / D-12 armored vehicles (60 pcs.) And D-13 (12 pcs.).
      It is clear that during their design a lot was not thought out - but this can be attributed to the lack of experience with the team (Dyrenkov himself “gave birth to an idea”, and then “was pregnant already different” - subordinates brought to mind)!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 26 February 2018 17: 02
        It is clear that during their design a lot was not thought out - but this can be attributed to the lack of experience with the team (Dyrenkov himself “gave birth to an idea”, and then “was pregnant already different” - subordinates brought to mind)!

        well, that way any of the enthusiasts with insufficient education can be sorted into the same shelves - both Kurchevsky and Tukhachevsky. Just .. years and money are gone! There were many other inventors who completed poorly - Makhanov, Syachintov, Taubin ..
        Small batches of D-8 / D-12 armored vehicles (60 pcs.) And D-13 (12 pcs.).

        last year, I thought once, when I wrote an article about creativity, and inserted D-8 photos there - why did not Dyrenkov initially do BA with a tower? I have a vague feeling that he simply did not want to mess with her, because the creation of the tower was too complicated for his brain .. He did not know how to make a shoulder strap and support (forgive me tankers and engineers for my vocabulary of humanities drinks)! He did everything "by eye"! request Sheathing the hull with sheets was easier than calculating the tower.
        but how he shoved his brainchild, ah! drinks although it was already clear from the test results that it was impossible to even shoot from this BA. That is, again, everything is "by eye" - where the embrasure was drawn, they were cut there, without even checking if it was convenient for her to use ... am
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 26 February 2018 22: 35
          All questions to comrade Halepsky!
          It was he who proposed to Dyrenkov "pile" the reconnaissance armored car for the Red Army!
          Perhaps the mission did not talk about a rotating tower!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 27 February 2018 10: 15
            as far as I remember Kolomiyets, in a conversation with Halepsky there was originally a question about the location of armor at an angle. This has been accomplished. yes From the point of view of functionality, even the “wheeled wedge” was more viable than the crafts of Dyrenkov, in my opinion. Tower! He did not know how to work with the tower at first. It seems to me that for the D-12 (turret from above) he used the achievements of aircraft and machine gun designers, for the D-13 he installed a tower from the BA-27, for the BT tower he used again the operating time for this tank, only the tower’s “box” itself bungled .. somehow! request
            Here's the D-13 and D-9:
            Dyrenkov zealously took up the work and on February 9, 1931 he was able to present three armored vehicles to the representatives of the UMM RKKA: the Ford-Timken, designed by the Izhora plant, the Moreland and the Ford-Timken of their own design. Moreover, the latter were presented “in draft”: the hulls on them were only “baited” by welding, the armor of the engines and towers were in half-finished form.
            What a figlar! Dust into the eyes, "faster, faster!" fellow
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 27 February 2018 14: 26
              As early as September 1931, during the transfer of the order for the manufacture of the “wheel wedge” to the experimental design and testing bureau, the head of the UMM of the Red Army, Khalepsky proposed to Dyrenkov "design a fully armored reconnaissance Ford A." In December 1931, Dyrenkov sent two armored vehicles for consideration by the military. On December 25, he received a response signed by Halepsky:
              "1. Having considered the project of fulfilling your assignment for booking a Ford car, I suggest you make one prototype no later than February 1, 1931, two samples - according to drawing No. С-17-39 (with one machine gun) and according to drawing No. С-17 -41 (with a machine gun and anti-aircraft turret). These samples are made of boiler iron, the body is welded ... "

              What the customer asked, what project he approved, he received!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 27 February 2018 14: 29
                well, yes, it’s completely so ... there was no talk about the tower .. but it was impossible to fight on Dyrenkovo ​​art! request
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 27 February 2018 14: 45
                  Nikolay! And Khalepsky was not going to fight on ] fully armored reconnaissance Ford A!
                  I only wanted to scout and shoot backwards while leaving the enemy - "Running away from criminals, I managed to shoot backwards 2 times."
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 27 February 2018 15: 15
                    "Running away from criminals, I managed to shoot backwards 2 times."

                    self-propelled tachanka! good but .. enemies can not only appear from behind ...
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 27 February 2018 15: 22
                      They can! But we do not live in the 20s of the 20th century ...
                      And there is a minimum school education. And we will not confuse a tram with a tractor!
                      If I were a SPIRITISM - I would ask many SPIRITS - the reasons for their actions! But alas ... hi
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 26 February 2018 22: 56
          But he played with ideas, and fate played with him ...
          As for the designer himself, in December 1932, the military refused his services, dismissing him from the post of head of the experimental design and testing bureau. After that, Dyrenkov offered his services to the OGPU Design Bureau, but here too, failure awaited him. According to some reports, he died in a car accident in the mid-30s.

