In the late 60s, Soviet airborne troops were equipped with towed artillery systems and self-propelled artillery installations. Airborne self-propelled guns were also assigned the task of transporting troops over the armor and were used as tanks on the offensive. However, the light ASU-57, weighing 3,5 tons, had very weak armor and could not transport more than 4 paratroopers, and the larger ASU-85 with frontal armor, which protected against small-caliber shells and a sufficiently powerful 85-mm gun, turned out to be quite heavy. One An-12 military transport aircraft, which was the main air transport of the Airborne Forces in the 60-70s, contained one self-propelled gun weighing 15,5 tons.
In part, this was offset by the use of armored wheeled armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicles of the BRDM-1 in the Airborne Forces, which were used both for reconnaissance and for the transport of troops and anti-tank systems.
Unlike ASU-57 self-propelled guns and ACS-85, the wheel BRDM-1 was floating. With a mass of 5,6 t, two cars were placed in An-12. The BRDM-1 was protected by armor 7-11 mm thick in the front and 7 mm in the sides and rear. Machine with engine power 85-90 hp the highway could accelerate to 80 km / h. Travel speed over rough terrain did not exceed 20 km / h. Thanks to all-wheel drive, a tire pressure adjustment system and the availability of additional low-setting wheels of small diameter in the middle part of the hull (two on each side), the BRDM-1 was comparable with tracked vehicles. However, with amphibious assault inside the 3 man’s combat corps and relatively weak weaponry consisting of an SGMT 7,62-mm machine gun on the turret, the wheel BRDM-1 was used in the Airborne Forces very limitedly.
The machine equipped with the Bumblebee anti-tank missile system had a much greater combat value for the airborne units. The loaded ammunition was 6 ATGM, three of them were ready for use and were placed on the launcher retractable inside the case.
Fighting vehicle anti-tank complex 2K16 "Bumblebee" on the basis of an armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicle BRDM-1
The launch range of wire-guided anti-tank missiles 3М6 ranged from 500 to 2300 meters. With a 24 kg missile mass, she carried an 5,4 kg cumulative warhead capable of penetrating 300 mm armor. A common disadvantage of the first generation ATGM was the direct dependence of their effectiveness on the training of the guidance operator, since the rocket was controlled with the help of a joystick manually. After the launch, the operator, guided by the tracer, directed the missile at the target.
In 60-ies on the initiative of the Commander of the Airborne Forces VF Margelov began the development of an airborne tracked vehicle, conceptually similar to the BMP-1 designed for the Ground Forces. The new airborne assault vehicle was supposed to combine the transportation of the paratroopers inside the airtight hull with the ability to deal with the enemy’s armored vehicles and tank assault vehicles.
The BMP-1 with a mass of 13 tons did not meet these requirements, since the An-12 could only carry one car. In order for the military transport aircraft to lift two cars, the armored body of the airborne assault vehicle decided to make from a special aluminum alloy ABT-101. In the manufacture of hull armor plates were joined by welding. The car received differentiated protection against bullets and fragments from rolled armor plates with a thickness of 10-32 mm. Frontal armor withstands hits 12,7-mm bullets, the side protected from light fragments and bullets rifle caliber.
The body of the machine, which later received the designation BMD-1, had a very unusual shape. The frontal part of the body is made of two curved dvukhskatnyh sheets: the top, thickness 15 mm, located at an angle of 75 ° to the vertical, and the bottom, thickness of 32 mm, located at an angle of 47 °. Vertical sides have a thickness of 23 mm. The hull roof has a thickness of 12 mm above the middle compartment and 10 mm above the power pack. Bottom case - 10-12 mm.
Compared with the BMP-1, the machine is very tightly packed. The front is a combined combat compartment, in which, in addition to the driver and commander, there are places for four paratroopers closer to the stern. Workplace gunner operator in the tower. In the aft part of the machine is located the engine compartment. Above the engine compartment, the futuristic niches form a tunnel leading to the aft landing hatch.
Thanks to the use of light-alloy armor, the combat mass of BMD-1, adopted for service in 1969, amounted to only 7,2 tons. BMD-1 with 6-cylinder diesel engine 5Д20-240 with power 240 hp can accelerate the highway to 60 km km / h. Driving speed on a country road 30-35 km / h. Speed afloat - 10 km / h. Due to the high specific power of the engine, low specific pressure on the ground and good design of the chassis, the BMD-1 has a high maneuverability in rough terrain. Chassis with air suspension provides the ability to change the clearance from 100 to 450 mm. The car is floating, the movement is afloat by two water cannons. The tank with a capacity of 290 l provides a range on the highway 500 km.
