Military Review

The historic victory of the Russian army in the Caucasus. Joining Eastern Armenia

44
190 years ago, 22 February 1828, between the Russian Empire and Persia (Iran), the Turkmenchay peace treaty was signed. Eastern Armenia became part of Russia. It was a brilliant Russian victory. weapons and Russian diplomacy.


The causes of the war

The border of Russia with Persia in the Transcaucasus during the first quarter of the 19th century was “transparent” and therefore there was no calm on it. Especially where the Erivan Khanate bordered Georgia, which included most of the lands of Eastern Armenia. The new Russian-Persian war was inevitable, the question was only about the time of its beginning and its duration.

Russian-Persian War 1804 - 1813 ended for Russia with a victory and the signing of the Gulistan Peace Treaty, under which Persia recognized the accession of Georgia, Dagestan and the khanates of Northern Azerbaijan to Russia (they were vassals of Tehran). However, Feth-Ali from the Qajar dynasty in every way pulled the issue of the delimitation of border lands in the area of ​​Lake Gokcha (Sevan). In Tehran, it was believed that the time had come for a rematch. Russia at that time was on the verge of war with Turkey. In addition, in St. Petersburg there was a revolt of representatives of secret societies (Decembrists), which, according to the Persians, weakened the northern empire. Russia was not up to the war in the Caucasus.

Petersburg tried to prevent the imminent conflict and keep the Persian Shah from war. The diplomatic mission of Major General A. S. Menshikov was sent to Tehran. However, her arrival had the opposite effect. The Eastern rulers regarded this mission as evidence of the weakness of the government of Nicholas I. The Persian government did not want to hear about any distinction between "their lands". While negotiations were underway, Crown Prince Abbas-Mirza was pushing troops to the borders of the Russian Karabakh (Karabakh) province. The first strike was to be inflicted by the Erivan sardar, the third person in the Persian hierarchy. He had his army, yard and sofa (Khan's council). And the Erivan fortress was one of the most powerful in the country.

As a result, the war was caused by the strategic interests of Russia and Persia, which clashed in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The Russian Empire during this period was on the rise and expanded its sphere of influence. Persia, as a strong regional power, has long claimed the Caucasus and had strong positions there.

In addition, the war was caused by the so-called. The big game - the confrontation of the great powers, claiming dominance in certain regions of the planet. In particular, Britain, as the possible leader of the entire Western world, put “stick in wheels” to Russia practically wherever it could, including in the Caucasus. In 1814, Persia signed an agreement with England, under which she pledged not to let troops of any state pass through her territory to India. England, for its part, agreed to seek a revision of the Gulustan Treaty in favor of Persia, and in the event of war committed itself to provide the Shah monetary assistance in the amount of 200 thousand fogs per year and help with troops and weapons. British diplomats, pushing for an end to the Persian-Turkish war that began in 1821, pushed Feth Ali Shah and heir to the throne Abbas-Mirza to speak out against Russia. Thus, England led the traditional policy of setting neighbors on Russia — Sweden, Turkey, Persia, etc.

The forces of the parties

With the help of Western aid, the Persian army was reorganized according to European standards. By 1826, Persia, with the help of British military instructors, formed a new army and had 38,5 thousand regular infantry (not counting the remaining irregular infantry) and 42 field artillery guns. Persian infantry was trained by foreigners, armed and equipped in the European manner. In addition, Persia had numerous cavalry, mainly from the tribal militias, to 90 - 100 thousand riders.

Russia had at this time about 10 thousand fighters. On the border with Persia there were only about 3 thousand people - the Don Cossack regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Andreev (about 500 Cossacks scattered in small groups throughout the territory), two battalions of the Tiflis infantry regiment and two companies of carabineers. The troops were stretched narrow strip along the border and did not have reserves. The commander-in-chief of the Russian troops in the Caucasus was General A. P. Ermolov, then he was replaced by I. F. Paskevich.

The historic victory of the Russian army in the Caucasus. Joining Eastern Armenia

Commander in Chief of the Persian Army, Crown Prince Abbas-Mirza (1789 - 1833)

Commander-in-Chief of the Russian troops Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich. Hood Franz Kruger, 1834 year

War

Having a complete military advantage, the commander-in-chief of the Shah's army, Prince Abbas-Mirza, was not modest. He planned to quickly penetrate the Transcaucasus in order to seize Tiflis and knock out the Russians from Georgia and Northern Azerbaijan. In the future, the Russians were going to drive far beyond the Caucasian ridge, even beyond the Terek. These plans were built on the shaky ground of the imaginary "weakness" of Russia. The situation was complicated by the fact that the Persians could count on a blow from the Caucasian highlanders from the rear on the Russian troops. In addition, assistance to the Persian army was promised by the Karabakh Beks and many representatives of the nobility of the neighboring provinces, who had not yet come to terms with life as part of the Russian Empire and maintained constant contact with the Persians.

19 (31) July 1826, the huge regular 60-th. The Persian army, accompanied by many thousands of irregular cavalry and supported by the army of the owner of Erivan, without a declaration of war crossed the border on the Araks River and invaded the Transcaucasus on the territory of the Karabakh and Talysh khanates. The eastern cavalry scattered across the territory of the western part of Northern Azerbaijan, becoming robbing and burning first here, and then in the neighboring Georgian territories. Russian units were forced to retreat to Karaklis with a fight. Gumry and Karaklis were soon surrounded.

Colonel I. A. Reut ordered to withdraw all troops stationed in the Karabakh province to the fortress of Shushu (For details, see the article: The beginning of the Russian-Persian war 1826 — 1828 Heroic defense of Shushi). The garrison of the Shushi fortress was made up of a 1300 man (6 was the mouth of the 42 th Jäger regiment and Cossacks with 4 guns). A few days before the complete blockade of the fortress, the Cossacks drove the families of local Muslim nobles as hostages behind its walls. Residents of the Armenian villages of Karabakh and Muslims (they were then called Tatars), who remained loyal to Russia, also took refuge in the fortress. They supported the Russian garrison during the defense. The fortress was located on a high rock, was considered impregnable and since ancient times was a stronghold of Karabakh. But her weakness was the lack of a water source. The defense of Shushi continued for 47 days and was of great importance for the course of military operations, forging the army of the enemy.

Thus, the enemy could not use the effect of the unexpected invasion of a large army and the presence of many thousands of cavalry, who chose not to fight small Russian troops, destroying them and wedging deep into the territory, but to plunder and burn the surrounding villages.

Ermolov was waiting for a blow from Persia. Therefore, the war did not surprise him. He ordered the troops of the Separate Caucasian Corps to converge to the capital of the governorship of the city of Tiflis. However, in the conditions of war, this order did not reach all regiments and garrisons. And the troops for the decisive field battle was extremely small. The Persian cavalry moved to the city of Elizavetpol (Elizavetpol, the former Ganja) and separate detachments appeared in Iberia only 70 versts from Tiflis. At the same time, the Muslim cavalry of Gassan Khan Erivan (Hussein Khan) robbed in eastern Georgia.