          After all tank building failures Nikolai Ivanovich was dismissed from all posts. Little is known about his subsequent life. There is only dry information in the Kommunarka’s shooting lists stating that engineer Dyrenkov, who was living in Moscow at number 51 on Metrostroevskaya Street, was arrested on October 13, 1937, and was charged on December 9 of that year for “participating in sabotage and terrorist activities”, for which he was sentenced to capital punishment - execution at the Kommunarka training ground. The sentence was executed on the same day. His wife, Nadezhda Nikolaevna, was charged on January 4, 1938 as a member of the traitor's family, and sentenced to 8 years in forced labor camps. Only in December 1956, the Dyrenkov family was rehabilitated.

          These are two opinions on the future fate of this man!
    BRONEVIK 26 February 2018 10: 37
    The process was also going on with regard to the enlargement of organizational units (platoon-company-division), perhaps they would come to mechdivisions - as in cavalry.
    He walked on the part of tactics.
    Of course, the imperfection of their production capacities and the need to re-import imported cars left their mark.
    But, nevertheless, progress is impressive in a short time.
    As well as the effectiveness of use.
  6. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 26 February 2018 10: 38
    Great article! The first experience of using the armored units of the Russian Imperial Army is more than impressive — the defeat of two regiments by the forces of only five armored cars, this is a result not inferior to the use of tanks on the Somme. What is surprising in the experience of organizing RIA auto-armored units is the purchase of foreign chassis. As far as I remember, the Russo-Balt domestic chassis was mass-produced at the RVBZ, the trucks and cars of which were actively purchased by the army. The plant was so loaded with other military orders that it was not possible to book its own chassis?
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 26 February 2018 10: 57
      On the domestic chassis of the Russo-Balt Model C, only 8 armored vehicles were made!
      All the rest is solid IMPORT ...

      Having received the necessary support at the top, in early September 1914, Dobrzhansky drew up a “schematic drawing of an armored car” (or, as we would say today, a draft design). For their manufacture, passenger cars of the Russian-Baltic Wagon Plant Type C 24/40 with an engine with 40 hp were selected (chassis No. 530, 533, 534, 535, 538, 539, 542, the number of the eighth car is unknown, presumably 532) . The detailed design of the reservation and working drawings were developed by the mechanical engineer Grauen, and the construction of the vehicles was entrusted to the armor-rolling workshop No. 2 of the Izhora plant of the Marine Department.
      1. glum
        glum 26 February 2018 14: 47
        on the sketches, the side armored panels are placed at an angle. well done.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 26 February 2018 11: 18
      During the First World War (autumn 1915), the automobile department from Riga was evacuated to Moscow.
      In 1916, the management of the joint-stock company bought from the heirs of the merchant Pavel Shelaputin for the evacuated plant the Pokrovskoye-Fili estate near Moscow (now the Fili district of Moscow). The plant was launched on July 1, 1917 under the name "Second Automobile Plant Russo-Balt"

      They didn’t produce a lot of cars.
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 26 February 2018 11: 44
      As far as I remember, the Russo-Balt domestic chassis was mass-produced at the RVBZ, the trucks and cars of which were actively purchased by the army.

      ... at the Russian-Baltic plant, where from 1908 to 1915 produced 450 cars.

      Here is such a mass ...
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 26 February 2018 13: 31
        Quote: hohol95
        Here is such a mass ...

        Yes, I agree with you. Car production in the Russian Empire was small-scale. And only the lack of cars forced the tsarist government to conclude contracts with foreigners for the construction of cars. "And only when the First World War broke out, when some of the exporting countries began to save the manufactured vehicles for their own needs, while others were completely in the enemy’s camp, which faced sharp the war ministry in a firefight allocated 100 million rubles in gold to buy cars abroad, but in the allied countries the factories were busy meeting the needs of their own armies, and therefore they took Russian orders reluctantly and little by little, forcing them to overpay, put up with the delay in execution and, as a result, having put into the country a completely varied, poorly equipped spare parts fleet ... The All-Russian Commercial and Industrial Congress was held in Petrograd in the last days of May 1915. It was there that the most important decision was made to transfer the entire industry of the country to military rails. August created when not the mediocre participation of prominent Russian businessmen, the Central Military-Industrial Committee (the role of the military-industrial committees was mainly in the distribution of military orders) demanded that the state provide loans to create a full-fledged automotive industry. " It was decided to build five plants: in Moscow Yaroslavl, Rybinsk, Rostov and Odessa. But only in 1924, the AMO plant released its first trucks. The remaining plants were not completed and were reprofiled after the revolution, except for Yaroslavl. In Yaroslavl, before the Second World War, it was not possible to organize the production of engines.
      2. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 26 February 2018 13: 34
        What is curious, I met slightly different numbers, and the auto production of RVBZ was comparable to foreign factories.
        In 1914, 300 cars were already assembled at the plant. Is it a lot or a little? For comparison: Alfa-Romeo produced 205 cars in the same year, Audi - 216, Bugatti - 150.