The main armament of the BMD-1 was the same as on an infantry combat vehicle - the 73-mm smooth-bore semi-automatic 2A28 “Thunder” cannon mounted in a rotating turret and paired with a PCT 7,62-mm machine gun. The loading of 73-mm active-missile shells placed in the mechanized combat pack was carried out by the weapon operator. The gun’s combat rate of fire is 6-7 rds / min. Thanks to the air suspension, the firing accuracy of the BMD-1 was immediately higher than that of the BMP-1. For aiming the gun, a combined, illumination sight TPN-22 “Shield” is used. The daytime optical channel of the sight has an increase in 6 × and a field of view in 15 °, the night channel operates through passive type NVDs, having an increase in 6,7 × and a field of view 6 °, with a range of vision 400-500 m. In addition to the main armament, placed in a rotating the turret, in the frontal part of the corps, has two PKT course machine guns, of which paratroopers and the commander of the vehicle fire along.
BMD-1 firing from 73-mm guns
Armament BMD-1, like the BMP-1, had a bright anti-tank orientation. This is demonstrated not only by the composition of the armament, but also by the fact that in the ammunition 73-mm guns at first there were no high-explosive fragmentation projectiles. Cumulative PG-9 grenades shot PG-15В able to penetrate the homogeneous armor thickness to 400 mm. The maximum firing range is 1300 m, effective on moving targets - up to 800 m. In the middle of the 70-x, a high-explosive shot OG-15В with a grenade OG-9 was introduced into the ammunition. High-explosive fragmentation grenade mass 3,7 kg, contains 735 g of explosive. The maximum flight range of the FG-9 is 4400 m. In practice, due to the large dispersion and low efficiency relative to the light fragmentation grenade, the firing range usually does not exceed 800 m.
To hit enemy armored vehicles and firing points, there was also an anti-tank system 9K11 "Baby" with three rounds of ammunition. The launch bracket for ATGM 9M14M "Baby" is mounted on the tower. After launch, the rocket is controlled from the gunner’s workplace without leaving the vehicle. ATGM 9М14 using manual single-channel guidance system for the wires are controlled manually throughout the flight. The maximum launch range of the ATGM reaches 3000 m, the minimum is 500 m. The cumulative warhead weighing 2,6 kg normally pierced 400 mm armor, on late-missile missiles the armor penetration value was reduced to 520 mm. Subject to good training of the gunner-operator during the day, on average 2000 m from 10 missiles hit the target 7.
For external communication, a shortwave radio station Р-1 or Р-123М was installed on the BMD-123 with a range of up to 30 km. A second station of the same type was mounted on the BMD-1K commander machine, as well as the P-105 remote VHF radio station with a communication range of up to 25 km. The commander version was also distinguished by the presence of the AB-0,5-P / 30 gas-electric unit, which was stored in the stowed position inside the car at the position of the gunner’s seat. The benzoagregat was parked on the roof of the logging system to provide power to the radio stations with the engine off. In addition, the BMD-1K had folding tables for working with maps and processing radiograms. In connection with the placement of additional radio communications in the commander’s car, the ammunition of machine guns was reduced.
In 1979, modernized modifications of BMD-1P and BMD-1PK began to arrive in the airborne units. The main difference from the early versions was the introduction of the new ATGM 9K111 with a semi-automatic guidance system. Now the BMD-1P ammunition includes two types of ATGM: one 9М111-2 or 9М111М "Fagot" and two 9М113 "Competition". Anti-tank missiles in sealed transport and launch containers in the stowed position were transported inside the car, and before preparation for the application, the WPC is installed on the right side of the tower’s roof along the axis of the gun. If necessary, the ATGM can be removed and applied in a separate position.