When information about the Persian invasion of the Transcaucasus reached St. Petersburg, Emperor Nicholas, who had not cooled yet after the Decembrist uprising, expressed dissatisfaction with the actions of the honored commander Yermolov. And demanded decisive action to "punish the Persians." But this required military force. In addition, Yermolov fell into disgrace - he was a famous free-thinker, sharp and unrestrained in his tongue, and had contact with many Decembrist rebels. During the uprising, it was even rumored that Yermolov would move regiments to Petersburg. Therefore, from the capital to the Caucasus urgently sent the famous commander, another hero of the Patriotic War, Lieutenant-General Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich. He has already become the favorite of the new Russian tsar. For the first time, he received the position of "commander of the troops under the chief command of Yermolov." Ermolov understood everything and wrote a letter of resignation, he was immediately satisfied. In the future, the beautiful commander and organizer were not attracted to big business, although he lived Yermolov for a long time and could still serve the Motherland well.

Having received information that the main Persian forces were shackled by the siege of Shushi, General Yermolov, even before his resignation, refused the initial defensive plan. By this time, he managed to concentrate in Tiflis to 8 thousand people. Of these, a detachment was formed under the command of Major General Prince V.G. Madatov (4300 man), who launched an attack on Elizavetpol in order to stop the advance of the Persian forces to Tiflis and lift the siege from Shushi. 3 (15) September 1826, near the village of Shamkhor, Madatov's squad broke 14-th. vanguard of the Persian army under the leadership of Shahzade Mohammed, son of Abbas-Mirza.

The order of battle of the Persian troops was built in the shape of a crescent, curved toward the enemy, in the center there was regular infantry (sarbazy), and on the flanks - irregular cavalry. Rear mounted guns and falconet. Madatov, despite the great superiority of the enemy in forces, attacked his positions on the move. V. A. Potto wrote in the “Caucasian War”: “The Shamkhor battle did not last long and was simple. It ended with one swift blow. The resistance of the enemy was so weak that a brilliant victory, the defeat of five times the strongest enemy - cost the Russian troops only twenty-seven people who were out of action, while the losses of the enemy were enormous. In the minds of the Persians themselves, on this fatal day for them they lost more than two thousand people among those killed. The Shah Guard who participated in the case no longer existed - it almost all fell under the blows of the Russian cavalry. The space from Shamkhor to Elizavetpol, over thirty miles or more, was covered with enemy corpses. By the way, Paskevich himself, passing through eight days later, through the battlefield, testified to this - and Paskevich cannot be suspected of being addicted to Madatov or wanting to exaggerate the significance of the Shamkhor victory. ”

Russian troops liberated Elizavetpol. Paskevich and the detachment were also sent there. The Russian army at Elizavetpol grew to 8 thousand people with 22 guns. The defeat of the Persian troops under Shamkhor forced Abbas-Mirza 5 (17) of September 1826 of the year to lift the siege of Shushi and go to Elizavetpol. Despite the inequality of forces, Paskevich, at the insistence of Madatov, decided to give battle. 13 (25) of September, a Russian detachment under the command of General Paskevich in a decisive battle of Elizavetpole crushed the 35-thousandth (of which 15 thousand regular infantry) with the 24 guns Persian army. In the war there was a radical change in favor of the Russian army (Russian victories in the Caucasus: the Shamkhor battle and the battle of Elisavetpol in 1826). Persian troops retreated after Araks. The Persian army ceased to exist for some time, its remnants simply fled. At the end of the 1826 campaign, both sides exchanged raids.


The battle of Elisabeth floor. Hood Franz Rubo

The 1827 military campaign of the year began in the spring when the Persians renewed the predatory raids on Russian possessions. Tsar Nicholas demanded that Paskevich begin his campaign in Persia without delay, regardless of the spring thaw and lack of supplies. Fulfilling the order, Paskevich moved the troops to Erivan. The Persians did not expect such a move from the Russian side. The Russian troops, having endured all the mountain hikes, occupied the ancient Armenian city of Echmiadzin and the famous Echmiadzin Monastery, on the outskirts of Erivan. In order to cover the lands of Northern Azerbaijan from predatory raids from the territory of southern Azerbaijan, Paskevich deployed a detachment under Arax under the command of an experienced Caucasian general, N. P. Pankratiev. This stopped the robber raids from the enemy side. In addition, Paskevich established contact with the former owner of Karabakh, Mehdi Kuli Khan, who retired to Persia in 1822. This Khan had several thousand cavalry and made dangerous raids. He accepted the proposal of the governor to go into Russian citizenship and moved back to the Transcaucasus.

Having thus secured his rears, in May Paskevich made a quick march in the mountains with the 15 thousand corps and connected with the vanguard, which already stood at Erivan. The blockade of a strong fortress began. But the arrival of the siege artillery waited only in September. As a result, Paskevich used the old Yermolov plan of war, realizing that without the capture of Erivan, a campaign to Persia, to the capital of South Azerbaijan, the city of Tabriz was too dangerous. The Erivan garrison could hit the rear, interrupt the communications of the Russian army. By blocking Erivan with small forces, Paskevich had the opportunity to defeat the Persian army in the field with the main forces if she went on the offensive again.

The blockade of Erivan was assigned to General A. I. Krasovsky. Paskevich himself with the main forces moved south, along the Araks valley, to occupy Nakhichevan and the fortress of Abbas-Abad. 26 June, the vanguard of Adjutant General K. H. Benkendorf took Nakhichevan. The Nakhichevan residents, along with their Ex-Khan, accepted the citizenship of Russia. On July 1, the Russians reached Abbas-Abad fortress, which was erected under the guidance of British specialists. Russian troops installed batteries and began to smash the fortress. Soon the wall began to collapse and a huge gap appeared. But the Persians persisted, waiting for the arrival of the army of the Crown Prince. Indeed, Abbas-Mirza gathered 16-thousand. army moved to the rescue of the besieged fortress. Finding the enemy Paskevich, putting part of the troops in the siege camp, went towards the enemy. Near successive strikes, Paskevich 5 (17) July defeated Abbas-Mirze at the Djevan-Bulak brook. The Persian prince himself barely carried off his legs from the Don Cossacks. 7 (19) July, the enemy garrison, having lost hope of help, capitulated. The weapons were laid down by 2700 people, the 23 guns became Russian trophies (Russian victories in the Caucasus: the capture of Abbas-Abad and Dzhevanbulaksky battle).