        And how many cars did RBVZ build in six years? Alas, there is no exact answer, but in any case more than 600. Confirmation of this is the found Russo-Balt chassis No. 610.
        In principle, for those years, such a number fully meets the criterion of mass character.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 26 February 2018 16: 08
          A nuance is also in the lineup of cars produced! If it’s only cars, then it’s decent!
          And if there were trucks, then how many were there?
          And according to the chassis numbers, there may be a "case" - for the armored cars the chassis was issued
          the chassis of the Russian-Baltic Wagon Plant type C 24/40 with an engine capacity of 40 hp, (chassis No. 530, 533, 534, 535, 538, 539, 542, the number of the eighth car is unknown, presumably 532).
          And this is in 1914! Chassis number 610 was not far ...
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 26 February 2018 16: 12
          Is there any information on German and Austrian factories!
          And preferable data on the production of trucks and tractors for the army !!!
          1. Lieutenant Teterin
            Lieutenant Teterin 26 February 2018 17: 12
            I took information on the production of cars on a site devoted to the history of the Republican Military Library. The question of the number of trucks and cars produced by the plant for me so far remains open — here you need to look for either dissertation research on the work of the plant or to look more deeply in archival documents. The same situation with the production of equipment in the Central Powers — there is no information about this in popular sources.
            PS I would like to know the source, on the basis of which you say that only 8 armored vehicles were produced on the RVBZ’s own chassis?
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 26 February 2018 23: 02

              There were still cars on the RBVZ chassis, but these were piece copies and not all of them took part in the battles of the First World War!
              1. Bouncer
                Bouncer 27 February 2018 07: 00
                Obviously not 8
                10 Russo-Baltov Nekrasov 1915-1916?
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 27 February 2018 07: 59
                  How many of them acted at the front?
                  And the cars of the year 1914 were at war and served until 1922 (3 pcs.)!
                  1. Bouncer
                    Bouncer 27 February 2018 08: 13
                    You wrote that TOTAL 8 cars were produced on the domestic chassis
                    at the front - not at the front - this is another matter
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 27 February 2018 08: 19
                      Correct or supplement my own phrase -
                      In the fall of 1914, a batch of 1 similar armored vehicles on the chassis of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works type C 8/24 was manufactured and sent to the front, as part of the 40st automobile machine gun company!
                      1. Bouncer
                        Bouncer 27 February 2018 08: 22
                        This is another matter.
                        Completely different.
                        It is only about the 1st armored part - the 1st Automobile Machine Company, the first swallow.
      BRONEVIK 26 February 2018 12: 09
      Perhaps, Mr. Poruchik, the question was about a serious increase in volumes - as in the case of heavy artillery. Therefore, they used all the methods. Moreover, Russo-Balt was actively engaged in the rebooking of imported armored cars.
      That is, several tasks: trucks, armored cars, booking and rebooking.
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 26 February 2018 13: 36
        Most likely, yes, RVBZ was loaded with other orders beyond measure, so there was no time and capacity to manufacture their cars. But I have not yet found confirmation of this version.
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 26 February 2018 15: 56
        Was there an armored production at RBVZ?
        Or did they re-engage in Izhora?
        The detailed design of the reservation and working drawings were developed by the mechanical engineer Grauen, and the construction of the vehicles was entrusted to the armor-rolling workshop No. 2 of the Izhora plant of the Marine Department.
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 27 February 2018 08: 32
    Swallow is the first! And with such machines - the only one! In addition to the created 8 copies, more SIMILAR armored vehicles were not made!
    The chassis was used, but for piece crafts or, as in the case of Nekrasov, for cars of a different design.
    1. Bouncer
      Bouncer 27 February 2018 08: 37
      Nevertheless, another 10 Russo-Baltic units
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 27 February 2018 08: 51
        At least 10! The chassis was used for the PIECE manufacturing of armored cars. 1 to 3 units! But only 8 cars made in 1914 fought the whole war, plus Civil War!
        And, finally, two armored cars were made for the 1st machine gun company (not to be confused with the 1st machine gun) at the Izhora plant in the same 1915. In the report of this enterprise, they pass as "cars under a machine gun." Unlike previous machines, they had one rotating machine-gun turret in the rear with a firing angle of about 270 degrees. Both armored cars fell into the hands of the Germans (one of them was captured in 1916 in the battles near Vilna and exhibited at the trophy exhibition in the Berlin Zoo), and in 1918-1919 were used in battles during the revolution in Germany. One of the cars was part of the Kokampf team, consisting of captured Russian armored cars, and was called Lotta. According to some reports, the armored car was made on the Russo-Balt chassis. According to other sources, the machine was installed 40-horsepower engine "Hotchkiss".