ATGM 9K111 "Bassoon"
Thanks to the use of a semi-automatic wire guidance line, the accuracy of shooting and the probability of hitting a target were significantly increased. Now the gunner-operator did not need to constantly monitor the flight of the rocket with the help of a joystick, but only enough to keep the aimed mark on the target before the rocket hit it. The new ATGM allowed to fight not only with enemy armored vehicles and destroy firing points, but also to counteract anti-tank helicopters. Although the probability of hitting an air target was not too great, the launch of an anti-tank missile system by helicopter in most cases made it possible to thwart the attack. As you know, in the middle of 70-x, the beginning of 80-x, NATO anti-tank helicopters were equipped with an ATGM with a wired guidance system slightly exceeding the attack range of ATGW installed on the BMD-1П.
The launch range of the anti-tank missile 9М111-2 was 70-2000 m, the thickness of the pierced armor along the normal was 400 mm. On the improved version, the range was increased to 2500 m, and armor penetration - to 450 mm. ATGM 9М113 has a range of 75 - 4000 m and armor penetration 600 mm. In 1986, the 9М113М rocket came into service with a tandem-shaped cumulative warhead capable of overcoming dynamic defenses and penetrating homogeneous armor up to 800 mm thick.
The upgraded BMD-1P and BMD-1PK received new VHF radio stations Р-173 with a communication range in motion up to 20 km. The BMD-1P installed a gyroscopic semi-companion GPC-59, facilitating navigation on the ground.
The serial construction of BMD-1 continued from 1968 to 1987 year. During this time around 3800 machines were produced. In the Soviet Army, in addition to the Airborne Forces, they were in smaller quantities in the assault landing brigades subordinate to the commander of military districts. BMD-1 were exported to USSR friendly countries: Iraq, Libya, Cuba. In turn, the Cuban units at the end of the 80's transferred several vehicles to the Angolan army.
Already in the second half of the 70, there were more than 1000 BMD-1 in eight airborne divisions and storage bases, which brought the capabilities of the Soviet airborne troops to a new level. After adopting the BMD-1, the landing platform with air damping PP-128-5000 was most often used for landing by parachute method. The disadvantage of this platform was the duration of its preparation for use.
Airborne combat vehicles could be delivered by military transport aviation both landing method, and parachuted using parachute systems. BMD-1 carriers in the 70-80s were the military transport An-12 (2 cars), IL-76 (3 cars) and An-22 (4 cars).
BMD-1, prepared for landing with IL-76
Later, parachute platforms of the P-1 family and multi-domed parachute systems MKS-7-5М or МКС-128-5Р were used for landing BMD-128, providing dumping of a mass up to 9,5 t at speed 260-400 km. At the same time, the rate of descent of the platform is no more than 8 m / s. Depending on the weight of the payload, in preparation for landing, a different number of parachute system units can be installed.
Preparing BMD-1 for landing with An-22
At first, during the development of new parachute systems, there were failures, after which the equipment turned into scrap metal. So, in 1978, during paratroopers of BMD-105, the parachute multi-dome system failed to operate during the exercises of the 1 th guards airborne division, and the BMD-1 tower fell into the hull.
However, the landing gear was subsequently brought to the required level of reliability. At the start of the 80-x for every 100 drop-off of heavy equipment there was an average 2 failure. However, a separate landing method, when the heavy machinery was first dropped, and the paratroopers jumped after their armored vehicles, led to a large dispersion on the ground, and it often took about an hour for the crew to take places in their military equipment. In this regard, the Commander of the Airborne Forces, General V.F. Margelov offered to parachute personnel directly into combat vehicles. The development of the special parachute-platform complex “Centaur” began in 1971, and on January 5, the first landing of a BMD-1973 with a crew of two people, Senior Lieutenant A.V. Margelov (son of General of the Army VF Margelov) and Lieutenant Colonel L.G. Zuev. The practical application of this method of landing allows the crews of combat vehicles from the first minutes after landing to quickly bring BMD-1 in readiness for battle, without losing precious time, as before, to search for it, which reduces several times the time for airborne assault in the rear the adversary. Subsequently, for the landing of the BMD-1 with the full crew, the Rektaur system (“Reactive Centaur”) was created. A feature of this original system is the use of a solid braking jet engine, which slows down an armored vehicle shortly before landing. The operation of the brake motor occurs in contact with the ground contact contactor located on two probes down vertically.