After that, the main forces of Paskevich returned to Erivan. During their absence, there was also stubborn fighting. In early August, the Persian commander-in-chief Abbas-Mirza, trying to prevent the invasion of Russians in Iranian Azerbaijan, invaded the Erivan khanate with the 25-thousandth army. The Persians, joining the troops of the Erivan sardar Hussein Khan, 15 (27) of August besieged Echmiadzin. Here the battalion of the Sevastopol Infantry Regiment (up to 500 soldiers) and Armenian volunteers kept the defense. The 16 (28) of August, the detachment of A.I. Krasovsky, with (up to 3 thousand soldiers with 12 guns), came to the aid of besieged Echmiadzin. The Russian detachment was attacked by the superior forces of the enemy - up to 30 thousand infantry and cavalry with 24 guns. Krasovsky's squad moved in complete surroundings. Russian troops, having suffered serious losses (more than 1,1 thousand people), were able to get through to Echmiadzin (Oshakan 17 (29) August 1827 Battle). Upon learning that the main forces of Paskevich were going to the rescue, the Persians lifted the siege and left for Araks.

In September, siege artillery arrived. In addition, the Russian corps was reinforced by Armenian and Georgian volunteer guards. The regular siege of the Erivan Fortress began, which was considered one of the strongest in Persia. First, Paskevich decided to take the fortress of Sardar-Abad, where 2 thousand enemy garrison sat down. Russian artillery destroyed the old walls, several gaps were formed. The fortress capitulated. Gassan Khan, with his guards, was able to escape to Erivan. During the pursuit, most of the Khan's squad was slaughtered or captured. 16 guns were captured in the fortress and, most importantly, huge stocks of grain (Russian troops suffered a great shortage of supplies).

Powerful bombardments quickly led to success. From the fire of the guns the towers and walls collapsed, new gaps appeared. Paskevich offered to surrender the fortress on the terms of the free exit of the Khan and his troops. The ruler of Erivan answered with a proud refusal. He hoped for a powerful defense and help from Abbas-Mirza. The continuation of the shelling caused new destruction and a strong fire. Khan sent envoys and agreed to surrender the fortress, but asked to wait for the official consent of the Persian prince. Sly ploy to tighten the time failed. Paskevich now demanded the surrender of the fortress without any conditions.

Powerful artillery training demoralized the Khan garrison (Fall of the Erivan Khanate) The uprising of the Armenian population began in the city. Hundreds of Armenians, armed with anything at all, rushed to the walls, seized sections of the walls and began to wave their white handkerchiefs. Russian troops were already on alert and through gaps and open gates entered the city. A few hours later, Sardar Gassan Khan, his squad and 3 thousand foot soldiers laid down their arms at the main mosque. So, on October 1 (13) Paskevich took Erivan. The fortress was seized with rich trophies and food supplies, with which it was possible to wage war for several months. The ancient stronghold of Persia in the Caucasus fell, an important communications center. Eastern Armenia - Erivan Khanate - became part of Russia. It was historical event. Armenia was freed from the yoke of foreigners and Gentiles. The local Orthodox clergy understood this very well and called "together with the regiments of the Russian army ... if necessary, not spare the last drop of our blood."


The capture of the Erivan fortress by Russian troops. Hood F. Rubo

However, the war is not over yet. It was necessary to put a winning point. Paskevich marched on the capital of Southern Azerbaijan, the city of Tabriz. The first to move into enemy territory was the vanguard of Lieutenant General Eristov. Russian soldiers forced the Araks and occupied the city of Marand. The local Muslim population was friendly. Abbas-Mirza was unable to organize the defense. The remaining troops fled. The prince is left with 3 thousand warriors with 12 guns. With such forces to continue the war there was no point.

The first Shah minister, Allayar Khan, tried to organize the defense of Tabriz. But his efforts were in vain: out of 60, thousands of citizens capable of carrying weapons, only a few were enrolled in the army. Even repressions - who refused to listen to orders, cut ears and noses, did not help. The 13 (25) of October, the Eristov detachment approached the city. Allayar Khan brought 6 thousand soldiers into the field, but at the very first gunfire they fled. And the crowd in the city rushed to rob the palace of the Crown Prince. The 14 (26) of October, a detachment of G.E. Eristov, captured Tabriz without a fight. Russian troops got rich trophies.



Peace talks

Complete military defeat forced the Persians to go to peace negotiations. Persian military adventure crashed. Persia could no longer fight; the remnants of its army fled from Southern (Iranian) Azerbaijan. Shah Fath Ali himself fled from Tehran in fear of the Russians. Abbas-Mirza decided to start negotiations. In this case, the Russian side refused to British mediation. The negotiations with the Persians led a real State Councilor Trim.

Scraps inserted the following conditions: negotiations can only begin after the withdrawal of the Persian troops to Persia itself south of Lake Urmia, and Russian troops occupy all of South Azerbaijan. October 24 Paskevich staged a military parade in Tavriz to impress the Persians and the English envoy Colonel D. Macdonald.

Further negotiations were led by diplomat A. S. Griboedov, who had arrived from the Russian capital. The conditions were harsh. Griboedov, among other things, demanded payment of a military contribution to 20 million rubles and significant territorial concessions - the Erivan and Nakhchivan khanates. Only November 28 Abbas Mirza agreed to meet these requirements.

In the meantime, while there were difficult negotiations in Dehkorgan, in Tehran, the British worked tirelessly, setting the Persians to delay negotiations and continue the war. In addition, the expected performance against Turkey of Russia, which after defeat in the Navarin naval battle was actively preparing for war with the Russians. As a result, the shah ordered to detain the money already sent to pay the contribution and deprived his son of the authority to conduct peace negotiations. Tehran refused to approve the preconditions of peace. The war threatened to resume. To continue the negotiations (or rather, their inhibition), Foreign Minister Abdul-Hassan Khan, who received a salary in gold from the British, left Tehran. Under the pretext of illness, he traveled to Dehkorgan as many as 22 days and arrived only in early January of the 1828 year.

However, it was pointless and dangerous to "joke" with the then Russian generals and statesmen. The Russian Empire was at the peak of its power. Paskevich immediately replied. The left flank of the Caucasian corps advanced into the Meshkh Khanate, which made it possible in the event of a resumption of hostilities to immediately strike the enemy and launch an offensive against Tehran. When Abdul-Hasan refused to accept the terms of the world, Paskevich announced a campaign against Tehran. Russian Caucasian troops began to move across the entire width of the front. The Shah's army was not restored and the Persians could not resist. The Russians occupied without a fight the city of Urmia, Ardabil, where part of the reserves of the Shah's army were kept. Paskevich himself walked along the main road to Tehran.

The position of Persia has become critical. Power was threatened with complete collapse. Army to continue the war was not. The Shah's throne reeled, the uprisings had already begun, and the Kadzhars, unhappy with the power, began to move. Russian troops could support the revolt of the nobility and the dynasty could collapse.


The Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates, which were ceded to the Russian Empire. 1902 card of the year

World

In the village of Turkmanchai on the road from Tabriz to Tehran 10 (22) in February 1828, a peaceful treatise was signed. The peace treaty was signed by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Tsarist governor in the Caucasus, General I. F. Paskevich. The contract consisted of 16 articles. The most important was the 3 article: Persia "was inferior to the Russian Empire in perfect ownership of the Erivan Khanate on the other side of Araks and the Nakhchivan Khanate." Now the border passed along the Araks River. Under article 6, a contribution of 20 million rubles was imposed on Persia. silver. Most of the money was already expelled from Tehran. A war indebtedness ruined the Persian treasury, the shah even had to lay down his throne. The shah's wives and his courtiers surrendered their treasures to the treasury. Article 8-I confirmed the freedom of navigation of the Russians in the Caspian Sea and Russia's exclusive right to have a military fleet here.