        1. Bouncer
          Bouncer 27 February 2018 09: 06
          At least 10
          By the way, we managed to trace the fate of EVERY piece of armored car to make such a conclusion -
          only 8 cars made in 1914 fought the whole war, plus Civil
          Where did the rest go?
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 27 February 2018 09: 16
            Read the book of Kolomiyets - everything is described there!
            Of the 8 cars of 1914 until 1922, 3 copies survived. Both cars (one - photo in the comment above) - were captured by the Germans and exhibited in Berlin!
            Another armored vehicle of a similar design (on a passenger chassis) Izhora plant built for the 1st motorcycle company in 1915. This armored car was used during the Civil War.

            Read a book -
            "Armor of the Russian army. Armored cars and armored trains in the First World War"
            M. Kolomiets
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 27 February 2018 09: 21
            The conclusions were most likely made on the basis of documents on the availability of armored vehicles after the end of the Civil War! There are no data on many homemade products!
            They could be destroyed, booked and put into spare parts for other cars!
            1. Bouncer
              Bouncer 27 February 2018 09: 26
              Yes, I read the book of Kolomiyets
              And the conclusion about the fate of EVERY car is difficult.
              Because I asked you
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 27 February 2018 09: 47
                Where did I get - a simple electrician - archival documents from the times of the First World War and Civil! hi
                In the forests of the Lipetsk region, such armored cars do not roll.
              2. hohol95
                hohol95 27 February 2018 20: 55

                On November 17, 1916, in an battle with the Bulgarians, the armored car Austin of the 4th armored revision was lost!
                In the report of the command of the 4th armored division traditionally the facts are not very true:
                ... Approaching the enemy’s wire barriers, the machine opened fire from machine guns at its trenches. But at that time, one by one, the exploding shells with their fragments knocked out the back door and disabled the car. The squad leader, seeing the death of the machine from the observation post and having taken general command of the English armored squadron by this time, ordered him to go into battle and pull the car in tow with two English machine guns, but these machines could not fulfill their task, since one of the they were pierced by the machine gun cover, and the other, thanks to the soft soil, could not get closer to the armored car. Then the squad commander ordered Lieutenant Narcissov to leave in his armored car to help the lined. Narcissus, not reaching the car, opened fire from machine guns, but at that time a tower was hit by a Bulgarian shell and the wheels were broken. The car stopped, but the fire from the second machine gun did not stop ... "
                This battle against the Bulgarian forces was carried out by armored vehicles of the 1st series - both were too badly damaged and could not be restored .....
  8. zoolu350
    zoolu350 27 February 2018 09: 34
    The article seems to be bulky, but each paragraph about armored cars begins with the words: so much is the chassis of the Austin, Renault, Packard, etc., who arrived from France, the United Kingdom and the Secondary School. And not a single one: the Russo-Balt chassis is reserved. Here you have the whole industrial “power” of RI.
    1. Bouncer
      Bouncer 27 February 2018 09: 44
      The article seems to be baked

      A comment this loaf rotational
      booked chassis "Russo-Balt"
      Why, if made armored cars ready?
      Russo-Balt was bursting, and what he had time to produce, he managed to.
      1. Streletskos
        Streletskos 27 February 2018 09: 48
        The article seems to be baked

        The main thing is that it is very informative and competent and is based on both sources and literature.
        comment this baton-rotational

        Rotate the kids with buns is forbidden to anyone
        like loaves laughing
      2. zoolu350
        zoolu350 27 February 2018 09: 57
        Rousseau-Balt managed not very much. Therefore, the results of the PMV for RI are appropriate.
        1. Streletskos
          Streletskos 27 February 2018 10: 13
          Yes, due to several hundred armored cars and trucks laughing
          Even the tanks were just a delight
          Everything was decided by politics, strategy, large battalions and, ultimately, ideological weapons
  9. alatanas
    alatanas 27 February 2018 14: 49
    This is also in my Austin:

    as a prisoner, but did not understand the 1-howl or 2-th version.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 27 February 2018 15: 04

      "Austin" of the 2nd series without a feed control post and with it.
      2nd series AUGINS!
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 27 February 2018 15: 12
      It was planned to order another 70 armored vehicles of the 3rd series in England, but with gable rear wheels and a reinforced frame, with a delivery time by September 1917. These plans were not destined to come true, although the company formally received an order for the machines and built some of them. In any case, in April 1918, of the 16 armored vehicles of this type, the 17th battalion of the British Tank Corps was formed. Unlike the machines intended for Russia, these armored cars were armed with Hotchkiss machine guns. They took part in battles in France in the summer of 1918.
      Around the same time, several vehicles of this type arrived in Japan, where they were in service until the early 30s.