BMD-1 was actively used in numerous armed conflicts. At the initial stage of the Afghan campaign, "aluminum tanks" were part of the units of the 103 Guards Airborne Division. Due to the high power density of the BMD-1, it was easy to overcome steep climbs on mountain roads, but the security of the machines and resistance to demolition on mines in the specific conditions of the Afghan war left much to be desired. Very soon, a very unpleasant feature emerged - often when an anti-tank mine was detonated due to the detonation of the ammunition, the entire crew died. This happened even in the case when there was no penetration through the armored hull. Due to a powerful shaking when undermined, the arming of the fuse of the OG-9 fragmentation grenade took place, with the self-detonation tripping through 9-10. The crew, contused by the explosion of the mines, as a rule, did not have time to leave the car.
The result of the detonation of ammunition BMD-1
When firing from large-bore machine guns DShK, which were very common among the rebels, the side armor was often pierced. With the defeat in the stern area, leaked fuel is often ignited. In case of fire, the body made of aluminum alloy melted. The fire extinguishing system, even if it was intact, usually did not cope with the fire, which led to irretrievable losses of equipment. In this regard, from 1982 to 1986 year in all landing units deployed in Afghanistan, full-time airborne armored vehicles were replaced with BMP-2, BTR-70 and BTR-80.
Quite widely BMD-1 was used in armed conflicts in the expanses of the former USSR. The car was popular among the personnel for its high mobility and good maneuverability. But also the features of the most lightweight amphibious assault technology had a full impact: weak armor, very high vulnerability from mines and low resource of the main units. In addition, the main armament in the form of 73-mm smooth-bore gun does not correspond to modern realities. The accuracy of firing from a cannon is low, the effective range of fire is small, and the striking effect of fragmentation shells leaves much to be desired. In addition, the conduct of more or less aim fire from two coursework is very difficult. Plus, one of the machine guns is at the commander of the machine, which in itself distracts him from performing basic duties.
BMD-1 installed on the tower AGS-17
To expand the capabilities of the standard weapons on the BMD-1, they often mounted additional weapons in the form of large-caliber NSV-12,7 and DShKM machine guns or AGS-17 automatic grenade launchers.
At the start of the 2000, an experienced multi-launch rocket system based on the BMD-1 was tested. On the turret with the dismantled 73-mm cannon, a 12 receiver BKP-B812 was installed to launch 80-mm unguided aircraft rockets. The armored MLRS, being in the combat formations of the assault combat vehicles, was to deliver sudden blows to the clusters of enemy personnel, destroy the field fortifications and provide fire support in the offensive.
The effective launch range of the NAR C-8 is 2000 m. At this range, the missiles are placed in a circle with a diameter of 60 meters. For destruction of manpower and destruction of fortifications it was supposed to use fragmentation rockets C-8М with warheads of mass 3,8 kg and volume-detonating C-8DM. The explosion of a C-8DM warhead containing 2,15 kg of liquid explosive components that mix with air and form an aerosol cloud is equivalent to 5,5 – 6 kg of trotyl. Although the tests were generally successful, the military was not satisfied with the semi-hand-made MLRS, which had an insufficient range, a small number of missiles on the launch vehicle and a relatively weak striking effect.
For use on the battlefield against an enemy equipped with field artillery, anti-tank systems, anti-tank grenade launchers and small-caliber artillery installations, the reservation of amphibious vehicles was too weak. In this regard, BMD-1 were most often used to reinforce roadblocks and as part of mobile rapid response teams.
Most of the vehicles in the armed forces of Iraq and Libya were destroyed during the fighting. But a number of BMD-1 became trophies of the American army in Iraq. Several captured cars went to landfills in the states of Nevada and Florida, where they were subjected to extensive testing.
American experts criticized the very cramped accommodation conditions of the crew and landing force, primitive, in their opinion, sights and night vision devices, as well as outdated weapons. At the same time, they noted very good acceleration and maneuverability characteristics of the machine, as well as a high level of maintainability. For security, the Soviet tracked airborne assault vehicle roughly corresponds to the MNNXX BTR, which also uses light alloy armor. It was also noted that despite some shortcomings, the BMD-113 fully meets the requirements for light airborne armored vehicles. In the USA, there are still no armored personnel carriers or infantry fighting vehicles created that could be parachuted.
After adopting the BMD-1 into service and beginning its operation, the question arose of creating an armored vehicle capable of transporting a larger number of paratroopers and transporting mortars, heavy grenade launchers, ATGMs and small-caliber anti-aircraft guns inside, on top of the hull or on the trailer.