Simultaneously with the peace treaty, a trade treaty was signed, in accordance with which Russian merchants received the right of free trade throughout the territory of Persia. The “Special Trade Act” established that “in all matters and litigation that may arise in Iran between Russian subjects or between them and subjects of any other power, Russian subjects were subject to the jurisdiction of Russian diplomatic representatives.”

In March, 1828, the Russian troops began to leave Persia. The city of Tabriz was returned to Abbas Mirza, where his bid was. The Russian border guards became patrols along the Araks River. For a convincing and quick victory in the second Persian war, the commander Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich was awarded the Count of dignity and the glorious naming - Erivan. Felt Ali Shah awarded his winner - Count Paskevich-Erivan with the Order of Leo and the Sun, decorated with diamonds, on the same chain, worth 60 thousand rubles. It was the highest award of Persia.

Thus, the treaty strengthened the position of Russia in the South Caucasus, contributed to the strengthening of Russia's influence in the Middle and Near East and undermined the position of England in Persia and in the region as a whole. It was a brilliant victory for Russian weapons and Russian diplomacy.

However, soon after the conclusion of the Turkmanchay Treaty, the Third Persian War almost began. The new Russian envoy in Tehran, Griboedov, was a great writer, but as a diplomat he behaved sharply and defiantly, arousing influential people of Persia against himself. 11 On February 1829, a hostile group of the court (closely associated with British agents and close to the Shah) was organized and carried out the pogrom of the Russian mission. The Cossacks of the convoy, several servants of the embassy and Griboedov himself bravely accepted an unequal battle. The ambassador himself desperately cut himself with a sword (he fought with a hussar in World War 1812 of the year) and fell under the blows of several daggers.

Shah's palace was aware of the event, but did not prevent the attack. However, they soon realized in Teheran what they had done. Persia still could not fight. She was threatened with rapid defeat and a possible collapse of the dynasty. The culprits from among the capital "mob" punished. The Persians were quick to apologize to the great northern empire. Among the gifts was a huge Indian diamond "Shah". Emperor Nicholas I, who did not want to enter a new war in the context of confrontation with Turkey, was satisfied with the apologies brought by the shah.


Infantry General I. F. Paskevich and Prince Abbas-Mirza at the signing of a peace treaty in Turkmenchay
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 22 February 2018 06: 49
    +3
    The difficult but glorious times of Sovereign Nicholas I. The empire grew.
    1. Alber
      Alber 22 February 2018 10: 57
      +5
      Quote: Korsar4
      The difficult but glorious times of Sovereign Nicholas I. The empire grew.

      For hundreds of years, Russia has helped the Armenians.
      And in gratitude, the Armenians staged a terrorist attack in the Moscow Metro and shops in the 70s.
      They attack hospitals and kill Russians (Minvody), having arrived in Russia as taxi drivers, rob and kill passengers (Moscow, St. Petersburg), rape and kill children (Pyatigorsk), Armenian skewers stab Russians with skewers (Arzamas) ...
      Why the hell did they save them then and why did they let them into Russia now?
      This ungrateful tribe of Transcaucasian Asians will never recover
      1. Cat
        Cat 22 February 2018 16: 23
        +4
        In search of grateful tribes, you can go very, very far? If you stir up the events of three years ago, you can give an example of the murder of an Armenian family by a Russian deserter! Does it paint us with you gentlemen? Obviously not! So the family is not without freaks. But does it make sense, because of a handful of "goats", to drag the whole nation onto the scaffold? I think not, if we don’t walk, we will become like the “political elite” of Ukraine.
      2. Dimmih
        Dimmih 23 February 2018 12: 34
        +2
        The provocateurs arrived .... From the message of the respected Alber comes the almost elusive aroma of Baku pita ....
        1. Alber
          Alber 23 February 2018 16: 36
          +1
          Quote: Dimmih
          From the message of the respected Alber comes the almost elusive aroma of Baku pita ....

          For information of no less respectable Dimmiha: Your so-called "Great Armenian Dolma", in fact, is nothing but the Russian stuffed cabbage, which you stole at one time as you steal from surrounding neighbors more and more significant
          1. Dimmih
            Dimmih 23 February 2018 18: 45
            0
            We do not steal, it is rather a reciprocal gift from our grateful neighbors for schools, hospitals, kindergartens.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 22 February 2018 07: 51
    +2
    Griboedov was a great writer, but as a diplomat he acted sharply and defiantly, arousing influential people of Persia against himself.
    ...AND. S. Griboedov served as the editor of the conference protocols, which allowed him to make some important clarifications in the text of the peace treaty, drafted in St. Petersburg, in particular, in that part, which concerned the conditions of resettlement and amnesty of the population of the border regions. Griboedov also drafted and edited the final text of the draft treaty. Subsequently, Persia tried to evade the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty, which caused a number of protests from A.S. Griboedov, who served as Russian resident minister in Tehran.
  3. mariusdeayeraleone
    mariusdeayeraleone 22 February 2018 08: 47
    +4
    Alexander Samsonov

    Not an article but a slander!
    1. Curious
      Curious 22 February 2018 14: 31
      +3
      Well, suppose Samsonov’s criticism of absolutely that ... well, you understand. He specializes in this. But for site visitors, they could not transform their slogan into constructive criticism.
    2. nnz226
      nnz226 22 February 2018 14: 57
      +5
      Defamation of what? What did Russian troops save Armenians and Georgians at the beginning of the 19 century from being cut out by Persians and Turks ??? If it weren’t for Russians, then by the 1915 year one could already forget about such nations as Armenians and Georgians ... And the fact that they are ungrateful, so the “thanks” of the Georgians can be seen in the 08.08.08 war, and in anti-Russian actions after the 1991 year - Armenians ...
      1. Homeland
        Homeland 22 February 2018 20: 56
        +5
        “Hundreds of Armenians, armed with anything, rushed to the walls, seized sections of the walls and began to wave their white handkerchiefs.”
        The situation is very familiar, just as the Armenians are now waving white flags in the European Union. The history of the Armenian people is repeated. That Persians wave, then Russian, then Europe .....
      2. Homeland
        Homeland 22 February 2018 21: 06
        +4
        Nobody cut Armenians in the Iravan khanate at the beginning of the 19th century. Why are you ??? If Persia, Turks or Azerbaijanis wanted to slaughter the Armenians, then they would have done it long ago, and no one could have prevented them. Simply, the Armenians always wanted to be a representative of Christianity in the East. And Russia could give them this chance. And the Armenians gladly met the Russian troops. So, Russia did not save anyone from anyone. She simply expanded her possessions, analogous to what she did in Siberia, Central Asia, etc.
    3. Dimmih
      Dimmih 23 February 2018 12: 40
      +1
      Alexander Samsonov probably wrote the first sane article .... And what is the slander? The heroic struggle of the Azerbaijani people against foreign invaders under the leadership of E. Aliyev is not mentioned? So at that time the mentioned people and their leader were not in the project either.
      1. mgero
        mgero 23 February 2018 13: 21
        -1
        Azeri daje Leneninu pamatnik ubrali, sazdatelya Azerbajjana.
        1. Dimmih
          Dimmih 23 February 2018 14: 28
          0
          Well, what you want is fashionable now.
  4. nivander
    nivander 22 February 2018 10: 55
    +4
    Despite all the efforts of the British, the Persian army of the 20s of the 19th century was a fancy cocktail of a crab swan and pike. For every 10 sarbases there was one donkey arba with food + a servant for preparing a hawchka. Ample supplies of European equipment and weapons (after the Napoleonic Wars an unimaginable amount remained in Europe) did not play a special role due to the total theft (eastern flavor), moreover, Shah treated the Caucasus as a lost slice, and at the first opportunity fought for Ottoman Kurdistan and Afghanistan Balochistan. In addition, the war except The unexpected profit brought in defeats --- a detachment of Russian (Bogaddyran-Bogatyrs) defectors in the Shah's service was replenished with new dieserters and a Polish company appeared in it. In spring 1830, the Shah's army besieged and took the Afghan fortress of Herat. The main role was played by 2 squares of Bogaddyran who They killed the entire Pashtun cavalry and dispersed the Khan’s infantry
  5. mariusdeayeraleone
    mariusdeayeraleone 22 February 2018 17: 46
    +4
    Well, I'll tell you. The author will give you a fat deuce for the article.
    After defeating the Swedes, Peter the Great headed south! At that time he reached the city of Derbent, knocked on the door ... the governor who left the city, he said: I will take this city at any cost. The recipient army of Slovenes, I do not mind them. I’ll drown this city in your blood and theirs, and I don’t care. but we can agree, you let me go and I won’t touch the city: the Derbent was part of the Cuban Khanate, the Seyufevid empire (not the Persians as the author says)
    After the capture of the Derbend and expansion, the empire grew to the south (to Baku) where the coastal Caspian lands were captured, they began to populate the Armenians!
    They were settled for 8 years, the idea of ​​Peter 1mu was proposed by a Jew named Issak osho. In the future, the empire grew, seized the boarded khanates of the Safavid dynasty and settled by the Slovenians from Siberia as a support. And the redivision of the ethnic composition of the Caucasus began again! Armenians resettled in the Caucasus from countries around the world, especially European countries, were carrying military intelligence from these countries. They were not to blame for this, but their move was paid! But they needed action at the right time, and when the Armenians refused to act against the peoples of the Caucasus but the separation of the countries of Europe killed them for not submitting. The main goal of the West was to create an ethnic war in the Caucasus against the growing empire, the last such war was completed in 1994. The Western division finished off its goals by annoying everyone against Russia at the moment. And all that has happened here is the merit of Western countries, with the hands of prigers (((
    1. M0xHaTka
      M0xHaTka 22 February 2018 20: 37
      0
      At that time in Siberia there were so many "Slovens" that they would not have gathered for a couple of regiments. Like all Tatars, Kirghiz and other aborigines. Of which in the Caucasus is not noticed.
      1. mariusdeayeraleone
        mariusdeayeraleone 22 February 2018 22: 41
        +4
        That is, you did not go through the history of Russia about the resettlement of the Molokans, and the Old Believers to the Caucasus and Central Asia? Or how did your Russian schools appear?
        1. M0xHaTka
          M0xHaTka 23 February 2018 13: 21
          0
          According to the history of Russia, people moved independently. Without any orders. Or serfs by order of the pan, as in the case of the Stroganovs.
          Centralized relocation occurred 1 time. When Stolypin. That is, in the 1910s.
          More than 80% of all resettled migrated to Siberia. For in the south there were Turks (with vassals Tatars) and Persians. Which, up to pacification in the 19th century, had a national business - to rob the Russian population and sell it into slavery. For which they raked.
      2. Dimmih
        Dimmih 23 February 2018 12: 50
        +1
        Why, here are the legs for example: they rode from Asia at the direction of the one who should not be called, and here you are the people of a root type. Type of Crimean Tatars in Crimea, they say, are indigenous! Indiscreetly, here the Greeks can still be called indigenous in the Crimea. And the legs, Tatars-Altai-father, here is their ancestral home.
        1. M0xHaTka
          M0xHaTka 23 February 2018 13: 25
          +2
          Chukchi is not a reader, Chukchi is a writer!
          Did not try to read letters there a little higher? It was about the "Slovenes." Legs of the Slavs? Tatars are Slavs? Maybe the Greeks are Slavs?
          1. Dimmih
            Dimmih 23 February 2018 14: 30
            0
            Quote: "Like all Tatars, Kyrgyz and other aborigines. Of whom in the Caucasus have not been noticed." The legs are very spotted.
    2. Dimmih
      Dimmih 23 February 2018 12: 43
      +1
      Have you heard the words of Peter I? Come near stood when he said it and recorded on mayfun?
  6. Homeland
    Homeland 22 February 2018 21: 26
    +5
    The title of the article is already incorrect. What is the connection of the so-called Eastern Armenia ????? What document or card did you get this from ??? In all the documents and in the Turkmanchay treaty it is written: the annexation of the Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates. Why come up with Armenianized names. Armenians can call these territories whatever they want. And the official and universally recognized historical name in Russian is Erivan Khanate and Nakhichevan Khanate. And no East Armenia is there !!!! No need to Armenianize the history of the Caucasus !!!!
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 23 February 2018 01: 17
      +1
      Quote: Homeland
      And the official and universally recognized historical name in Russian is Erivan Khanate and Nakhichevan Khanate

      And this khanate arose only in 1747m - and in 1829m in its place appeared the "Armenian Region of the Republic of Ingushetia". And there really were few Armenians there, because they were deported from those lands by Abbas I in 1604.
      So what? Jews from Israel in full force were deported back in 138, after the Bar Kochba rebellion - more than 18 centuries gone while Israel was recreated!
    2. Dimmih
      Dimmih 23 February 2018 12: 45
      +2
      The history of the Caucasus is largely the history of Georgia and Armenia. Just the ancestors of many residents of the oil-bearing Caspian country at a time when the Armenians and Georgians already had a written language, still sat on trees and waved their tails.
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 23 February 2018 13: 14
        0
        Quote: Dimmih
        while the Armenians and Georgians already had a written language, they were still sitting on the trees and waved their tails.