In 1974, the mass production of the BTR-D armored personnel carrier began. This machine is based on the BMD-1 and differs in the body extended by 483 mm, the presence of an additional sixth pair of rollers, the absence of a tower with weapons. Due to the lengthening of the hull and saving of free space due to the failure of the turret with a weapon, 10 paratroopers and three crew members could be placed inside the armored personnel carrier. The height of the hull sides of the troop compartment was increased, which made it possible to improve the conditions for habitability. In the frontal part of the hull there were viewing windows, which in combat conditions are closed with armor plates. The thickness of the frontal armor compared to the BMD-1 is reduced and does not exceed 15 mm, the side armor -10 mm. The commander of the vehicle is located in a small turret, in which are installed two surveillance devices TNPO-170A and a combined (day-night) TKN-3B device with the illuminator OU-ZGA2. External communication is provided by the radio station Р-123М.
Upgraded BTR-D with a machine gun NSV-12,7
Armament BTR-D is made up of two course 7,62-mm PKT machine guns, the ammunition package of which includes 2000 cartridges. Often one gun was mounted on a rotating bracket in the upper part of the body. In the 80-s, the armor of the armored personnel carrier was reinforced by the heavy machine gun NSV-12,7 and 30-mm AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher.
Also on the BTR-D sometimes mounted a mounted antitank grenade launcher SPG-9. In the hull and the rear hatch, there are embrasures with armored valves through which paratroopers can fire from personal weapons. In addition, on the BTR-D during the modernization carried out in 1979 year, mortars of the launch system of smoke grenades 902В “Tucha” were installed. In addition to armored personnel carriers intended for the transport of troops, ambulances and ammunition transporters were built on the basis of the BTR-D base.
Although the armored personnel carrier became heavier than the BMD-1 on the 800 kg and slightly increased in length, it has good speed characteristics and high maneuverability on rough terrain, including on soft soils. The BTR-D is capable of taking steep slopes up to 32 °, a vertical wall with a height of 0,7 m and a moat width of 2,5 m. The maximum speed is 60 km / h. The armored personnel carrier overcomes water obstacles by swimming at a speed of 10 km / h. Cruising on the highway - 500 km.
Apparently, the mass production of the BTR-D continued until the beginning of the 90-s. Unfortunately, it was not possible to find reliable data on the number of released machines of this type. But amphibious armored personnel carriers of this model are still very common in the Airborne Forces. In Soviet times, each airborne division of the state was supposed to be about 70 BTR-D. They were originally part of the airborne units deployed in Afghanistan. Used by Russian peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. These vehicles were spotted during the operation to force Georgia to peace in 2008.
The armored personnel carrier BTR-D, based on the BMD-1, in turn served as the basis for a number of special-purpose vehicles. In the middle of the 70-x the question arose about strengthening the air defense capacity of the airborne units. On the basis of an armored personnel carrier we designed a car designed for transportation of MANPADS calculations. Differences from conventional BTR-D at the air defense machine were minimal. The number of troops dropped to 8 people, and inside the hull placed two stacked layouts for 20 MANPADS of the type “Strela-2М”, “Strela-3” or “Needle-1” (9-310).
In this case, it was planned to transport one anti-aircraft complex in a ready-to-use form. In a combat position, the launch of MANPADS on an airborne target can be carried out by a shooter half popped out of the hatch on the roof of the middle compartment of an armored personnel carrier.
During the fighting in Afghanistan and on the territory of the former USSR, 23-mm anti-aircraft guns ZU-23 began to be installed on armored personnel carriers. Prior to the adoption of the BTR-D, the standard vehicle for transporting 23-mm anti-aircraft guns was the all-wheel drive truck GAZ-66. But in the troops for the transportation of the ZU-23 began to use the BTR-D. At first it was assumed that the BTR-D would become a tractor-conveyor for a towed wheeled charger-23. However, it soon became clear that in the case of installation of anti-aircraft guns on the roof of an armored personnel carrier, mobility was significantly increased and preparation time for use was reduced. Initially, the ZU-23 was made handicraft on the roof of an armored personnel carrier on wooden stands and fixed with the help of cable extensions. In this case, there were several different installation options.
Historically, anti-aircraft installations on the BTR-D were used exclusively against ground targets under combat conditions. An exception may be the initial stage of the conflict with Georgia in 2008, when Georgian attack aircraft Su-25 were in the air.
In Afghanistan, the BTR-D with ZU-23 mounted on them was used to escort convoys. Large elevation angles of anti-aircraft installations and high-speed pick-up allowed shelling of the mountain slopes, and the high rate of fire, combined with fragmentation shells, quickly suppressed enemy firing points.
Self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were also noted in the North Caucasus. During both “anti-terrorism” campaigns, anti-aircraft 23-mm installations strengthened the defenses of the roadblocks, escorted the columns and supported the landing party with fire during the battles in Grozny. Armor-piercing 23-mm projectiles easily pierced the walls of residential buildings, destroying Chechen militants who had taken refuge there. Also, ZU-23 proved to be very effective when combing green. Enemy snipers very soon realized that it was deadly to fire at roadblocks or columns that included machines with anti-aircraft guns. A significant drawback was the high vulnerability of the openly located calculation of the paired anti-aircraft gun. In this regard, during the hostilities in the Chechen Republic, self-made armored vehicles were sometimes mounted on anti-aircraft installations.
The successful experience of the combat use of the BTR-D with the ZU-23 installed on it led to the creation of a factory-made version of the self-propelled anti-aircraft gun, designated BMD-ZD "Gnash". On the last modernized version of ZSU, the calculation of two people is now protected by light anti-shatter armor.
To increase the effectiveness of fire by means of air attack, optical-electronic equipment with a laser rangefinder and a television channel, a digital ballistic computer, a target tracking machine, a new collimator sight, and electromechanical actuators were introduced into the sighting equipment. This allows you to raise the probability of defeat and to ensure the daily and all-weather use of low-flying targets.
By the beginning of the 70-s, it became absolutely clear that in the coming decade, the main battle tanks with multi-layer combined armor that would be out of tune for the 85-mm automatic control systems of the AMS-85 self-propelled guns would be adopted in NATO countries. In connection with this, the BTR-D was developed by the self-propelled tank destroyer BTR-RD Robot, armed with the Fagot 9М111 ATGM. Up to 2 ATGM 9М111 "Fagot" or 9М113 "Competition" can be placed in the ammo pack of the vehicle. In the frontal part of the body saved 7, 62-mm machine guns. Security and mobility remained at the level of the base machine.
In the roof of the body of the BTR-RD, a cut-out was made for a rechargeable, two-plane induced launcher with a lodgment for one transport-launch container. In the stowed position, the launcher with TPK is electrically retracted inside the body where the ammunition is located. When firing, the launcher captures a WPC with a missile and automatically delivers it to the guidance line.
After the launch of the ATGM, the used TPK is thrown to the side, and the new one is captured from the combat pack and displayed on the firing line. An armored container is installed on the left side of the vehicle’s commander’s hatch on the roof of the vehicle’s hull, in which the 9Sh119 visor and the 1PN65 thermal imaging device are placed with automatic and manual guidance. In the stowed position, the sights are closed by an armored valve.
In 2006, a modernized version of the armored personnel carrier BTR-RD "Robot" with the Kornet ATGM, which was put into service in 1998, was presented at the international exhibition of ground combat vehicles in Moscow.
Unlike the previous generation of anti-tank systems, Fagot and Konkurs, the anti-tank missile is aimed at a target not by wires, but by a laser beam. Rocket caliber - 152-mm. Mass TPK with a rocket - 29 kg. The armor penetration capability of the 9М133 ATGM with a tandem-shaped cumulative warhead weighing 7 kg is 1200 mm after overcoming the dynamic protection. The 9M133F rocket is equipped with a thermobaric warhead and is designed to destroy fortifications, engineering structures and defeat manpower. The maximum launch range in the daytime is up to the 5500. The Kornet anti-tank missile system is capable of hitting low-speed low-flying targets.
The airborne troops held on for a seemingly hopelessly outdated ASU-57 and ASU-85 for a long time. This was due to the fact that the accuracy and range of fire of 73-mm shells of the “Thunder” gun mounted on the BMD-1 was small, and the ATGM, due to its high cost and small high-explosive fragmentation, could not solve the entire spectrum of defeat tasks fire points and the destruction of enemy field fortifications. In 1981, the 120-mm self-propelled 2C9 "Nona-S" was used for the armament, equipped to equip the artillery batteries of the regimental and divisional level. The self-propelled chassis has preserved the layout solutions and the geometry of the BTR-D armored personnel carrier, but unlike the base chassis, there are no attachments in the case of the airborne ACS for mounting machine guns. With a mass of 8 T, the patency and mobility of the Nona-S practically do not differ from the BTR-D.