        The Armenian, Georgian, and Albanian alphabets (the present Raz in ancient times was called Caucasian Albania) was created by one person - Mesrop Mashtots - so writing in those parts appeared a little later. Another thing is that then the Lezghins and their kindred tribes lived there - and not the Türks!
        1. Dimmih
          Dimmih 23 February 2018 14: 32
          0
          Well? It's just that when Mesrop Mashtots created the written language and the peoples you mentioned were already rustling with feathers, someone's ancestors did something else. I about it.
          1. mariusdeayeraleone
            mariusdeayeraleone 23 February 2018 16: 32
            +4
            I don’t know who you are. But I read all your posts, with the words: that Lenin created Azerbaijan and ending with the words Armenians and Mesrop in the Caucasus:
            I will say it initially. You confuse people, and distort history!
            By tales to feed people, touching the people of the Azars you lie!
            Understand, the Armenians came to the Caucasus! And here they are temporary, they are unnecessary for anyone here, as long as Russia keeps it up in South Russia, there will be stories about their greatness and masterpiece.
            1. Dimmih
              Dimmih 24 February 2018 07: 25
              0
              We all once came somewhere. The conversation that when the Armenians already had the written language of the Azar people was also not in the project. And then the Azars came and how schools, hospitals, kindergartens began to be built ..... With terrible things, one could say by force .... And yes, show the coin of the state of Azerbaijan until 1918, I just want to see it!
              1. mariusdeayeraleone
                mariusdeayeraleone 24 February 2018 19: 25
                +3
                There was an Otoman empire in the world. He had an economy, there were coins. Where is the state of Turkey in them?
                Or until 1923 the Turks as a people were not on earth?)))
                1. Dimmih
                  Dimmih 26 February 2018 06: 46
                  0
                  The Ottoman Empire is first written with a capital letter and two letters T, then it is more correct to write the Ottoman Porta and the Ottoman Empire. Secondly, there is a direct continuity between the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, as well as between the Russian Empire and the USSR and further the Russian Federation. Give an indisputable example about Azerbaijan and I admit that I am wrong. I ask you not to use YouTube, Azero-resources and so on. Something encyclopedic. Let's essentially about Azerbaijan. Or admit that you are just a kind of Turks under a different name, and then yes, there will be continuity.
                  1. mariusdeayeraleone
                    mariusdeayeraleone 21 March 2018 19: 33
                    0
                    The history of Azerbaijan is destroyed! Destroy his Tsar Nicholas 1st. With just one signature ... He handed over the Albanian Christian church under the administration of the AAC! With this step, he handed over the property of the archives and ministers of this free church, to the Roma who sent Christianity on the banks of the Euphrates.
                    The Armenians decided on the history of Azerbaijan in their own way.
        2. Scorpio05
          Scorpio05 23 February 2018 20: 10
          +1
          Quote: Weyland
          Quote: Dimmih
          while the Armenians and Georgians already had a written language, they were still sitting on the trees and waved their tails.

          The Armenian, Georgian, and Albanian alphabets (the present Raz in ancient times was called Caucasian Albania) was created by one person - Mesrop Mashtots - so writing in those parts appeared a little later. Another thing is that then the Lezghins and their kindred tribes lived there - and not the Türks!


          By the way, about the Turks, you are also mistaken. Türks in the Caucasus for a long time. Khazar (Turkic) Kaganate (Khazaria) - the medieval Khazar state on the territory of Eurasia, which existed as a large independent state from 650 to 969. Shards of the Khazar Khaganate in the Crimea remained until 1048, in the Caucasus - until the 12th century. Originally inhabiting the area north of Derbent (this is the center of Dagestan Azerbaijanis, later the capital of the Cuban Khanate of Azerbaijan) within the modern lowland Dagestan, the Khazars began to settle in controlled regions: in the Crimea, the Don and especially in the Lower Volga region, where in the VIII century it was moved capital of the state. The southern border of Khazaria reached today's Armenia. Several Khazar groups, as a result of long wars against Iran and the Arab caliphate, were forcibly resettled in Transcaucasia. By the way, the Caspian Sea in the Azerbaijani is Khazar (!)
          Take a look: http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/NAP/nap01.htm
          1. Dimmih
            Dimmih 26 February 2018 06: 55
            0
            Dear Interlocutor, as if the Turks had not been in the Caucasus for a long time ... Now, if you compare with how many Armenians are in the Caucasus, then we can say that they are forever in the Caucasus. Again, this issue I have already discussed - Azerbaijanis have an extremely doubtful attitude towards the Turks. A real Turk looks like a Yakut, Tuvinian, Kumandin. And you, with all due respect, are a conglomerate of ancient peoples conquered by the Türks and converted to their language. Türkic-speaking, yes, but not Türks. By the way, the Khazars were typical Mongoloids, for example, in a textbook for universities (I think, edited by Sakharov), when describing the siege of Tbilisi by the Khazars and Byzantines, the Iranians who settled there teased the besieging mask of the Khazar leader with Mongoloid features. Yes, please https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B7%D1%8F%
            D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%A2%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%
            D1%81%D0%B8_(627)
            1. The comment was deleted.
  7. Black joe
    Black joe 22 February 2018 21: 37
    +1
    The victory is truly historic
  8. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 23 February 2018 18: 55
    +3
    Constructive criticism) Armenians should be grateful for the new geographical term coined by Samsonov - “Eastern Armenia”, which is not in the text of the treaty, nor in any other document, except for the inflamed imagination of some “historians”. There are Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates (!) On the lands that semi-mythical Armenia was created. Armenia has neither eastern nor any other, but there is Azerbaijan and the khanates. Yes, more. Be careful Samsonov, I understand one thing for you ... but a person who claims to be accurate in conveying historical events needs to know that the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the State of Memleketi-Mehluji-Kajar (the official name of the state at that time) was called Mirza ABUL Hassan Khan, and not Abdul-Hassan Khan ... "Memleketi-Mehluji-Kajar" is the state of the Kajars in translation. I understand, a bit long. It was easier for everyone, including the diplomats who were preparing the document, the antique and understandable "Persia", but ... the name of the state was exactly that. And here is the transfer of the khanates recorded in the agreement:
    Article III
    E.V. shah persian on his own behalf and on behalf of his
    heirs and successors inferior to the Russian Empire in
    perfect property the khanate of Erivan in this and that
    side of Araks and the Khanate of Nakhchivan.
    Same article: Until the final payment of eight
    kururov fogs the entire province, called Azerbaijan, will remain
    under the direct authority of the Russian troops II. In which the Russian administration pledged to create a khanate ...
    You can see the entire text of the contract: http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/FOREIGN/turkman.h
    tm
  9. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 23 February 2018 19: 30
    +1
    Quote: Weyland
    Quote: Dimmih
    while the Armenians and Georgians already had a written language, they were still sitting on the trees and waved their tails.

    The Armenian, Georgian, and Albanian alphabets (the present Raz in ancient times was called Caucasian Albania) was created by one person - Mesrop Mashtots - so writing in those parts appeared a little later. Another thing is that then the Lezghins and their kindred tribes lived there - and not the Türks!