SAU 2C9 "Nona-S" after landing
The highlight of the SAU 2C9 "Nona-S" was its weapon - 120-mm rifled universal gun-howitzer-mortar 2-51 with a barrel length 24,2 caliber. Able to fire both shells and mines with a rate of fire of 6-8 rds / min. The gun is installed in the armored turret. Elevation angles: −4… + 80 °. The gunner has an 1P8 artillery panoramic sight for firing from closed firing positions and a 1P30 direct-sight sight for firing at visually observable targets.
The main in ammunition is 120-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectile 3OF49 weighing 19,8 kg, equipped with 4,9 kg of powerful explosive A-IX-2. This explosive, made on the basis of RDX and aluminum powder, is far superior to TNT in power, which makes it possible to bring the damaging effect of an 120-mm projectile to 152-mm. When the fuse is set to a high-explosive effect, after breaking the 3ОФ49 projectile in a medium-density soil, a funnel with a diameter of up to 5 m and a depth of up to 2 m is formed. left the barrel with a speed of 12 m / s, can hit targets at a distance of 7 m. The firing range of an active-rocket 3OF49, which contains 367 kg of explosive, is 8550 3 m. To combat armor ehnikoy intended cumulative mass projectile 50BK3,25 12 kg pierce armor homogeneous 000 mm thick. The initial speed of the cumulative 3 projectile is m / s, and the range of the aimed shot is up to 19 m. Also, for the firing of 13,1-mm guns, corrected laser-guided “Kitol-600” projectiles can be used to hit point targets with a probability of 560-1000. Nona-S has the ability to fire all types of 120-mm min, including foreign-made.
After the adoption of the Nona-S, changes were made to the organizational structure of the artillery of the Airborne Forces. In 1982, the parachute regiments began the formation of self-propelled artillery battalions, in which 2 – 9 replaced the 120-mm mortars. The 2C9 division included three batteries, each battery had 6 guns (18 guns in the division). In addition, the Nona-S entered the armament of the self-propelled artillery battalions of artillery regiments to replace the ACS-85 and 122-mm howitzers D-30.
The baptism of the self-propelled gun Nona-S took place at the beginning of the 80s in Afghanistan. Self-propelled guns have shown very high efficiency with the defeat of manpower and fortifications of the rebels and good mobility on mountain roads. Most often, the fire was fired with 120-mm high-explosive mine mines, since firing was required at high elevation angles and a small firing range. In the course of military tests in combat conditions, one of the drawbacks was the small portable ammunition load of the gun - 25 shells. In this regard, the improved modification of the 2C9-1 ammunition increased to 40 shots. Serial derivative model 2C9 was conducted from 1980 to 1987 year. In 1988, the improved 2C9-1 went into the series, its release lasted only a year. It was assumed that the self-propelled gun "Nona-S" will be replaced in production by installing the 2C31 "Vienna" on the BMD-3 chassis. But due to economic difficulties this did not happen. In the 2006 year, information appeared that some of the late-release machines were upgraded to the level of 2С9-1М. At the same time, thanks to the introduction of new types of projectiles into the ammunition and more advanced sighting equipment, the accuracy and effectiveness of firing was significantly increased.
For 9 years of mass production "Nona-S" was released 1432 self-propelled guns. According to The Military Balance 2016, about two years ago there were approximately 750 vehicles in the Russian armed forces, of which 500 were in “storage”. About three dozen SAUs are used by Russian marines. Approximately two hundred landing self-propelled guns are in the armed forces of the countries of the former USSR. From non-CIS countries, Nona-S was officially only shipped to Vietnam.
To control artillery fire, almost simultaneously with the 2C9 “Nona-S” self-propelled guns, a mobile artillery reconnaissance and control unit 1B119 “Reostat” entered service. The body of the 1В119 is different from the basic BTR-D. In its middle part there is a welded wheelhouse with a turret of circular rotation with special equipment, covered with folding armor dampers.
1B119 Rheostat Intelligence and Fire Control Machine
For reconnaissance of targets on the battlefield, the vehicle has a radar 1RL133-1 with a range of up to 14 km. The equipment also includes: DAK-2 quantum artillery rangefinder with a range of up to 8 km xypc, CAP-2АM bassol artillery, PW-1 surveillance device, NNP-21 night vision device, 1T121-1 night vision equipment, AIHN. , an onboard computer, two VHF radio stations P-9M and one radio station P-123M or P-107 for the later series.
In addition to the ZSU, ATGM, SAU and artillery control vehicles on the basis of the BTR-D, communication, command and control and armored vehicles vehicles were created. The armored repair and recovery vehicle BREM-D is intended for the evacuation and repair of airborne combat vehicles and armored personnel carriers. The mass, dimensions and mobility of the BREM-D are similar to the BTR-D. Serial production of BREM-D began in the 1989 year, and therefore not many machines were built of this type.
BREM-D with crane boom in working position
The machine is equipped with: spare parts for repair, welding equipment, traction winch, a set of blocks and tackles, a rotary crane and a vomer shovel for digging caponiers and fixing the machine when lifting the load. Crew car 4 man. For self-defense against manpower and the defeat of low-altitude air targets, an 7,62-mm PKT machine gun mounted on the turret of the vehicle commander's head is intended. Also on BREM-D there are grenade launchers of the 902В “Tucha” smoke screen installation system.
The BMD-1KSH "Soroka" (KSHM-D) is designed to control the combat operations of the landing battalion. The machine has two VHF radio stations P-111, one VHF P-123 and one HF P-130. Each radio station can operate independently of each other. VHF stations P-123M and P-111 have the ability to automatically tune any four pre-prepared frequencies.
To ensure communication on the move are two arc-shaped antenna zenith radiation. The car is visually different from the BTR-D windows in the front plate, which are closed in the combat position of the armor.
BMD-1KSH "Forty" with deployed antenna devices
Radio station Р-130 with extended four-meter antenna provides communication at a distance of up to 50 km. To increase the communication range, it is possible to use a mast antenna. The power supply of the KSHM equipment is provided by the AB-0,5-P / 30 gasoline unit. Course machine guns on the car are missing.
The airborne lightly armored vehicle BMD-1Р “Sinitsa” is intended for the organization of long-distance communications in the operational-tactical link of the regiment-division. To do this, the machine has a medium-range P-161-2М medium-range radio station, which provides simplex and duplex telephone and telegraph communications over a distance of up to 2000 km. The equipment also includes T-236-B cryptographic information protection equipment, which provides data exchange via encrypted telecode channels.
On the chassis of the BTR-D, a command and control vehicle for the operational-tactical link P-149BMRD was created. The machine is designed to organize control and communication by wire and radio communication channels, and provides the ability to work with data transmission equipment, compaction equipment, satellite communication station. The product provides round-the-clock operation in the parking lot and on the move, both autonomously and as part of a communications center.
The equipment includes P-168-100UE and P-168-100KB radio stations, T-236-B and T-231-1Н classifying equipment, as well as PC-based automated information display and processing equipment.
The machine P-440 ODB "Crystal-BD" is intended for the organization of communication via satellite channels. Experts say a very dense layout of the station, built on the basis of the BTR-D. Foldable parabolic antenna mounted on the roof of the BTR-D.
P-440 ODB "Crystal-DB"
Subject to the operation of satellite repeaters in geosynchronous and highly elliptical orbits in orbit, the equipment mounted on the P-440 ODB Kristall-BD machine made it possible to organize stable multi-channel telephone and telegraph communication with any point on the earth's surface. This station entered service in 1989 year and was involved in a single satellite communications system of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR.
On the basis of the BTR-D, a number of experimental and small-series machines were created. In 1997, the Stroy-P complex with the Bee-1T RPV was entered into service. The launch of the UAV is carried out using solid-fuel boosters with a short guide placed on the landing gear of the tracked amphibious assault vehicle.
Launch of RPV "Bee-1T"
RPV "Bee-1T" used in hostilities in Chechnya. 5 vehicles that performed 10 flights, including 8 combat, took part in the combat tests. In this case, two vehicles were lost from enemy fire.
As of 2016, the Russian armed forces had more than 600 BTR-D, roughly 100 tank destroyers BTR-RD and 150 ZSU BTR-3D. These machines, subject to timely repair and upgrading, are able to serve at least another 20 years.
To be continued ...