    You are in some way mistaken. Mashtots is a good compiler, he managed to replicate the Ethiopian alphabet. This is also a work, by the way, to expertly communize and adapt the alphabet intended for the Amharic language to the pretty indigestible Armenian language. Academician D.A. Olderogge: Mashtots’s Armenian writing was purely alphabetic. Creating his alphabet, Mashtots applied to some extent the principle of additional styles. However, Mashtots gave them a firmly defined form, telling them the general character of the Ethiopian syllables. Creating the styles of individual letters, Mashtots used the principle of modifying the letter styles, which laid the foundation for Ethiopian writing, where it had a functional meaning. One of the prototypes for the new writing system was also probably the Aramaic alphabet: Britannica. Alphabet. After long scientific research, having studied different alphabets (!) And written systems in Edessa, by the years 405–406 Mashtots created a 36-letter Armenian alphabet. History of the Armenian people. - T. II. - S. 425.E. Agayan. Mesrop Mashtots. Prominent figures of Armenian culture (V — XVIII centuries). - Er., 1982. - S. 11-12.
    Researchers note that the closest graphic connections the ancient Armenian script shows with Ethiopian writing: Sevak 1962; Olderogge 1974
    Of these, only Amharic letters still exist in Ethiopia today ... The similarity of the style of these letters with the style of Armenian letters is quite obvious. ” Gurgen Sevak.
    But by the way, and Mashtots was on the grounds, nevertheless, as it turned out, kindred nations: FROM THE HISTORY OF ARMENIAN-ETHIOPIC RELATIONS. The mixing of Armenoids and Negroids began as early as the Mesolithic (10 thousand BC) and led to the formation of the Ethiopian transition race (Sevak 1962, Olderogge 1974). Modern scientific studies of geneticists also confirm the genetic kinship of Armenians and Ethiopians (by the way, Ethiopians as well as Armenians, Monophysites (!), A rather rare heresy).
    But, what can’t be taken away from the Armenians, of course, they masterfully “borrow”, for the most part. This is certainly not the Azerbaijani Bozbash soup or the Uzundere dance stolen. And then scoring on the poor Ethiopians, advertise your type of alphabet (ancient macaw) using a simpleton wassat other nationalities By the way, you can compare yourself:
  10. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 26 February 2018 13: 42
    0
    Quote: Dimmih
    Dear Interlocutor, as if the Turks had not been in the Caucasus for a long time ... Now, if you compare with how many Armenians are in the Caucasus, then we can say that they are forever in the Caucasus. Again, this issue I have already discussed - Azerbaijanis have an extremely doubtful attitude towards the Turks. A real Turk looks like a Yakut, Tuvinian, Kumandin. And you, with all due respect, are a conglomerate of ancient peoples conquered by the Türks and converted to their language. Türkic-speaking, yes, but not Türks. By the way, the Khazars were typical Mongoloids, for example, in a textbook for universities (I think, edited by Sakharov), when describing the siege of Tbilisi by the Khazars and Byzantines, the Iranians who settled there teased the besieging mask of the Khazar leader with Mongoloid features. Yes, please https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B7%D1%8F%
    D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%A2%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%
    D1%81%D0%B8_(627)

    The Türks are more likely not a racial category, that is, it is not right to define them anthropologically

    According to some researchers (B.N. Zakhoder), the Khazar ethnic group had a dualistic foundation, uniting two main tribes - white and black Khazars (Kalis-Khazars and Kara-Khazars). The Mongoloidness of the Türks was explained by their time spent in raids on China in alliance with the Mongol and Tungus tribes. Marriages, the abduction of women, etc. Turkic unions have always united tribes of different origin, the unifying factor was language. So in the Hun tribal union included both Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Iranian-speaking (Alans, Saks), and even German Gottes. The same thing happened with the Khazars. There were Turkuts (those same zhenzhen and Turkuts who managed to mix with Chinese and Manchu tribes), Iranians (Saks, Massagets and part of the Alans), Finno-Ugrians and even Semites.

    Here it should be noted the message of Konstantin Bagryanorodny, who wrote about the Hungarians, calling them Turks, that the old name of the Turks was “Sabarta Asfala”, that is, “White Sabarta”. The word "sabart", no doubt, refers to the name of the Avars, in fact, it is one and the same ethnonym. That is, the Hungarians, the Ugric tribe were not only called Turks, but also white Avars (they really were white-skinned, unlike the dark Semites). Because there were black Avars - root Avars, i.e. Semites. So in our case: white Khazars are descendants of the Khazar Ugrians or descendants of mixed descent from the same Ugrians and Semites, and black Khazars are purebred Semites. The testimony of the first Arab author reporting blue-eyed and red-haired Khazars, in my opinion, should be considered as a message about the local Ugric tribes that were part of the Khazar state and therefore named by the same name with the Khazar-Semites. That is, we are talking about the Ugrians who took the name of the Khazars.

    Here it should be noted the message of Konstantin Bagryanorodny, who wrote about the Hungarians, calling them Turks, that the old name of the Turks was “Sabarta Asfala”, that is, “White Sabarta”. The word "sabart", no doubt, refers to the name of the Avars, in fact, it is one and the same ethnonym. That is, the Hungarians, the Ugric tribe were not only called Turks, but also white Avars (they really were white-skinned, unlike the dark Semites). Because there were black Avars - root Avars, i.e. Semites. So in our case: the white Khazars are the descendants of the Khazar Ugrians or the descendants of mixed descent from the same Ugrians and Semites, and the black Khazars are purebred Semites.
    Source: http://www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/134276/12/M
    aksimov _-_ Nashestvie._Hazarskoe_bezumie.html
    Oguz is also an interesting symbiosis. It is also very ancient, and voluntary, mixing of Türks with Parthians, including the same nomadic as Türks, Massagets, Saks and Sarmatians. The legendary country of Sakasen was located on the territory of Azerbaijan (the city of Sheki and the Sheki district). Massagets (mashtags, muskuts) and related tribes of the Mard are also the autochthons of Azerbaijan (the villages of Mashtagi, Mardakyans, etc.). Oguzes, as well as a large part of the Kipchak Polovtsy (who did not mix with the Mongols during the Mongol conquests) have always been European. Polovtsy (straw among the Slavs - hair color). And the Eastern Turks, unlike the Western (due to the lack of anything better :) for a long time mixed with the Mongols of China, Manchuria and the Tungus peoples conquering them. And then after being conquered by the Mongols, Dzungars and Chinese as a result ...
    1. Dimmih
      Dimmih 27 February 2018 07: 51
      0
      Quote: "The Türks are more likely not a racial category, that is, it is not right to define them anthropologically." Guys, why do you write this ..... Raids on China, the abduction of women .. Natural Turk-Mongoloid-Kul-tegin, etc. figures for example the First and Second Turkic Haganates. You yourself write: Oguz is also an interesting symbiosis. It is also very ancient, and voluntary, mixing of Türks with Parthians, including the same nomadic as Türks, Massagets, Saks and Sarmatians. So I’m talking about the same thing - that Azerbaijanis are the totality of many peoples speaking the Turkic language, but nothing more!
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  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 26 February 2018 19: 22
    0
    Quote: Dimmih
    We all once came somewhere. The conversation that when the Armenians already had the written language of the Azar people was also not in the project. And then the Azars came and how schools, hospitals, kindergartens began to be built ..... With terrible things, one could say by force .... And yes, show the coin of the state of Azerbaijan until 1918, I just want to see it!

    Coin of the state of Atabekan-i-Azerbaijan (Ildehyzid dynasty). From 1145 to 1225 the state of the Atabeks of Azerbaijan existed (it was called Atabekan-i-Azerbaijan), based in Ganja. Also Nakhichevan, Tabriz were the capitals of this state. It subsequently expanded, conquering all of Asia Minor (the territories of present-day Iraq, Iran, Syria, Anatolia, the entire South Caucasus, with present-day Armenia :), part of Central Asia) It existed longer than the USSR) Our enemies, Armenian propagandists often take advantage of the fact that historically, the states of Azerbaijan were not named by the name of the territory, but by the name of the dynasty. Armenians fool the gullible simpletons accustomed to the Russian historical tradition. By the way, it was not only in Azerbaijan and in the East that it was generally accepted to call the state-so. There was no Arabia. There were states of the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids and so on. By the way, the comrade is right, there was no state called Turkey, until Mustafa Kemal, but there was the Ottoman Empire. There was no Iran, there were Samanid state. Sassanids, and then 1100 years of Turkic-Azerbaijani dynasties. And in the West a similar situation: Merovingi, Carolingi, etc. ...
    1. Dimmih
      Dimmih 27 February 2018 07: 59
      0
      Quote: “Our enemies, Armenian propagandists” are dear interlocutors, we are all a bunch of simpletons, only the people of Azerbaijan have seen through the enlightened rule of the Father and the Son. I wrote to you, do not upload pictures with Arabic script, but links to resources worthy of respect, confirming your point of view! Please do not offer Azeri resources. It’s the same as the Armenians will offer their resources on a controversial topic. In the meantime, I see that the Ildehyzids were Kipchaks and ruled territories, some of which belong to Azerbaijan. The very name Azerbaijan ... in those days it was not mentioned. Kipchaks are generally Polovtsy, what does the Azerbaijanis have to do with it?
  14. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 27 February 2018 19: 17
    0
    Quote: Dimmih
    Quote: “Our enemies, Armenian propagandists” are dear interlocutors, we are all a bunch of simpletons, only the people of Azerbaijan have seen through the enlightened rule of the Father and the Son. I wrote to you, do not upload pictures with Arabic script, but links to resources worthy of respect, confirming your point of view! Please do not offer Azeri resources. It’s the same as the Armenians will offer their resources on a controversial topic. In the meantime, I see that the Ildehyzids were Kipchaks and ruled territories, some of which belong to Azerbaijan. The very name Azerbaijan ... in those days it was not mentioned. Kipchaks are generally Polovtsy, what does the Azerbaijanis have to do with it?


    "And yes, show the coin of the state of Azerbaijan until 1918, I just crave to see it!" And who wrote this?)))) I showed. You have typically Armenian tricks ...
    It’s very similar to the Armenian classics)) You won’t prove anything ... It's like in a joke when an Armenian unexpectedly returns home from a business trip, and his wife looks at him and then at the one who lies next to her and in amazement asks, “Khachik is you, wai ara , who's that ?"

    This is an Azerbaijani catalog, so far there have been no complaints from international organizations. http://files.preslib.az/projects/remz/pdf_en/atr_
    pullar.pdf
    This is ridiculously respected. Do not believe him, you can file an official complaint. We are not Armenians, namely Prof. Ayvazyan, so that Azerbaijani coins, by the way, are Atabek coins, the Arabic script of which is read upside down and passed off as ancient Armenian letters. By the way, would you like an academic (that is, worthy of respect in your words) source mentioning coins of the state of Atabekan-Azerbaijan? For God's sake:
    “It turned out that the sketches published by S. Ayvazyan are fantastic and have nothing to do with reality; one just needs to be surprised at how the author decided to publish deliberately fake sketches ... When these coins were transferred for determination to the numismatics department of the Historical Museum of Armenia, it was received the following conclusion: “Copper coins depicted in the magazine“ New Orient ”are completely misrepresented as monetary units of the 1133th century BC. In fact, these coins (with erased inscriptions) of the 1225th – 1971th centuries AD, issued from the dynasty "Atabeks of Azerbaijan Ildegizidov (3-302 years. BC. E.)." Piotrovsky B. B. Letter to the editors // Historical and Philological Journal. - Yerevan: AN Arm SSR, 303. - No. XNUMX. - P. XNUMX-XNUMX.
    Secondly, Kipchaks took part in the ethnogenesis of Azerbaijanis, and very actively, in the western regions of Azerbaijan, including in the Ganja region, where the state of Atabeks was born. Kipchaks participated in the ethnogenesis of Armenians, by the way, and even Georgians) Azerbaijani ayrum in the western regions are descendants of the Kipchaks.
    Azerbaijanis as a people formed as a result of a long historical development, the gradual consolidation of local ancient tribes (Albanians, Udins, Caspians, Talysh, etc.) with Turkic tribes who came in different periods - Huns, Oguzes, Kypchaks:
    https://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/1896525
    Rashi ad-din noted that the Kangles, Kipchaks, Karluks, etc., took an active part in the conquests of the Oghuz.
    Ildigiz, a Turk from Kipchak, rose at the court of Mas'ud, the Seljuk Sultan of Iraq, and finally received the governorship of the Aderbidzhan region, along with the hand of the widowed daughter-in-law of the Sultan.
    Source: Stanley Lang-Poole. Muslim dynasties. Chronological and genealogical tables with historical introductions. Per. from English with note and add. V.V. Bartold. “Oriental literature”, “Ant”, 2004. P. 125. http://www.runivers.ru/doc/isl/element.php?ELEMEN
    T_ID = 83493 & SECTION_ID = 5574 & IBLOCK_ID = 43
    And finally: ... “The Georgian king David IV Agmashenebeli (Builder) in the fight against the Oghuz Turks of the Seljukid Empire invited and settled in the Borchaly and adjacent areas the Kypchak Turks, who could exhibit at least 40 thousand soldiers, According to experts, together with members their Kipchak families are about 200 thousand. If, according to scientists' studies, the number of Georgians proper in Georgia at that time did not exceed 1 million people (of which a significant part were from the ancient times living in Georgia and already largely assimilated Türks), then we have to admit that the role of the Turkic component during the heyday of Georgian statehood began which falls on the reign of David Agmashenebeli was huge and can not be hushed up.
    To the question: what happened to the Christian Turks then, after the Georgian kingdom weakened and could no longer hold the southern lands there are answers. Some of them, remaining Orthodox, apparently moved to the north and mixed with Georgians (according to various estimates, from 10 to 20% of Georgian surnames are of Turkic origin).
    The part remained where they lived, and when these territories came under the rule of Muslim rulers, subsequently becoming part of the Azerbaijani people. ”
    Source: https://kavkazplus.com/news.php?id=198#.WpWA-2rFL
    IU